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Nature 



A WEEKLY 



ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



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NovettrOcr 24, 1911 



Nature 



A WEEKLY 



ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 



VOLUME LXXXIV 

JULY to OCTOBER, 1910 



" To the solid ground 
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye." — \Vords\vorth 



M ACM I L LAN AND CO., Limited 
NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 



Richard Clay and Sons, Limited, 

bread street hill, e.c., and 

bungay, suffolk. 



Xoveitth'f 24, 1910J 



INDEX. 



Prof. A. L. Rotch. 
d'Aeronautique, igog, 
Mt'inoires, Prof. G. 
graphv of Aeronautics, 
F.R.S., 22g; Petite 
Ventou-Duclaux, Prof. 



ALiboti (W. J. Lewis), Classification of the British Stone 
Age and some New and Little-Icnown Horizons and 
Cultures, 30 

Absorption, Radiation and, Prof. Humphreys, 52 

Ach (Prof. Narziss), Ueber den Willensakt und das Tem- 
perament, igg 

Acoustics : the Propagation of Sound in a Fog, C. J. T. 
Sewell, 62 

Adamovic (Prof. Lujo), dvt Vegetationsverhiiltnisse der 
Balkanlander (Mosische Lander), 135 ; aus Bosnien und 
der Herzegovinia, 3g5 

Adams (Franklin), Prevention of Dew Deposit upon Lens 
Surfaces, 52 

Adhikary (Birendra Bliusan), Preparation of Phenyl-nitro- 
methanc by the Interaction of Mercurous Nitrite and 
Benzyl Chloride, 2g2 

Aeronautics : Experiments on Air Resistance, Dr. T. E. 
Stanton, 13 ; Relation of the Wind to Aerial Navigation, 
51 ; IV. Congr^s international 
Proc&s verbaux. Rapports et 
H. Bryan, F.R.S., 22q ; Biblio- 
Paul Brockett, Prof. G. H. Bryan, 
Encyclopi^die a^ronautique, L. 
G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 22g ; the 
Encyclopaedia of Sports and Games, Prof. G. H. Bryan, 
F.R.S., 22q ; Results of the Italian Aeronautical Experi- 
miMiK near Zanzibar durinij the Last Week of July, 
1908, 506 

Afrii-.-i : the Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural 
History Society, Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
80 ; the Ethnology, Botany, Geology, and Meteorology of 
German East Africa, .Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.iVI.G., 
K.C.B., 106; Science in South Africa, 158; the Ore 
Deposits of South Africa, J. P. Johnson, 293 ; Veterinary 
Research in the Transvaal, 3^1 

Agaric with Sterile Gills, an, W. B. Grove, 531 

Agassiz (Col. Georges), Death of. Si 

Agriculture : a -Manual of Practical Farming, John 
McLennan, 38; How 10 Use Nitrate of Soda, 50; Report 
of the Agricultural Experimental Station, Lafayette, 
Indiana, 83 ; Death and Obituary Notice of John B. 
Carruthcrs, 114; I.ife-historv and the Means of Con- 
trolling the Hop Flea-heelie, W. B. Parker, 117; 
Fertilising Value of Seaweed, 151 ; Tobacco produced in 
India, Mr. and Mrs. Howard, i.qi ; Physiological Effect 
on the Cow of the Milking Machine, 181 ; Relation 
between the Reduction in Area of Wheat in England and 
the Increased Yield, Mr. N'igor, 182 ; the Year-book of 
the Khedivial .Agricultural Society, Cairo, iqoq, 184; 
Studies of Egyptian Cotton, LawTence Ball, 1S4 : the 
Manufacture of Cane Sugar, Llewellyn Jones and F. I. 
Scard, igq ; Lead Chromate as Insecticides, 212; Recent 
Agricultural Publications in Great Britain, 2ig; the 
Sclerotinia Disease of the Gooseberry, Mr. Salmon, 219; 
EfTect of Overhead Electrical Discharges on Plant 
Growth, Mr. Priestley, 2ig; Secondary Effects of 
Manures on the Soil, Mr. Hall, 2ig; Physiological 
Problems of the Stock-breeder, F. H. A. Marshall, 2ig; 



Legislation in the West Indies for the Control of Pests 
and Diseases of Imported Plants, Mr. Ballou, 247 ; 
Bacterial Blight in Cotton caused by Bad. Malvacearum, 
Mr. McCall, 247 ; Outbreak of Blister-blight on Tea in 
the Darjeeling District in igo8 and igog, 247 ; Cause of 
the Colour of Black Cotton Soil, Mr. Annett, 247 ; Fruit 
Experiments, Mr. Howard, 247 ; the Journal of the 
South-eastern Agricultural College, Wye, Kent, 253 ; 
Beet Sugar Making and its Chemical Control, Y. 
Nikaido, 424 ; Recent Investigations on the Cultivation of 
Rubber, 510 ; Effect of Heat on Soils, C. Harold Wright, 
530 ; Possibility of Raising Ostriches in the Transvaal, 
^4^ ; see also British Association 

.\grogeology : the First International Agrogeological Con- 
ference, Dr. E. J. Russell, 157; Russian Soils, Prof. 
Glinka, 157 

.\inslie (Mr.), the Large Corn-stalk-borer, iS 

.\ir. Models of Meteorological Conditions in the Free, 59 

.'\ir Resistance, Experiments on, Dr. T. E. Stanton, 13 

.\irship Flights, 512 

Aitken (Dr. John), Did the Tail of Halley's Comet affect 
the Earth's Atmosphere? 22S 

.■\itken (Mr.), Rediscovery of Brooks's Periodical Comet 
(i88g v.), 43S 

.Akikijyu, the, of British East Africa, With a Prehistoric 
People, W. Scoresby Routledge and Katherine Routledge, 
Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 41 

.\lbrecht (Prof.), the Variation of Latitude, 20 

.\lcock (Lt.-Col. A., F.R.S.), Catalogue of the 
Decapod Crustacea in the Collection of the 
Museum, 524 

Algol's Satellite, Irregularities in the Motion of. 
Mora, 472 

Allen (Glover M.), Insectivorous Mammal, Solenodon 
paradoxus, of San Domingo, 315 

Allen (Mr.), Synthetic Study of Diopside and its Relations 
to Calcium and Magnesium Metasilicates, 375 

.\Ipine Flowers and Gardens, Painted and Described, G. 
Flemwell, 37 

-Alps, Summer Flowers of the High, Somerville Hastings, 

37 

.\lternate-current Theory, the Foundations of. Dr. C. V. 
Drysdale, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 6 

.-\mbrecht (Mr.), Change of Colour of Sapphires and other 
Precious Stones by the Action of Radium, I7g 

.Ameghino (Dr. F.), Human Skulls and Skeletons and 
Supposed Evidence of Human Work, 402 

America : Fossil Vertebrates in the American Museum of 
Natural History, 12 ; Glaciers, Goldfields, and Land- 
slides in North America, 76; Recent Work of Geological 
Surveys, iv., the United States,' 121; List of Documents 
in Spanish Archives relating to the History of the United 
States which have been Printed or of which Transcripts 
are Preserved in American Libraries, J. A. Robertson, 
238 ; Selections from American Zoological Work, 547 

Ammonia, Coal Tar and, Prof. George Lunge, )66 

.Amory (Dr. Robert), Death of, 340 

.\natomv : the .Anatomy and Relationship of the Negro and 



Indian 
Indian 



Enzo 



Index 



r Nat. 



Negroid Races, Huiiterian Lectures at Royal College of 
Surgeons, Prof. Arthur Keith, 54; International Congress 
of Anatomists at Brussels, 252 

Anderson (Prof. R. J.), the Temporal Bone in Primates, 
55° 

Animal Romances, Graham Renshavv, 100 

Annani, On and Off Duty in, Gabrielle M. Vassal, J. 
Thomson, 243 

Annett (Mr.), Cause of the Colour of Black Cotton Soil, 247 

Antarctica : Antarctic Pycnogons, Dr. W. T. Caiman, 104 ; 
Deutsche Sudpolar-E.xpedition, 1901-3, die Grundproben 
der Dcutschen Siidpolar-Expedition, igoi-3, E. Philippi. 
167; National Antarctic IJxpedition, 1901-4, Natural 
History, vol. v., Zoology and Botany, 205; British 
Antarctic Expedition, 1907-9, under the Command of Sir 
E. H. Shackleton, C.V.O., Reports on Scientific Investi- 
gations, vol. i., Biology, 205 ; Expedition Antarctique 
Beige, R^sultats du Voyage du S.Y. Belgica en 1897-8-9, 
Sous le Commandement de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, 
Rapports scientifiques, Botanique-Dialom^es, H. Van 
Heurck, Geologie-Petrographische Untersuchung der 
Gesteinproben, A. Pelikan, Quelques Plantes Fossiles des 
Terres Magellaniques, Prof. A. Gilkinet, Oceanographie- 
les Glaces-GIace de Mer et Banquises, H. Arctowski, 
Zoologie-Schizopoda and Cumacea, H. J. Hansen, 205 ; 
Date of Lieut. Filchner's .'\ntarctic Expedition, 400 

Anthropogeography of the Polar Eskimos, Contributions to 
the Ethnology and. Dr. H. P. Steensby, 443 

Anthropology : Collection of Human Bones found on the 
Site of an Augustinian Friary near the Corn Market, 
Cambridge, Dr. W. L. Duckworth and W. J. Pocock, 
16 ; Royal Anthropological Institute, 30 ; Totemism and 
Exogamy, a Treatise on certain Early Forms of Super- 
stition and Society, Prof. J. G. Frazer, A. E. Crawley, 
31; Prehistoric Man, Joseph McCabe, -lo ; the Position 
of the Father's Sister in Oceania, Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, 
48 ; the Anatomy and Relationship of the Negro and 
Negroid Races, Hunterian Lectures at Royal College of 
Surgeons, Prof. Arthur Keith, 54 ; Origin of the Fulah 
or Filani Race, Capt. A. J. N. Tremearne, 82 ; Antiquities 
of the Ouachita Valley, Clarence B. Moore, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, F.R.S., 129; Colonial Empire of the 
Phcenicians, Louis Seret, 211 ; Anthropological Society of 
Paris, 2jr- the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, the 
Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island, Frank Boas, Chukchee 
Mythology, Waldemar Bogoras, the Yukaghir and the 
Yukaghirizcd Tungus, Waldemar Jockelson, Dr. A. C. 
Haddon, F.R.S., 250; Skull Discovered at Galley Hill, 
Kent, 270 ; Filipino Racial Types at Taytay, R. B. Bean 
and F. S. Planta, 340 ; Chimarilio Trilje of Indians 
Inhabiting Trinity County, in North California, 370; 
Discovery in the Neighbourhood of the Pyramid of 
Sneferu (b.c. 4600) of a Stone Tomb Dating from a 
Time before the Construction of the Pyramid, Prof. 
Flinders Petrie, 401 ; .System of " Wireless Telegraphy " 
in use among the Indian Tribes of the Putumayo River, 
W. E. Hardenburg, 436 ; see also British Association 

Antike Tierwelt, die, Otto Keller, 357 

Antoniadi (M.), Subjective Phenomena on Mars, 120 ; 
Orcullatinn of v Gemini by the Planet Venus, 196 ; the 
Recent Occupation of t; Geminorum by Venus, 317; 
H alley's Comet, 322 

AiiK, the Prince and his, (Ciondolino), Luigi Bertelli, 138 

.^rabian Astronomical Instruments, Prof. E. Wiedemann, 
472 

Arrhaeologv : Arthur's Round Table in Glamorgan, Rev. 
John Griffith, 8; Pit-dwellings in the District of Holder- 
ness, Canon Greenwell and R. A. Gatty, 16 ; Prehistoric 
Rhodesia, Richard N. Hall, 32 ; Excavations at the 
Glastonbury Lake-village, Arthur BuUeid and H. St. 
George Gray, 82 ; Processes of Prehistoric Pottery- 
makinof. N. W. Tliomas and Capt. A. J. N. Tremearne, 
116; Date of Narrow Cultivation Terraces, Lvnchets, 
1 16 ; .Antiquities of the Ouachita Valley, Clarence B. 
Moore, Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 120; Discovery of the 
Site of the Famous Cyprian Temple of .\phrodite- 
Astarle, Dr. Max O. Richter and Dr. K. Koritsky, 149 ; 
Death of Prof. A. Michaelis, 210; Neolithic Impicmriits 
from Bridlington, Mr. Sheppard, 246 : Recent Finds made 
in Rock Shelters once Occupied by Strand Loopers, Dr. 
L. P^rlnguey, 262 ; Classification of the British Stone 



.Age and Some New and Little-known Horizons and 
Cultures, W. J. Lewis Abbott, 30; Stone-headed .Axe 
from Rennell Island, C. M. Woodford, 314; .Model of 
the Fine Dolmen Situated at Coldrum, in Maidstone 
Museum, 401 ; " Tomb of the Double Axes," Dr. .A. J. 
Evans, 401 ; the Royal Commission on Welsh Monu- 
ments, Rev. John Griffith, 404 ; the Archaeological 
Survey of Nubia, Prof. G. Eliot Smith and Dr. D. E. 
Derry, 406 ; Customs at Holy Wells, Zorah Godden, 429 : 
Geological and Archaeological Notes on Orangia, J. P. 
Johnson, 465; Archreological Expedition in Sardis, Prof. 
Howard C. Butler, 503 ; Prehistoric Boat Discovered at 
Brigg in 1886, T. Shepherd, 542 

.\rchbutt (Mr.), Provident Use of Coal, 519 

.Aichitecture : Condition of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, 
48; the Leaning Tower of Pisa, Prof. A. Batelli, 146; 
Edward G. Brown, 297 ; Arthur T. Bolton, 297 : Report 
of Pisa Commission on the Leaning Tower, Prof. 
William H. Goodyear, 471 ; Town-planning, .\. E. 
Crawley, 49S 

.Arctica : die Polarwelt und ihre Nachbarlander, O. 
Nordenskjbld, 236 ; North Polar Exploration, 245 ; Ex- 
pedition Ship Alabama, 245 

.Arctowski (H.), Expedition Antarctique Beige, Rfeultats 
du Voyage du S.Y. Belgica en 1897-8-9 sous le Com- 
mandement de .A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports 
scientifiques, Oceanographie — Les Glaces — Glace de Mer 
ct Banquises, 205 

.Ardigo (Prof. Robert), an Inconsistent Preliminary Objec- 
tion against Positivism, 461 

■\rgentina, Catalogo Sistematico y Descriptivo de las .Aves 
de la Republica, Roberto Dabbene, 427 

.Argentine Biology, -Australian and, 186 

Arkansas and Louisiana, Archjeological and Anthropo- 
logical Investigations in. Dr. .A. C. Haddon. F.R.S., 
129 

.Armstrong (Dr. E. F.), Existing Knowledge with Regard 
to the Oxydases, 518 

.Armstrong (Prof.), Crystallographic Examinations of 
Twenty-nine Derivatives of the /i-Dihalogenhenzene- 
sulphonic .Acids, 403 

.Armstrong (Prof.), Impossibility of any Interaction taking 
Place between Two Substances if Neither was an Electro- 
lyte, 517 

Armstrong (Prof. H. E.), Provident Use of Coal, 518 

.Arnold (Prof. J. O.), Theory of Hardening Carbon Steels, 
440; a Fourth Recalescence in Steel, 518 

-Arnold-Be.nrose (H. H.), Derbyshire, 426 

d'Arrest's Comet (1910c), Rediscovery of, M. Gonnessiat, 
317; Observations of d'Arrest's Comet at the Observa- 
tory of .Algiers, M. Gonnessiat, 324 ; M. Baillaud, 324 

.Arthur's Round Table in Glamorgan, Rev. John Ijriffith, 8 

.Ascoli (F. D.), Rivers of Dacca District, 30 

Ashworth (Dr. J. H.), Zoologv at the British .Association, 

.';48 
.Ashworth (Dr. J. R.), the Temperature Coefficients of the 

Ferromagnetic Metals, 238 
Asia, a Systematic Geography of, G. W. Webb. 426 
.Asiatic Society of Bengal, 30, 292, 422 
.Association of Economic Biologists, 156 
.Association of Technical Institutions, the, 90 
.Assyriology : Death of Hormuzd Rassam, 400 
Astronomy : Halley's Comet, Dr. James Moir, <-i : Dr. 
Wolf, iq ; Prof. Seeliger, 19: M. Eginitis, in, 52; 
Comas Sola, 19: M. Nordmann, 19; Mr. Leach, 19; 
Dr. Ebell, 52 ; Piof. Fowler, =;2 ; Father Iniguez. '52 ; 
Herr v. d. "Pahlen, 86 ; Dr. Ristenpart, 86 ; G. Millo- 
chau and H. Godard, 120: Prof. Frost, 152: Mr. 
Motherwell, 183 ; Prof. Barnard, 183. 322 ; Mr. 
Helmcfcen, 1S4 ; Father Stein, 184; Herr Sykora, 322; 
Dr. Hartmann, 322 ; M. Antoniadi, 322 ; K. Saotome, 
322 ; Drs. Cowell and Crommelin, 322 ; M. Iwanow, 
322 ; Mr. Merfield, 322 ; Messrs. Crawford and Meyer, 
322 ; Mr. Slocum, 323 ; Earth-current Observations in 
Stockholm during the Transit of Halley's Comet on 
May 19, D. Stenquist and E. Petri, 9; Some Pheno- 
mena shown bv Halley's Comet after its Passage across 
the Sun, D. Eginitis, 64; Phenomena presented by the 
Tail of Halley's Comet during the Passage of Mn\- lo 
Inst, H. Deslandres and J. Bosler. 163 ; Did the Tail 
of llallev's Comet affect th: Earth's Atmosph-r.- ? Dr. 



ratute. "| 



Index 



John Aitken, 228; Further Observalions of llalley's 
Comet, Michie Smith and John Evershed, 374 ; C. D. 
Perrine, 374; Velocities and Accelerations of the Ejecta 
from Halley's Comet, Profs. Barnard and Lowell, 404; 
J. Comas Sola, 404; Time of the Solar Transit of 
llalley's Comet, 472; Death of Prof. G. V. Schiaparelli, 
14; Obituary Notice of, 44; Our Astronomical Column, 
19, 52, 86, 120, 152, 183, 213, 248, 272, 317, 344, 374, 
404, 438, 472, 507, 544 ; Astronomical Occurrences in 
July, 19 ; in August, 120 ; in September, 272 ; in 
October, 438; Ephemeris for Comet igion, Prof. 
Kobold, tg ; Prof. Barnard, 19 ; Observations of Comet 
1910a, Dr. Karl Bohlin, 272 ; Prof. Ricco, 472 ; Photo- 
graphs of Morehouse's Comet, Messrs. Hirayama and 
Toda, 19 ; the Determination of Position near the Poles, 
Mr. Hinks, 19 ; the Variation of Latitude, Prof. 
.\lbrecht, 20; New Canals and Lakes on Mars, M. 
Jonckheere, 20 ; Subjective Phenomena on Mars, M. 
.\ntoniadi, 120; Mars in 1909 as seen at the Lowell 
Observatory, Prof. Percival Lowell, 172 ; Water \'apour 
on Mars, Prof. Campbell, 317; Prof. Frank W. Very, 
4C15 ; a Suggested Volcanic Origin of Martian Features, 
Dr. W'ilhelm Krebs, 344 ; International Union for Co- 
operation in Solar Research, 22 ; Prof. Arthur Schuster, 
F.R.S., 463, Death and Obituarv Notice of Prof. }. G. 
Galle, 45 ; Death of Prof. T. Zona, 46 ; Death of Dr. 
Wilhelm Winkler, 47 ; Prevention of Dew Deposits 
upon Lens Surfaces, Franklin Adams, 52 ; a Variable 
Star as a Time Constant, Prof. Barnard, 52 ; Radiation 
and Absorption, Prof. Humphrevj, 52; an Interesting 
Occultation, -Arthur Burnett, 73 ; the Next Total Eclipsr 
of the Sun, Dr. William J. -S. Lockyer, 75 ; the Total 
Solar Eclipse, May 9, iqio. Dr. William J. S. Lockyer, 
113; the Total Solar Eclipse of April 28, 1911, Dr. Pio 
Emanuelli, 172 ; Harvard College Observatory, Prof. 
E. C. Pickeiing, 86; Photographs of Auror:e, Carl 
Stormer, 86 ; Displacement of Spectral Lines at the 
Sun's Limb, A Perot, 86; the Pressure of Light on 
Gases, Dr. Lebedew, 86 ; the Determination of Stellar 
Radial Velocities, Prof. Frost, 86; Prof. R. W. Wood, 
86; the Evolution of Worlds, Prof. Percival Lowell, 
William E. Rolston, gq ; Present Meteoric Displays. 
W. F. Denning, 105; Death of J. Ellard Gore, iiii; 
the Genesis of \'arious Lunar Features, M. Puiseux, 
120; the Gnomon in Ancient Astronomy, Jules Sagaret, 
120; the Leeds .Astronomical Society, 120; a Central 
Bureau for Meteor Observations, 152 ; the Rotation of 
Sun-spots, P. Kempf, 152 ; Large Meteorites, Edmund 
O. Hovey, 152 ; the United States Naval Observatory. 
152 ; Measures of Double Stars, Prof. Burnham, 152 ; 
Dr. Lau, 317; Mr. Sellers, 507; the Study of Double 
Stars for .Amateurs, G. F. Chambers, 273 ; Popular 
Astronomy, Prof. Simon Newcomb, 171 ; Photographs 
of Nebula', Dr. Ritchey, 183 ; the Accurate Measure- 
ment of Photographs, Prof. E. C. Pickering, 184 ; 
Observations of Perseids in 1909, S. Beljawsky, 1S4; 
Results from Micrometric Observations of Eros, 1900, 
Mr. Hinks, 184 ; Occultation of t, Gemini by the Planet 
Venus. M. Antoniadi, F. Baldet, and F. Qu(5nisset, 
196 ; the Recent Occultation of tj Geminorum by Venus, 
^I.M. Baldet, Ou^nisset, and Antoniadi, 317; Occulta- 
tion of 7j Geminorum by Venus, July 26, observed at 
Lyons, J. Guillaume and J. Merlin, 390; Discovery of 
a .SiTiall Planet, presumably New, Jos6 Comas Sola, 
196; Perseid Meteoric Shower, igio, W. F. Denning, 
204, 248; C. L. Brook, 248; W. H. Steavenson, 24S ; 
Miss Warner, 248; D. E. Packer, 248; W. Johnson, 
248; E. F. Sawyer, 439; Brilliant Meteor of July 31, 
Father A. L. Cortie, 204; a New Comet, Rev. J. H. 
Metcalf, 213; Mr. Burton, 213; Metcalf's Comet, 19106, 
249, 273; M. Guillaume, 249; Dr. Kobold, 249, 344, 
507 ; Prof. Pickering, 344 ; M. Qu^nisset, 507 ; Observa- 
tions of -Metcalf's Comet, J. Guillaume, 261 ; Observa- 
tions of the Comet igioh (Metcalf), -August 9, igio, 
M- Coggia, 261 ; Observations of Metcalf's Comet, 
iqioft, M. Borrelly, 261 ; M. Schaumasse, 292 ; Observa- 
tions of Metcalf's Comet made at the Paris Observatory, 
J. Chatelu, 261 ; Properties of the Polar Filaments of 
the Sun, H. Dcslandres, 228; Photographs of Daniel's 
Comet, igo7(i. Prof. Barnard, 249 ; Precession and the 
Solar Motion, Prof. Boss, 249 ; Calcium Vapour in the 



Sun, C. E. St. John, 249; Observations of Comets, 
Dr. Ma.\ Wolf, 213; Observations of Mercury, G. and 
V. Fournier, 213; M. Jarry-Desloges, 213; Dispersion 
of Light in Interstellar Space, Herr Beljawsky, 213; 
-Anomalous Scattering of Light, Dr. Julius, 214; the 
Spiral Nebula M51 (Canum Venaticorum), Madame 
Dorothea Isaac Roberts, 214; Supplement to the 
" Astronomische Xachrichten," 214; the Paris Observa- 
tory, M. Baillaud, 272; the Sun's A'elocity through 
Space, Profs. Frost and Kapteyn, 272 ; Parallax of 
Fourth-type Stars, Prof. Kapteyn, 273 ; the Maximum 
of Mira in igog, Prof. Nijland, 273 ; Mr. Ichinohe, 
273 ; Rediscovery of d'-Arrest's Comet (igioc), M. 
Gonnessiat, 317; Observation of the d'-Arrest Comet at 
the Observatory of Algiers, M. Gonnessiat, 324 ; M. 
Baillaud, 324 ; Search-ephemerides for Comets i88q V. 
(Brooks) and 1890 VII. (Spitaler), Dr. Bauschinger, 
317; F. Hopfner, 317; the Sun-spots of igog. Dr. E. 
Guerrieri, 317; the I^ermanent International Conmiittee 
for the "Carte du Ciel," 317; Meteors and Bolides, 
Prof. Guido Cora, 317; History of Navigation, Prof. 
Marguet, 317; Meteoric Fireballs, Rev. W. F. .A. 
Ellison, 318; Rev. J. C. W. Herschel, 318; a Suspected 
New Planet, Prof. J. Comas Sola, 344; Definitive 
Elements for Comet 1852 IV., -Adolf Hnatek, 344; the 
Passage of the Earth through the Tail of the 1861 
Comet, R. Baer, 344; the Spectrum of Cyanogen, 
Comte de Gramont and M. Drecq, 344; Researches on 
the Colours of Stars, Osten Bergstrand, 344; "Mock 
Suns," James F. Ronca, 345; " Mock Suns " at East- 
bourne, Mrs. -A. M. Butler, 374; -Astronomy in India, 
374; an Oblique Belt on Jupiter, Scriven Bolton, 362; 
the Distances of Red Stars, Dr- H. Norris Russell, 374 ; 
-Astronomy : a Handy Manual for Students and Others, 
Prof. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S., 393 ; Chats about -Astro- 
nomy, H. P. Hollis, 393 ; Observations of Comets, M. 
Gonnessiat, 404; Mr. Innes, 404; the Solar Physics 
Observatory, South Kensington, 404 ; the Determination 
of Longitude, Dr. Jean Mascart, 404 ; Transactions of 
the -Astronomical Observatory of Yale University, 
Parallax Investigations on Thirty-five Selected Stars by 
Frederick L. Chase, Mason F. Smith, and William L. 
Elkin, 433 ; a Bright Meteor, 43S ; Rediscovery of 
Brooks's Periodical Comet (i88g V.), igiorf, Messrs. 
-Aitken and Wilson, ^ifi ; the Luminosity of Comets, 
W. L. Dudley, 439 ; Coloured Stars between the Pole 
and 60° N. Declination, Herr Kriiger, 43g ; Observations 
of the Companion of .Sirius, Prof. Barnard, 439 ; a 
Modified Method for Nadir Observations, R. M. Stewart, 
43g ; a New Micrometer, Dr. Doberck, 43g ; the Mean 
Parallax of Tenth-magnitude Stars, Dr. H. E. Lau, 
439 ; Halley Meteors, Prof. David Todd, 439 ; .Announce- 
ment of a Nova, Mrs. Fleming. 472 ; Arabian -Astro- 
nomical Instruments, Prof. E. Wiedemann, 472 ; New 
F.phemerides for Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Dr 
Downing, 472 ; a Bright Projection on Saturn, M. 
Maggini, 507; Origin of Cometary Bodies and Saturn's 
Rings, Dr. Henry Wile, 522 ; Irregularities in the Motion 
of -Algol's Satellite, Enzo Mora, 472 ; the Cambridge 
Observatory, Sir Robert Ball, 472 ; Prof- Newall, 472 ; 
Observations of Neptune's Satellite, Prof. Barnard, 472 ; 
Spectrum and Radial Velocity of ^ Persei, Dr. Luden- 
dorff, 507 ; Death and Obituary Notice of Thorvald 
Nicoiai Thiele, 503 ; Comets and Electrons, Prof. Righi, 
307 ; Recent Results in Solar Physics, Prof. Riccu. 507 ; 
the Amateur Astronomer, Gideon Riegler, W. E. 
Rolston, 526; a Brilliant Meteor on October 23, W. F. 
Denning, .^44; J. E. Clark, ,S44 : Simultaneous Photo- 
graphic Observations of a Remarkable Meteor. Herr 
.Svkora, 544 ; Two Remarkable Prominences, Dr. F 
Slocum, 544 ; tile Relations between Solar and Terres- 
trial Phenomena, .Abbd Th. Moreux, ■;45 ; Search- 
ephemerides for Westphal's Comet, 1852 I\ ., .\. 
Hnatek, 545 

Astrophvsics : the Pressure of Light on Gases, Dr. Lebedew, 
86 

.Atkins (W. R. G.), Cryoscopic Determination of the Os- 
motic Pressure in Some Plant Organs, 211 

Atlas, an Economic, J. G. Bartholomew. 426 

-Atlases, a List of Geographical, in the Library of Congress, 
with Bibliographical Notes, yi^ 

6 



Index 



Atmosphare, Die Temperatur Verhaltnisse in der freien, 
[Ergebnisse der internationalen unbemannter Ballon- 
aufstiege], Dr. Arthur Wagner, E. Gold, 42 

Atomic Weights, 207 

Atwood (W. W.), Glacial History of the Uinta and Wasatch 
Mountains, 122 

Auerbach (Prof. Felix), Geschichtstafcln der Physik, 457 

Auger (V.), Manganate of Sodium and its H_, drates, 64 

Augustin (E.), Ueber japanische Seewalzen, 34 

Aurorae, Photographs of, Carl Stormer, 86 

.■\ustralia. Rainfall of Rhodesia and, 187 

Australian and .Argentine Biology, 186 

Austria, Mathematics in, 399 

Aviation : Death and Obituary Notice of the Hon. Charles 
.Stewart Rolls, Dr. William J. S. LocUver, 46; the Art 
of Aviation, R. V\'. \. Brewer, Prof.' G. H. Bryan, 
F.R.S., 229; How to Build an Aeroplane, R. Petit, Prof. 
G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229; How to Build a 20-foot 
Biplane Glider, A. P. Morgan, Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 
229 ; Les Aeroplanes, considerations theoriques, P. Rav- 
baud. Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229; Ballons et 
Aeroplanes, G. Besancon,' Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S. , 
229 ; L'.Aviation, Prof. Paul Painleve and Prof. Emile 
Borel, Prof. G. H. Brvan, F.R.S., 229; Navigation in der 
Luft, Prof. A. Marcus'e, Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229; 
Stabilitie des Aeroplanes, Surface Metaccntrique, Prof. M. 
Brillouin, Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229; Die Seiten- 
steuer der Flugmaschinen, Prof. H. Reissner, Prof. G. H. 
Bryan, F.R.S., 229; National Fund Airship Flight, 369; 
Progress of Aviation during the Past Year, 373 ; Erasmus 
Darwin Prophesied Advent of Aerial Navigation, 370, 
Arthur Piatt, 397 ; Death of M. G. Chavez, Flight Across 
the .'\lps from Brigue to Domo d'Ossola, 400: Airship 
Fliqhts, :;i2 



Baclce (A.), Researches on JiO-Maltol, 64 

Backhouse (T. W.), the Colours and Spectrum of Water, 530 

Bacon (F.), Heat Insulation, 554 

Bacteriology : Results of Sterilisation Experiments on the 
Cambridge Water, Prof. Sims Woodhead, 63 ; Effect of 
Mosquito Larvae upon Drinking Water, Sir Rupert Boyce 
and F. C. Lewis, 150; Metropolitan Water Examina- 
tions, Dr. Houston, 246; Bacterial Blight in Cotton 
Caused by Bad. malvacearum, Mr. McCall, 247 ; Veter- 
inary Research in the Transvaal, 321 ; Bacteriology for 
Nurses, Isabel Mclsaac, 493 

Baer (R.), the Passage of the Earth through the Tail of 
the 1861 Comet, 344 ; 

Bailey (Prof. F. G.), Sensitive Bifilar Seismograph for 
Recording Undulatory Movements of the Earth's Surface 
of Short Period, 516 

Bailey (L. H.), the Nature-Study Idea, 100 

Baillaud (M.j, the Paris Observatory, 272 ; Observation of 
the d 'Arrest Comet at the Observatory of Algiers, 324 

Baker (Dr.), a Certain Permutation Group, 514; the Theory 
of Numbers, 514 

Baker (Dr. H. Brereton, F.R.S.), lonisation of Gases and 
Chemical Change, Discourse at Royal Institution, 388 

Baker (T. Thorne), the Telegraphy of Photographs, Wireless 
and by Wire, 220 ; the Telegraphic Transmission of Photo- 
graphs, 460 

Bakerian Lecture at Royal Society : the Pressure of Light 
against the Source : the Recoil 'from Light, Prof. J. H. 
Poynting, F.R.S., and Dr. Guy Barlow, 139 

Balaton, Resultate der Wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen 
des, Untersuchungen iiber die Schwerkraft, R. v. 
Sterneck ; Die Niveaufliiche des Balatonsees und die 
\'eranderungen der Schwerkraft auf diesem. Baron L. 
Eotvos ; Erdmagnetische Messungen in Sommer, 1901, 
L. Steiner ; Das Eis Balatonsees, E. v. Cholnoky ; Die 
Tropischen Nymphaeen des Hevazsees bei Keszthelv, A. 
Lovassy ; Kirchen und Burgen in der Umgebung des 
Balaton im Mittelalter, R. Bekefi, 299 

Baldet (F.), Occultation of tj Gemini by the Planet 'Venus, 
196; the Recent Occultation of jj Geminorum by Venus, 

Balkanlander (Mosische Lander), Die Vegetationsverhalt- 

nisse der, Prof. Lujo Adamovic, 135 
Ball (Lawrence), Studies of Egyptian Cotton, 184 



Ball (Sir Robert), the Cambridge Observatory, 472 
Ball (Robert S., jun.). Static Charge in Bicycle Frame, 9 
Ballou (Mr.), Legislation in the West Indies for the Control 

of Pests and Diseases of Imported Plants, 247 
Bancroft (Prof. Wilder D.), on the Photographic Emulsion, 

Barbour (J.), History of the Discovery of the Chinese Alli- 
gator, 341 

Barkia (Prof. C. G.), X-Ray Spectra, 139 ; Homogeneous 
Radiation, 47S 

Barling (Prof. Gilbert), Treatment of Cancer, 154 

Barlow (Dr. Guy), the Pressure of Light against the Source; 
the Recoil from Light ; Balcerian Lecture at Royal 
Society, 139 

Barnard (Prof.), Ephemeris for Comet 1910a, 19 ; a Variable 
.Star as a Time Constant, .^2 ; Halley's Comet, 183, 322 ; 
Photographs of Daniel's Comet, 249; Velocities and 
Accelerations of the Ejecta from Halley's Comet, 404; 
Observations of the Companion of Sirius, 439 ; Observa- 
tions of Neptune's Satellite, 472 

Barnard (H. Clive), the British Isles in Pictures, 238 

Barnard (H. O.), Alleged Partiality of Cobras for Music, 49 

Barnes (H. T.), Problems of Winter Navigation on the 
River St. Lawrence, 83 

Barnett (S. A.), Lacustrine Culture, 116 

Barre (M.), Sulphate of Thoriimn, 132 

Barrett-Hamilton ((J. E. H.), a History of British Mam- 
mals, 493 

Barrois (Prof.), Pre-Cambrian Fauna, 442 

Barthel (Dr. Chr.), Methods used in the Examination of 
Milk and Dairy Products, 69 

Bartholomew (J. G.), an Economic Atlas, 426 

Bartlett (A. W.), Cause of Serious Loss of Gooseberry 
Bushes in Cambridgeshire, 402 

Bassett (Dr. H.), the Gulf Stream Drift and the Weather 
of the British Isles, 44 

Bateman (H.), Present State of the Theory of Integral 
Equations, 514 

Bateson (Prof., F.R.S.), Sex and Immunity, 549 

Bauer (Dr. L. A.), Magnetic Results of the First Cruise 
of the Carnegie, 119; Results of Some Recent Investiga- 
tions on Magnetic Disturbances, 192 ; So-called " Sudden 
C'ommencements " of Magnetic Storms, 516; Tables of 
Corrections to the British Admiralty, the German 
Admiralty, and the United States Hydrographic Depart- 
ment Magnetic Charts of the North Atlantic, 544 

Baumes (Georges), Critical Constants of Acetylene and 
Cyancgen, 98 

Bauschinger (Dr.), Search-Ephemerides for Comet 1889, 
V. Brooks, 317 

Bean (R. B.), Filipino Racial Types at Taytay, 340 

Bean (W. J.), New Trees and Shrubs, 547 

Bean (Mr.), Chima^roid Fishes, 547 

Bear, the Black, William H. Wright, 327 

Beck (Dr. R.), Lehre von den Erzlagerstatten, 198 

Becker (Dr.), Glacial Erosion, 442 

Becquerel (Prof. Jean), Constitution of Matter, 506 

Becquerel (Paul), the .»\biotic .'Vction of Ultra-Violet Rays, 
and the Hypothesis of the Cosmic Origin of Life, 64 

Beebe (Mary Blair and C. William), Our Search for a 
Wilderness, 525 

Bees for Profit and Pleasure, H. Geary, 464 

Beet Sugar M.aking and its Chemical Control, Y. Nikaido, 
424 

Beilby (Dr.), Provident Use of Coal, 519 

Bekefi (R.), Resultate der Wissenschaftlichen Untersuch- 
ungen des Balaton, Kirchen und Burgen in der Um- 
gebung des Balaton im Mittelalter, 299 

Beljawsky (S.), Observations of Perseids in 1909, 184; 
Dispersion of I-ight in Interstellar Space, 213 

Bell (Dr. Digby), Physical Training, 320 

Bengal, Science in, 1S5 

Bengough (G. D.), the Heat Treatment of Brass, 421 

Bennett (S. R.), on the Nature, Uses, and Manufacture of 
Ferro-Silicon, with Special Reference to Possible Danger 
Arising from its Transport and Storage, 53 ; Ferro- 
Silicon, 519 

Beresford (Col. C. E. de la Poer), " Byways in the 
Caucasus," 469 

Bergstrand (Osten), Researches on the Colours of Stars, 344 

Berlin University, the Centenary of, 480, 496 



JVature, 
Xaz-e itber 24, 



Index 



Bernau (K.), Naturwissenschaftliches Unterrichtswerk fiir 

hohi^rp Madrhenschulen, 171 
Bertelli (Luigi), the Prince and his Ants (CiondoHno), 

138 

Berthelot (Daniel), Mechanism of Photo-Chemical Reactions 
and the Formation of Plant Principles, 196; Photo- 
chemical Decomposition of the Alcohols, Aldehydes, Acids, 
and Ketones, 262 

Berlin (E.), Arrest of Steam Ships either by Reversing the 
Engine or by Allowing to Slow Down by Friction of 
the Water, 421 

Bertrand (Gabriel), Researches on the Constitution of 
Vicianose, 164 

Berwerth (Prof. Friedrich), Meteoric Iron which fell on 
August I, 1898, near Quesa, 372 

Besani^on (G.), Ballons et Aeroplanes, 229 

Beyschlag (I'rof.), Iron Ores Supplies, 441 

Bickerton (VV.), " Hunting Birds with the Camera," 402 

Bicycle Frame, Static Charge in, Robert S. Ball, jun., 9 

Bierry (Henri), Action of the Ultra-\'iolet Rays upon Certain 
Carbohydrates, 164 

Bio-Chemistry : Effect of an Increased Percentage of 
Oxygen on the Vitality and Growth of Bacteria, Prof. 
Benjamin Moore and Dr. Stenhouse Williams, 181 

Biology : the Laws of Heredity. G. Archdall Reid, Sir W. T. 
Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., i ; Alcyonarians Col- 
lected by Mr. J. Murray of Sir E. Shackleton's Antarctic 
Expedition, Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, 29 ; Science from 
an Easy Chair, Sir Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., 37; 
OoEe and Irrigation, Rev. Hilderic Friend, 39, 70; A. R. 
Horwood, 40 ; the Abiotic .Action of Ultra-Violet Rays, 
and the Hypothesis of the Cosmic Origin of Life, Paul 
Hecquerel, 64 ; Observations on the Biology of Roridula, 
Dr R. Marloth, 98 ; a Theory of Death, 'M. Miihlmann, 
117; Forms of Endogenous Multiplication of Haenw- 
gregarina Sebai, A. Laveran and A. Pettit, 131 ; General 
Biology, Prof. James G. Needham, 137; Anatomy of 
Ilistriohdella homari, Cresswell Shearer, 150 ; Parasitic 
Castration in a Cockerel, Geoffrey Smith, 150; Association 
of Economic Biologists, 156 ; Interdependence of Research 
in So-called " Pure " and " .■\pplied " Science, Prof. G. H. 
Carpenter, 156; Place of Economic Zoology in the Modern 
I'niversity, Prof. S. J. Hickson, 156; Wild-bird Protec- 
tion W. E. Collinge, 156; Observations on the Garden 
Tropacolun^ Prof. F. E. Weiss, 157; Animal Pests, Dr. 
R. Stewart MacDougall, 157; Australian and Argentine 
Biology, 186; Rinaldo's Polygeneric Theory: a Treatise 
on the Beginning and End of Life, Joel Rinaldo, 202 ; 
British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-9, under the Command 
of Sir E. H. Shackleton, C.V.O. ; Reports on Scientific 
Investigations vol. i.. Biology, 205; Geschichte der biolo- 
gischen Theorien, Dr. Em. R^dl, 263 ; the Inherent Law 
of Life : a New Theory of Life and of Disease, Dr. Franz 
Klcinschrod, 493 ; Cytology of the Flagellata, M. Hart- 
mann and C. Chagas, 504 ; the Biological Laboratories at 
Woods Hole, Francis B. Sumner, 527 ; Proisocrimts 
riiherrimus, a New Genus and Species of Stalked Crinoid 
from the Philippines, A. H. Clark, S47 ; Collection of 
.Arenaceous Foraminifera obtained by the Albatross 
during her Recent Cruise in the Philippines, J. A. Cush- 
man, 547 ; Marine Biology, Die Ernahrung der Wasscr- 
tiere und der Stoffbaushnlt der Gewasser, Prof. August 
Putter, s ; LepiocefthaUis nyoproioides and L. thorianus. 
Jobs. Schmidt, 9 ; Marine Biological Photography, Francis 
Ward, 10 ; New Marine Biological Station at Venice, 
Cal., 81 ; New Species of Feather-Star (Antedon) from the 
.Adriatic, .A. H. Clark, 150; Polychsetous Annerlids 
Dredged off the Californian Coast by the Albatross in 
1904, J. P. Moore. 24(1; a Monograph of the Foraminifera 
of the North Pacific Ocean, J. A. Cushman, 265 ; Bulletin 
Trimestrie : Conseil Permanent International pour I'Ex- 
ploration de la Mer ; R^sum^ des Observations sur le 
Plankton des Mers Explor^es par le Conseil pendant les 
.Ann<5es, 1902-8, 394 : the Decapod Natantia of the Coasts 
of Ireland, Stanley M. Kemp, 394; Report of a Survey 
of the Trawling Grounds on the Coasts of Counties Down, 
Louth, Meath' and Dublin, E. W. L. Holt, 394 

Birds : a History of the Birds of Kent, Norman F. Tice- 
hurst, 241 ; a 'Histery of Birds, W. P. Pycraft, 367 

Birge (E. A.), Lake Temperatures, 83 



Bishop (Prof. A. L.), Physical and Commercial Geography, 

459 
Blatkman (F. F.), Biochemistry of Respiration, 517 
Blair (R.), the Relation of Science to Industry and Com- 
merce, 345 
Blanc (M.), Synthesis of Camphoric Acid, 51 
Blood-sucking Conorhinus, the, J. D. H., 172 
Bloomfield (D.), Do Kittens Kill Mice Instinctively? 436 
" Blotched " Tabby Cat, the Origin of the Domestic, 

H. M. Vickers, 298, 331 ; R. I. Pocock, 29S 
Boas (Franii), the Jesup North Pacific E.xpedition, the 

Kwakuitl of Vancouver Island, 250 
Bogoras (Waldemar), the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 

Chukchee Mythology, 250 
Bohle (H.), Influence of Uniformity and Contrast on the 

Amount of Light Required, 422 
Bohlin (Dr. Karl), Observations of Comet 1910a, 272 
Bolides, Meteors and. Prof. Guido Cora, 317 
Bolton (Arthur T.), the Leaning Tower of Pisa, 297 
Bolton (Scriven), an Oblique Belt on Jupiter, 363 
Boltwood (Dr. Bertram B.), Treatment of Storage Cells, 

174 
Bombay Presidency and Sind, Forest Flora of the, \\ . A. 

Talbot, 170 
Bone (Prof.), Production of Methane by the Direct Lmon 
of Hydrogen with Carbon, 248; Researches upon the 
Chemical Aspects of Gaseous Combustion during the 
Past Thirty Years, 517 
Bonnerot (S.), Reduction of O.xide of Iron by Solid 

Carbon, 555 
Bonney (the Rev. Prof. T. G., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S.), 
Inaugural Address at the Meeting of .he British .Associa- 
tion at Sheffield, 274 
Books of Science, Forthcoming, 475 
Borel (Emile), L'Aviation, 229 
Borisov (M.), Quartz in Druses from the Government of 

Olonetz, 375 
Borrelly (M.), Observations of Metcalf's Comet, igiod, 
261 , 

Bosler (J.), Phenomena Presented by the Tail of Halley s 

Comet during the Passage oi May ig last, 163 
Boss (Prof.). Precession and the Solar Motion, 249 
Botany : the Grasses of Alaska, Prof. F. Lamson-Scribner 
and E. D. Merrill, 17 ; New Garden Plants of 1909, 
17; Linnean Society, 29; Male Sterilitv in Potatoes, 
Dr. R. N Salaman, 29 ; the Plant Cell, its Modifica- 
tions and Vital Processes, H. A. Haig, 36 ; Alpine 
Flowers and Gardens, Painted and Described, G. Flem- 
well, 37; Summer Flowers of the High Alps, Somerville 
Hastings, 37; Botanical Resources of Yola Province, 
Northern Nigeria, Dr. J. M. Dalziel, 50; Flowering 
Trees, H. F. Macmillan, 55 ; Indigenous Trees of 
Southern Rhodesia, C. F. H. Monro, 55 ; Right- and 
Left-handedness in Barley, R. H. Compton, 63 ; New 
.South Wales Linnean Society, 64, 196, 422, 522 ; Hand- 
book of Flower Pollination, Dr. P. Knuth, 66; 
" Bulletins of the State Geological and Natural History 
Survev of Connecticut," Catalogue of Flowering Plants 
and Ferns, 82; Action of Cold and Anaesthetics upon 
the Leaves of Angraeciiin fragrans and the Green Husks 
of Vanilla, Edouard Heckel, 98 ; Observations on the 
Biologv of Roridula, Dr. R. Marloth, 98 ; a New Italian 
Orchid. W. Herbtrt Cox, 104; the Ethnology, Botany. 
Geology, and Meteorology of German East Africa. Sir 
H. H. Johnston, G.C'.M.G., K.C.B., 106; Lichens, 
A. N. Danilov, 117; die Vcgetationsverhaltnisse der 
Balkanliinder (Mbsische Lander), Prof. Lujo Adamovic, 
135; Botanv of To-day, G. F. Scott Elliot, 146; the 
Book of Nature Study, 146; a Text-book of Botany for 
Students. Amv F. M. Johnson, 146; Systematic Position 
of the Tropical American Genus Phytelephas, O. F. 
Cook, 151 ; Note on Local Coloration of the Cell Wall 
in Certain Water Plants induced by Manganese Com- 
pounds, Prof. H. Molisch, 151: Description of 
Haworthia triincata, Schonl., Dr. Schonland, 158; 'Ex- 
periments to Find out whether the Aiirial Parts of 
Plants absorb Moisture from the Air, Dr. Schonland, 
158; Dr. Marloth, 158; Plant Distribution, 160; Forma- 
tions and Flora-elements in the North-west of Cape 
Colony, Dr. L. Diels. 160; Botanical Expedition through 
Western Districts of Cape Colony, Dr. H. H. W. Pear- 

b 2 



Index 



[... 



son, i6o; Celmisia spectabilis, Dr. L. Cockayne, i6o ; 
Botanical Excursions in Chatham Island, Capt. A. A. 
Dorrien-Smith, ibo; Forest Flora of the Bombay Presi- 
dency and Sind, \V. A. Talbot, 170 ; Wild Plants on 
Waste Land in London, 184; Expedition Antarctique 
Beige, Risultats du Voyage du S.Y. Belgica en 
1897-8-g, sous le Commandement de A. de Gerlache de 
Gomery, Rapports scientifiques, Botanique — Diatom(5es, 
H. van Heurck, 205 ; Philippine Leguminosce, E. U. 
Merrill, 211; Root Disease of the Cocoa-nut Palm 
caused by the Fungus Fames lucidus, Mr. Petch, 212 ; 
the .Action of Vapours on Green Plants, Marcel Mirande, 
262 ; Composition of Carnations with FiexiDle Stems and 
Rigid Stems, L. Fondard and F. Gauthie, 292 ; Photo- 
micrographs of Botanical Studies, 296 ; the Genus Citrus, 
A. W. Lushington, 315; White Chicory, 316; Sweet 
Peas, H. J. Wright, 326; Pansies, Violas, and Violets, 
Wm. Cuthbertson and R. Hooper Pearson, 326; die 
Hiede, W. Wagner, 326; Niedere Pflanzen, Dr. R. 
Timm, 326 ; das Holz, H. Kottmeier and F. Uhlmann, 
326; der Pflanzengarten, seine Anlage und seine \'er- 
werkung. Prof. F. Pfuhl, 326 ; die Aufzucht und Kultur 
der Parasitischen Samenpflanzen, Prof. E. Heinricher, 
327 ; Prodromus Florre Britannic^, F. N. Williams. 
342 ; Rhododendron producing Double Flowers in its 
Wild State, Dr. M. Miyoshi, 372 ; Description of Dioon 
spiiudosum, C. J. Chamberlain, 372 ; a History of 
Botanv, 1860-iqoo, being a Continuation of Sach's 
" History of Botany, 1530-1860," Prof. J. Reynolds 
Green, F.R.S., 391 ; Vegetationsbilder, Trockensteppen 
der Kalahari, F. Seiner, Von den Juan Fernandez 
Inseln, Carl Slfottberg, die Schwabische Alp, Otto 
Feucht, aus Bosnien und der Herzegovinia, L. 
Adamovic, die Flora von Irland, Prof. T. Johnson, 395 ; 
Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon Plants containing 
Coumarin, and some Plants the Smell of which is dur 
to the Hydrolysis of Glucosides, M. Pougnet, 421 ; Plant 
Formations of East Bolivia, 437 ; Science in .Modern 
life, Botany, J. M. F. Drummond, 464; Plants obtained 
in Southern Half of the Island of Saghalien, G. 
Koidzumi, 470; Conditions of Parasitism in Plants, Dr. 
\A'. A. Cannon, 505 ; Inducing Dependent Nutrition by 
the Insertion of Prepared .Slips into a Host Plant, Dr. 
D. T. Macdougal, 505 ; an .Agaric with Sterile Gills, 
W. B. Grove, 531; Death and Obituary Notice of Dr. 
Melchior Treub, 539 ; Plants Gathered by Dr. Th. 
Derbeck on the Shores of the Gulf of Tartary, V. L. 
Komarov, 542 ; Botanising in County Kerry, H. S. 
Thompson, 543 ; -Account of the Genus Scrophularia, Dr. 
Heinz Stiefelhagen, 543 ; Flora and Plant Formations 
of the Kermadec, R. B. Oliver, 543 ; Distribution of 
W'eeds, 547 ; a Natural Preventative to the Oak-tree 
Disease, Paul Vuillemin, 555 ; the Elective liSle of ih" 
Root in the Absorption of Salts, Jean de Rufz de 
Lavison, 556; see also British Association 

Boudariat (.A.), Occurrence of a Basalt in the N'olranic 
Cone of Tritriva in Central Madagascar, 376 

Bourgeois (R.), the Daily Movement of the Top of the 
Eiffel Tower, 261 ; Comparison of Two Astronomical 
Pendulums with the Aid of Electrical Signals trans- 
mitted by a Submarine Cable of Great Length, 
456 

Bourne (Prof. G. C, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.), Opening 
Address in Section D at the Meeting of the ISritish 
-Association at Sheffield, 378 ; Hormones in Relation to 
Inheritance, 462 

Bourquelot (Prof.), Biochemical Method of Examination 
of Vegetable Glucosides Hydrolysed by Emulsin, 354 

Bowman (Prof. Isiah), the Economic Geographv of 
Bolivia, 118 

Boyce (Sir Rubert W., F.R.S.), Effect of Mosquito Larvfc 
upon Drinking Water, 750; Health Progress and 
-Administration in the West Indies, 174 

Boyle (Dr. R. W.), Absorption and .Adsorption wiiji 
Reference to the Radio-active Emanations, 152 

Boys (Prof. C. V., F.R.S.), the Ultra-rapid Kinemato- 
graph, 112; Very Viscid Fluid to make Dumb-bell bv 
the LInion of the Drops of Two Bubbles, 436 

Bragg (Prof.), Nature of the 7 Rays, 47S 

Braun (Prof. Max), a Handbook of Practical Parasitologv, 
393 



Breinl (.A.), Life-history of Trypanosoma lewisi in the 

Rat-louso H aemaiopinus spinulosus, 150 
Brereton (C. .A.), Death of, 340 

Brcul (Prof. Karl), Students' Life and Work in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, 461 
Brewer (R. W. A.), the Art of Aviation, 229 
Brillouin (Prof. -M.), Stabiliti6 dcs Ai^roplanes, Surface 

mdtacentrique, 229 
Brindley (H. H.), Notes on the Procession of Cncihocampa 

pinivora, 62 
Briner (E.), Action of Pressure and Temperature upon 

Cyanogen, 164 
Brion (Dr. G.), Leitfaden zum elektrotechnischen Prak- 

tikum, 67 
British Antarctic Expedition, 1907-9, under the Command 
of Sir E. H. Shackleton, C.V.O., Reports on Scientific 
Investigations, vol. i., Biology, 205 
British Association Meeting at Sheffield, no, 174, 274, 
300, 333; S. R. Milner, 174; Inaugural Address by the 
Rev. Prof. T. G. Bonney, Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 
President of the Association, 274; Forthcoming Meeting 
of British Association, Arrangements for Section H, 179 ; 
Recent Hittite Discovery, D. G. Hogarth, 318 
Section A (Mathematical and Physical .Sf>>ncg).^Opening 
Address by Prof. E. W. Hobson, Sc.D., F.R.S., 
President of the Section, 284 ; on Positive Rays, Sir 
J. J. Thomson, 513; Spectrophotometer of the Hiifner 
Type, Dr. R. A. Houston, 513 ; New Gyroscopic 
Apparatus, Prof. A. E. H. Love, 513; a Certain Per- 
mutation Group, Dr. Baker, 514; the Theory of 
Numbers, Lieut. -Colonel Allan Cunningham, 514; Dr. 
Baker, 514; Initial Motion of Electrified Spheres, Dr. 
J. W. Nicholson, 514; Need of a Non-Euclidean Biblio- 
graphy, Dr. Duncan M. Y. Somervillc, 514; Present 
State of the Theory of Integral Equations, H. 
Bateman, 514; Dr. Hobson, 514; the Theory of Ideals, 
Prof. J. C. Fields, 514; Number of Electrons in the 
Atoms, J. A. Crowther, 514; Attractive Constant of a 
Molecule of a Compound and its Chemical Properties, 
Dr. R. D. Kleemann, 514; Demonstration of Vacuum- 
tight Seals between Iron and Glass, Dr. H. J. S. Sand, 
514; Complete Apparatus for the Measurement of 
Sound, Dr. A. G. Webster, 515 ; the Relation of 
Spectra to the Periodic Series of the Elements, Prof. 
W. M. Hicks, sis; Sir Norman Lockyer, 511;; Photo- 
graphic Study of the Mercury Arc in vacuo, Dr. S. R. 
Milner, 515 ; Apparatus for a Production of Circularly 
Polarised Light, A. E. Oxley, 515 ; Principles of 
Mechanical Flight, Prof. G. H. Bryan, 515; Dugald 
Clerk, 515 ; Atmospheric Electricity, Dr. Charles 
Chree, 515 ; Existence of a Positive Gradient of 
Potential during Fine Weather and a Negative 
Gradient during Wet Weather, Sir Oliver I^odge, 515; 
Dr. Shaw, sis; Sir J. J. Thomson, 515; a New In- 
strument, the Variograph, for Measuring Short Waves 
in Atmospheric Pressure, Dr. W. Schmidt, 516; 
Records from the Upper Atmosphere Obtained during 
Passage of the Earth through the Tail of Halley's 
Comet, Mr. Dines, 516; Vertical Temperature 
Gradients in Canada in the Winter Months, Mr. 
Stupart, 516; Results of an Investigation into the 
Effect of Radiation on H, the Height, and Te, the 
Temperature, of the Advective Region, Mr. Gold, 516; 
Sensitive Bifilar Seismograph for Recording Undula- 
torv Movements of the Earth's Surface of Short 
Period, Prof. F. G. Bailey, 516; a Successful Attempt 
to Simplify the Long-range Spectrograph to Make it 
Suitable for Industrial Investigations concerning 
Metals, -Alloys, &c.. Prof. C. F^ry, 516; Magnetic 
Field Produced by the Motion of a Charged Condenser 
through Space, W. F. G. Swann, 516; Results of 
Experiments on the Secondary Radiation from Carbon 
at Low Temperatures when Bombarded by the a Rays 
from Polonium, V. E. Pound, 516; Resolution of the 
Spectral Lines of Mercury by a High-grade Echelon 
Spectroscope, Prof. McLennan and N. Macallum, S'^; 
Active Deposit Obtained when the Emanation from 
Actinium is Allowed to Diffuse Freely between Two 
Parallel Plates Placed about 2 Millimetres apart over 
the .Actinium .Salt, the Plates being Maintained at a 
Difference of Potential of 250 volts, W. T. Kennedy, 



:.J 



Index 



5i(); Ktcoil of Radium B from Radium A, Drs. \\'. 
.MaUower and S. Russ and li. J. Evans, 516; Stars 
and their Temperatures, Sir Norman Locl<yer, 510; 
So-called " Sudden Commencements '* of Magnetic 
Storms, Dr. Bauer, 516; Dr. Cliree, 516 
Section 13 (Clieinistrv). — Opening Address by J. E. Stead, 
K.R.S., K.l.C. F.'C.S., President of tine Section, 302 ; 
Researches upon the Chemical Aspects of Gaseous 
Combustion during the Past Thirty Years, Prof. Bone, 
517; Combustion, Sir J. J. Thomson, 517; Velocity of 
Sound not a Constant Quantity, Sir Oliver Lodge, 
517; Explosion of Hydrogen and Chlorine by Light, 
Prof. H. B. Di.xon, 517; Impossibility of any Inter- 
action Taking Place between Two Substances if 
Neither was an Electrolyte, Prof. Armstrong, 517; 
Molecular Weight of Radium Emanation, Sir Wni. 
Ramsay and Dr. R. \V. Gray, 517; Biochemistry of 
Respiration, F. F. Blackman, 517; E.xisting Know- 
ledge with Regard to the Oxydases, Ur. E. F. Arm- 
strong, 51S; a Fourth Recaiescence in Steel, Prof. 
j. O. Arnold, siS; Dr. C. H. Carpenter, 518; Mr. 
Stead, 51S; Allotropy or Transmutation, Prof. H. M. 
Howe, 5(8; Closing and Welding of Blow-holes in 
Steel Ingots, Prof. H. .M. Howe, 518; Mr. Stead, 
518; Provident Use of Coal, Prof. H. E. Armstrong, 
518; Prof. A. Smithells, 519; Dr. Beilby, 519; Mr. 
.Archbutt, 519; Properties of a Series of Steels with 
^"arying Carbon Contents, Prof. McWiUiam, 519; 
Crystalline Structure of Iron at High Temperatures, 
Dr. Roscnhain, 519; Ferro-silicon, Dr. S. M. Cope- 
man, 519; Dr. Wilson Hake, 519; S. R. Bennett, 519; 
Corrosion of Iron and Steel, Dr. J. N. Friend, 519; 
Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion, Solu- 
bility, and Solution Pressures of Steel, C. Chappell 
and F. Hodson, 519; Relative Instability of the Tri- 
niethylene Ring, Dr. J. F. Thorpe, 519; Elimination 
of a Carbethoxyl Group during the Closing of the 
Five-membered Ring, A. D. Mitchell and Dr. J. F. 
Thorpe, 519; Molecular Association in Water, 
W. E. S. Turner and C. J. Peddle, 519; Affinities of 
the Halogen Elements, W. E. S. Turner, 519; Mole- 
cular Complexity of Nitrosoamines, W. E. S. Turner 
and E. W. Merry, 520 ; Action of Metals upon 
.Alcohols, Dr. F. M. Perkin, 520 
Sub-Section of B {A!;ricultural Suh-Scction). — Opening 
.Address by A. D. Hall, M.A., F.R.S., Chairman of 
the Sub-section, 309 
Section C (Gi-o/o^v).— Opening Address by Prof. A. P. 
Coleman, M.A.,' Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the 
.Section, the History of the " Canadian Shield," 333 ; 
Graptolitic Zones from the Salopian Beds of the 
Cautly District, Sedburgh, Miss G. R. Whatney and 
Miss E. G. Welch, 520; the Concealed Coalfield of 
Notts, Derby, and Yorkshire, Prof. P. F. Kendall, 
520 ; the Siielly Moraine of the Sefstrom Glacier, 
Spitsbergen, G. W. Lamplugh, 520 
Section D (Zoology). — Opening Address by Prof. G. C. 
Bourne, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President of the Section. 
378; Hormones in Relation to Inheritance, Gilbert C. 
Bourne, 462 ; Zoology at the British Association, Dr. 
I. H. Ashworth, 548; Coral Snakes and Peacocks, 
Dr. H. F. Gadow, F.R.S., 548; Coccidia and 
Coccidiosis in Birds, Dr. H. B. "Fantham, 548; the 
Formation and Arrangement of the Opercular Chjetac 
of Sabellaria, Arnold T. Watson, <;49 ; the Anatomy 
and Physiology of Calma glaucoides, T. J. Evans, 
1:49; Se.x and Immunity, Geoffrey Smith, S49 : Prof. 
Bateson, F.R.S.. 54Q ; Prof. Hartog, 549; the Colours 
of Insect Larva?, Prof. Walter Garstang, 549 ; Mr. 
Doncaster, s.So ! Insect Coloration, Mark L. Sykes, 
550 ; G. Story, 550 ; the Biology of Teleost and 
Elasmobranch Eggs, Dr. W. J. Dakin, 550; Semina- 
tion in the Sanderling, Prof. C. J. Patten, 5S0 ; 
-Anatomical Adaptations in Seals to Aquatic Life, Dr. 
H. W. Marett Tims, 550; the Temporal Bone in 
Primates, Prof. R. J. Anderson, 550; the Oxford 
.Anthropomctrical Laboratory, Dr. E. Schuster, 550 ; 
the Relation of Regeneration and Developmental Pro- 
cesses, Dr. J. W. Jenkinson, 550 
Section E (Geography). — Opening Address by A. J. 
Herbertson, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Geography in 



the University of Oxford, President of the Section, 
Geography and Some of its Present Needs, 383 ; 
Origin of Some of the More Characteristic Features of 
the Topography of Northern Nigeria, Dr. J. D. 
Falconer, 551 ; Prince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen, 
Dr. W. S. Bruce, 551 ; Plans for a Second Scottish 
National Antarctic Expedition, Dr. W. S. Bruce, 551 ; 
Voyage of the Nimrod from Sydney to Monte Video, 
Captain J. K. Davis, 551 ; Metallurgical Industries in 
Relation to the Rocks of the District, Prof. A. 
McWilliam, 552 ; Importance to Sheflield of the 
Unoxidised Iron Ores of Leicestershire and Lincoln- 
shire; Prof. Kendall, 552 ; the Humber during the 
Human Period, T. Sheppard, 552 ; Journey Across 
South America from BogotA to Mangos, Dr. Hamilton 
Rice, 552 ; Geography of British Cotton-growing, J. 
Howard Reed, 552 ; Journey from India through Gilgit, 
Hanza, across the Pamirs, and thence by Chinese 
Turkestan, Mongolia, and Siberia to the Trans- 
Siberian Railway, Lieutenant P. T. Etherton, 552 ; 
New Globe-map of the World, William Wilson, i;,2 ; 
Midlothian District, James Cossar, ^152 ; Underground 
Waters of the Castleton District of Derbyshire, H. 
Brodrick, 552 
Section G (Engineering). — Opening Address by Prof. 
W. E. Dalby, M.A., M.Inst.C.E., President of the 
Section, British Railways, Some Facts and a Few 
Problems, 407 ; the Testing of Lathe Tool Steels, Prof. 
Ripper, 553 ; Third Report of the Committee on 
Gaseous Explosions, 553 ; Radiation from Open 
Flames in the Laboratory, Prof. Callendar, 553 ; 
Radiation from Gases in a Closed Combustion 
Chamber, Prof. Hopkinson, 553 ; the Ignition of Gases 
by Adiabatic Compression, Prof. Dixon, 553 ; Captain 
Sankey, 553 ; New Method of Testing the Cutting 
Quality of Files, Prof. Ripper, 553 ; Electrification of 
the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway be- 
tween Victoria and London Bridge, P. Dawson, c;t ■ 
Use of an Accelerometer in the Measurement of Road 
Resistance and Horse-power, H. E. Wimperis, 5s3 ; 
Cyclical Changes of Temperature in a Gas-engine 
Cylinder near the Walls, Prof. Coker, 553 ; Principles 
of Mechanical Flight, Prof. Bryan, 554 ; Optical De- 
termination of Stress, Prof. Coker, 554 ; Measurement 
of the Air Supply to a Gas-engine Cylinder, Prof. 
Dalby, 554 ; Heat Insulation, F. Bacon, 554 ; a New 
Method of Producing High-tension Electrical Dis- 
charges, Prof. E. Wilson and W. H. Wilson, 554 ; 
Machine for Testing Rubber by Means of its 
Mechanical Hysteresis, Prof. Schwartz, 554 ; Utilisa- 
tion of Solar Radiation, Wind Power, and other Inter- 
mittent Natural Sources of Energy, Prof. Fessenden, 
554; Experimental Investigation of the Strength of 
Thick Cylinders, Mr. Cook, 554 
Section H (Anthropology). — Opening Address by W. 

Crooke, B.A., President of the Section, 414 
Section I (Physiology). — Opening Address by Prof. -A. B. 
Macallum, M.A., M.B., Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., 
President of the Section, 444 
Section K (Botany). — Opening Address by Prof. James 
W. H. Trail, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., President of the 
Section, 452 
Section L (Educational Science). — Opening Address by 
Principal H. A. Miers, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., President 
of the Section, 480; the Relation of Science to Industry 
and Commerce, R. Blair, 345 
British Fossils loi 
British Isles, the Gulf Stream Drift and the Weather of 

the. Dr. H. Bassett, 44 
British Isles in Pictures, the, H. Clive Barnard, 23S 
British Mammals, a History of, G. E. H. Barrett- 
Hamilton, 493 
British Marine Zoology, Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S.. 
252, 330, 396, 462 ; Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., 329, 
396, 462 ; Dr. Wm. J. Dakin, 396 
British Medical Association in London, the, 153 
British Museum : Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa in the 
Department of Geologv, British Museum (Natural 
History), Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., 8; Catalogue of 
the Books, Manuscripts, Maps, and Drawings in the 
British Museum (Natural History), 266 ; Guide to Mr. 



Index 



nber 24, 1911 



Worthingtoii Smith's Drawings of Field and Cultivated 
Mushrooms and Poisonous or Worthless Fungi often 
Mistaken for Mushrooms, Exhibited in the Department 
of Botany, British Museum (Natural History), 361 ; 
Mineral Specimens Acquired by British Museum, 467 ; 
Handbook to the Ethnographical Collection, 536 
British Pharmaceutical Conference, the, 156 
British Rainfall, 1909, Dr. Hugh Robert Mill, 523 
British Section of the Brussels Exhibition, the, Dr. F. 

MolKvo Perkin, 398 
Brizard (L.), lonisation of Gases in Presence of Chemical 

Reactions, 151 
Brockett (Paul), Bibliography of Aeronautics, 229 
Brodrick (H.), Underground Waters of the Castleton Dis- 
trict of Derbyshire, 552 
Broglie (Maurice de). Exclusive Presence in the Gases 
Evolved from some Hydrogenated Flames of Ions alto- 
gether .Analogous to those Produced by Rbnlgen Rays, 
b4 ; lonisation of Gases in Presence of Chemical 
Reactions, 151 
Brook (C. L.), the Perseid Meteoric Shower, 248 
Brooke (T. F.), Cause of Serious Loss of Gooseberry 

Bushes in Cambiidgeshire, 402 
Brooks (.A. H.), Mineral Resources of Alaska, 511 
Brooks's Comet, 1889 V, Search-ephemeris for. Dr. 

Bauschinger, 317 
Brooks's Periodical Comet (1889 V), Rediscovery of, 

Messrs. Aitken and Wikon, 438 
Broom (Dr. R.), Relationship of the South African Fossil 
Reptiles to those Found in other Parts of the World, 
158; Relationship of Permian Reptiles of North America 
to those of South, 402 
Brown (Edward G.), the Leaning Tower of Pisa, 297 
Brown (H. Y. L.), the Tanami Goldfield in Central 

Australia, 182 
Brown (J. Coggin), a Lisu Jew's Harp, 422 
Brown (Sidney G.), Modern Submarine Telegraphy, Dis- 
course at Royal Institution, 23 
Bruce (Dr. James), Practical Chemistry, 360 
Bruce (Dr. J. Mitchell), Important Additions to Medical 

Knowledge, 154 
Bruce (Dr. W. S.), Prince Charles Foreland, Spitsbergen, 
551 ; Plans for a Second Scottish National Antarctic 
Expedition, 551 
Briickner (Prof. E.), les Variations p^riodiques des Glaciers, 

I" 
Brunetti (E.), Protest against Unnecessary Subdivision and 

Splitting in the Culicida^. 407 
Brussels, International Congress of Anatomists at, 252 
Brussels Exhibition, the British Section of the. Dr. F. 

Moll wo Perkin, 398 
Bryan (Prof. G. H., F.R.S.), the Art of Aviation, R. W. A. 
Brewer, 229 ; How to Build an Aeroplane, R. Petit, 229 ; 
How to Build a 20-foot Biplane Glider, A. P. Morgan, 
229 ; les Aeroplanes, considerations th^oriques, P. 
Raybaud, 229 ; Ballons et .Aeroplanes, G. Besan^on, 229 ; 
I'Aviation, Prof. Paul Painlev^ and Prof. Emile Borel, 
229 ; Navigation in der I.uft, Prof. A. Marcuse, 229 ; 
Stabilitie des Aeroplanes, Surface metacentrique, Prof. 
M. Brillouin, 229 ; die Seitensteuer der Flugmaschinen, 
Prof. H. Reissner, 229 ; VI. Congr^s international 
d'Aeronautique, 1909, Proems verbaux. Rapports et 
Memoires, 229 ; Bibliography of Aeronautics, Paul 
Brockett, 229 ; Petite Encyclopedic aeronautique, L. 
Ventou-Duclaux, 229 ; the Encyclopjpdia of Sports and 
Games, 229; Principles of Mechanical Flight, 515, 554 
Bryozoa, Catalogue of the Fossil, in the Department of 
Geology, British Museum (Natural History), Prof. J. W. 
Gregory, F.R.S., 8 
Buchanan (Miss I'".), the Relative Size of the Heart in 

Different Groups of Animals, 148 
Buchanan (J. Y., F.R.S.), Colour of the Sea, 87 
Buckland (J.), Traffic in Feathers and the Need for Legis- 
lation, 1 17 
Buenos .Aires, the International Scientific Congress at. 

Prof. C. D. Perrine, 509 
Building: Chimney Design, 213; Facilities Provided at the 
Brussels Exhibition for the Beginning and Rapid Spread 
of Fire, 272 
Bulleid (Arthur), Excavations at the Glastonbury Lake- 
village, S2 



Bullen (Rev. R. .Ashington), a Meteorological Phenomenon, 

429 
Burial Customs in Egypt, Earlv, Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 

F.R.S., 461, 529; Prof. W. M. Flinder Petrie, F.R.S., 

494 
Burnet (Arthur), an Interesting Occultation, 73 
Burnham (Prof.), Measures of Double Stars, 152 
Burr (Dr. Malcolm), a Synopsis of the Orthoptera of 

Western Europe, 39 
Burt (F. P.), Relative .Atomic Weights of Nitrogen and 

Sulphur, 62 
Burton (F. M.), Pwdre Ser, 40 
liurton (Mr.), A New Comet, 213 
Bury (H.), the Denudation of the Western End of the 

Weald, 29 
Busgen (Dr. M.), Distinguishing Characters of the Trees 

in the German Cameroons, 546 
Bush Calendar, a. Amy E. Mack, 464 
Busignies (M.), Some Ethylenic Cyclic Derivatives (Ether 

Oxides) and their Bromine Derivatives, 324 
Butler (Mrs. A. M.), " Mock Suns " at Eastbourne, 374 
Butler (Bert S.), Area! Geology, 76 
Butler (Prof. Howard C), Archaeology Expedition in Sardis. 

503 



Calcium \'apour in the Sun, C. E. St. John, 249 

Calculus Elements of the Differential and Inti.yral, Prof. 

A. E. H. Love, F.R.S., 136 
Calendar, Reforms of the, Prof. Forster, 368 
California Earthquake of April 18, 1906, the, vol. ii., the 
Mechanics of the Earthquake, Harry F. Reid, Prof. John 
Milne, F.R.S., 165 
Calkins (Mr.), Ore Deposits of the Cojur I'.Aleiie District. 

Idaho, 122 
Callendar (Prof.), Radiation from Open Flames in the 

Laboratory, 553 
Callendar (Prof. H. L.), the Radio-balance, 195 
Caiman (Dr. W. T.), Antarctic Pycnogons, 104 
Calmette CProf.), Special Susceptibility of Children of 

Tuberculous Parents, 508 
Cambier (R.), Abiotic Action of Ultra-Violet Rays of 

Chemical Origin, 164 
Cambridge County Geographies, Nottinghamshire, Dr. 

H. H. Swinnerton ; Lanarkshire, Frederick Mort, 527 
Cambridge Observatory, the. Sir Robert Ball, 472 ; Prof. 

Newall, 472 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, (J2 
Cambridge Pocket Diary for the Academical Year 1910-11, 

527 
Cambridge, Students' Life and Work in the University of, 

Prof. Karl Breul, 461 
Campbell (.A. G.), Natural Features of the Australian Gram- 
pians, 271 
Campbell (M. R.), Contributions to Economic Geology, 

part ii.. Coal and Lignite, 511 
Campbell (Norman R.), the Nomenclature of Radioactivity, 

203 
Cainpbell (Prof.), Water Vapour on Mars, 317 
Canada, Medical Education in the United States and, 

Abraham Flexner, 332 
Cancer: the Progress of Cancer Research, 126; the Inter- 
national Cancer Conference at Pari", 545 
Cannon (Dr. W. A.), Conditions of Parasitism in Plants, 505 
Cape Town, Royal Society of South Africa, 98, 132, 262, 

422 
Cardoso (Ettore), Critical Constants of Acetylene and Cyano- 
gen, 98 
Carey (W. M.), a First Book of Physical Geography, 426 
Carnation Year Book, 1910, the, 460 
Carpenter (Dr.), Theory of Hardening Carbon Steels, 440 ; 

a Fourth Recalescence in .Steel, 51S 
Carpenter (Prof. G. H.), Interdependence of Research in 

.So-called " Pure " and " Applied " Science, 156 
Carruthers (John B.), Death and Obituary Notice of, 114 
Carslaw (Prof. H. S.), Plane Trigonometry, 136; Gauss 

and Non-Euclidean Geometry, 362 
" Carte du Ciel," the Permanent International Committee 

for the, 317 
Carter (F. W.), Electrification of Railways, 155 



'aturi, -I 

A 7-24, iqioj 



Index 



Cat, the Origin of the Domestic " Blotched " Tabby, 

H. M. Vickors, 298, 331 ; R. I. Pocock, 298 
Catalogue of the Books, iManuscripts, Maps, and Drawings 

in the British Museum (Natural History), 266 
Caucasus, Byways in the, Col. C. E. de la Pocr Beresford, 

469 
Causal Geology, Prof. E. H. Schwarz, Prof. Grenville 

.•v. J. Cole, 397 
Cavolini (Filippo), Centenary of Death of, 313, 500 
Cemento Armato, Le Prove dei Materiali da Construzione 

e le Construzione in, Guilo Revere, 35S 
Cemento Armato e la sua applicazione practica, II, Cesare 

Presenti, 358 
Centenary of Berlin University, the, 496 
Centenary of Death of Filippo Cavolini, the, 313, 500 
Centre of Gravity of Annual Statistics, A. .Marshall, 104 
Cesaro (G.), Galactite a Mixture of Natrolite and Scolezite, 

376 
Chagas (C), Nova tripanosomiaze humana, 142 ; Cytology 

of the Flagellata, 504 
Chamberlain (C. J.), Description of Dioon spinulosum, 372 
Chamberlain (R. T.), the Gases in Rocks, 376 
Chambers (G. F.), the Study of Double Stars for Amateurs, 

=73 
Chandler (Prof. Charles Frederick), Testimonial to, 403 
Chapman (C. M.), Rust-preventing Properties of Protective 

Coatings for Structural Steel, 272 
Chapman (F.), Silurian Fossils of the South Yarrow Dis- 
trict, 401 
Chapman (Dr. H. G.), the Study of the Precipitins, 522 
Chappcll (C), Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corro- 
sion, Solubility, and .Solution Pressures of .Steel, 519 
Charpy (G.), Reduction of O.xide of Iron by Solid Carbon, 

555 

Chase (Frederick L.), Parallax Investigations on Thirty-five 
Selected Stars, 433 

Chatelu (J.), Observations of Metcalf's Comet Made at the 
Paris Observatory, 261 

Chaudhuri (B. L.), Triacanthus weberi, 422 

Chavez (M. G.), Death of, 400 

Chemistrv : Death of Dr. W. H. Seaman, 14; Death and 
Obituary Notice of C. H. Greville Williams, F.R.S., 14; 
Molecular Weights of Helium, Neon, Krypton, and 
Xenon, H. E. Watson, 18; Death of Prof. Hugo Erdman, 
46 ; Synthesis of Camphoric Acid, M. Blanc and Dr. 
J. F. Thorpe, 51 ; Tinctorial Chemistry, Ancient and 
Modern, Prof. Walter M. Gardner, ,^6 ; Method for the 
Quantitative Estimation of Hydrocyanic Acid in Vegetable 
and Animal Tissues, Prof. A. D. Waller, 60 ; Spontaneous 
Crystallisation and the Melting- and Freezing-point Curves 
of Mixtures of Two .Substances which form Mixed Crystals 
and possess a Minimum or Eutectic Freezing-point, F. 
Isaac. 61 ; Relative Atomic Weights of Nitrogen and 
Sulphur, F. P. Burt and F. L. Usher, 62 ; Comparative 
Toxicity of Theobromine and Caffeine as Measured by 
their Direct Effects upon the Contractilitv of Isolated 
Muscle, V. H. Veley and Prof. A. D. Waller, 62 ; Results 
of Sterilisation Experiments on the Cambridge Water, 
Prof. Sims Woodhead, 63 ; .Action of Iron and its Oxides 
at a Red Heat, on Carbonic Oxide, Armand Gautier and 
P. Clausmann, 64; Manganate of Sodium and its 
Hydrates, V. Auger, 64 ; Researches on tiO-Maltol, A. 
Backe, 64 ; a History of Hindu Chemistry from the 
Earliest Times to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century 
A.D., with Sanskrit Texts, Sic, Prof. PraphuUa Chandra 
Ray, 68; Methods Used in the Examination of Milk 
and Dairy Products, Dr. Chr. Barthel, 69 ; Electrolytic 
Conductivity of Non-aqueous Solutions at Low Tempera- 
tures, P. Walden, 84; .Specific Volumes of Solutions of 
Tetrapropylammoniuin Chloride, J. W. M'David, 97; 
Action of Cold and Anaesthetics upon the Leaves of 
Angraecum fragrans and the Green Husks of Vanilla, 
Edouard Heckel, 98 ; Toxic Oualities of Certain Salts 
towards Green Leaves, L. Maquenne and E. Demoussy, 
131 ; the Action of Vapours on Green Plants, Marcel 
Mirande, 262 ; Critical Constants of .Acetylene and Cyano- 
gen, Ettore Cardoso and Georges Baumes, oS ; Action of 
Pressure and Temperature upon Cyanogen, E. Briner and 
A. Wroczynski, 164; Technical Methods of Chemical 
Analysis, Prof. George Lunge, loi ; Cordite, 109; Ex- 
amination of the Atmosphere at Various Altitudes for 



Oxides of Nitrogen and Ozone, Messrs. Hayhurst and 
Pring, 119; Rectilinear Diameter of Oxygen, E. Mathias 
and H. Kamerlingh Onnes, 131 ; Action of Ultra-Violet 
Rays on Gelatine, A. Tian, 131 ; Action of the Ultra- 
Violet Rays upon Certain Carbohydrates, Henri Bierry, 
Victor Henri, and -Albert Ranc, 164; .Abiotic Ac'.ion of 
Ultra-Violet Rays of Chemical Origin, E. Tassilly and 
R. Cambier, 164; Action of the Ultra-Violet Rays upon 
Plants containing Coumarind, Some Plants the Smell of 
which is due to the Hydrolysis of Glucosides, M. Pougnet, 
421 ; New Researches on the Sterilisation of Large Quan- 
tities of Water by the Ultra-Violet Rays, Victor Henri, 
A. Helbronner, and .Max do Recklinghausen, 556 ; Sul- 
phate of Thorium, .VI. Barre, 132 ; Absorption of Iodine 
by Solid Bodies, Marcel Guichard, 132 ; lonisation of 
Gases in presence of Chemical Reactions, Messrs. de 
Broglie and L. Brizard, t.^i ; Note on Local Coloration 
of the Cell Wall in Certain Water Plants induced by 
Manganese Compounds, Prof. H. Molisch, 151 ; Alumin- 
ium Nitride, its Preparation and Fusion, Daffy Wolk, 
164; Decomposition of Steam by the Brush Discharge, 
Miroslaw Kernbaum, 164; Researches on the Constitu- 
tion of Vicianose, Gabriel Bertrand and G. Weisweiller, 
164 ; Colours .Arising in Colourless Solutions of Coloured 
Bodies at the Moment of the Solidification of the Colour- 
less Solvent, D. Gernez, 164 ; Observations on Callose, 
L. .Mangin, 164 ; Relations between Callose and Fungose, 
C. Tanret, 228 ; Electrical Resistance of the Alkali 
Metals, L. Hackspill, 164; Coal, Tar, and Ammonia. 
Prof. George Lunge, 166 ; the Manufacture of 
Sulphuric Acid and Alkali, with the Collateral 
Branches, Prof. George Lunge, 166 ; Chimica 
Generale e Applicata all' Industria, Prof. Ettore 
Molinari, 170; Death of Oscar Guttmann, 179; 
the Chemical Significance of Crystal Structure, Prof. 
William J. Pope, F.R.S.. at Royal Institution, 187; 
.Action of Mi-xtures of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen, 
or of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen, upon the Oxides 
of Iron, A. Gautier and P. Clausmann, 196; Catalytic 
Preparation of .Alkvl-arvl Ethers, Paul Sabatier and A. 
Maiihe, 196 ; Evolution of Heat in a Mixture of Radium 
and a Phosphorescent Salt, William Duane, 196 ; Rela- 
tions between White Phosphorus, Red Phosphorus, and 
Pyromorphic Phosphorus, Pierre Jolibois, 196 ; Catalytic 
Reactions in the Wet Way based on the Use of 
Aluminium Sulphate, J. B. Senderens, 196; Mechanism 
of Photochemical Reactions and the Formation of Plant 
Principles, Daniel Berthelot and Henry Gaudechon, 196: 
the Constants of Nature, Part v., a Recalculation of 
the Atomic Weights, Frank Wigglesworth Clarke, 207 ; 
Determination of .Atomic Weights, Theodore W. 
Richards and Hobart Hurd Willard, 207 ; the Harvard 
Determination of Atomic Weights between 1870 and 
1910, Theodore W. Richards, 207: Methods iised in 
Precise Chemical Investigation, Theodore W. Richards, 
207 ; Changes taking Place during the Storage of Butter, 
212; Deveicpment of the Leblanc Process for the Manu- 
facture of Soda, Sir William Ramsay, 213 : New Process 
for producing Protective Metallic Coatings, M. U. 
Schoop, 218; Lehmann's Anisotropic Liquids, G. Friedel 
and F. Grandjean, 22S ; Preparation of Pure Arbutine, 
H. H^rissey, 228; Determinations of the Effects of 
Atmospheres of Various Vapours on the Volt-ampere 
" Characteristic Curves " of the Carbon Copper Arc, 
M. Kimura and K. Yamamoto, 248; Solubility of Ether 
In Water, Y. Osaka, 248; Production of Methane by 
the Direct Union of Hydrogen with Carbon, Prof. Bone 
and Dr. H. F. Coward, 248 ; Photochemical Decomposi- 
tion of the Alcohols, Aldehvdes. Acids, and Ketones, 
Daniel Berthelot and Henry Gaudechon, 262; the ^Recti- 
linear Diameter of Oxvgen, E. Mathias and H. Kamer- 
lingh Onnes, 262 ; a First A'car's Course of Inorganic 
Chemistrv, G. F. Hood, 266: a Manual of Elementary 
Practical' Chemistrv for Use in the Laboratory, P. W. 
Oscroft and R. P.' Shea, 266: Catalytic Preparation of 
the Phenolic Oxides and the DIphenylenIc Oxides. Paul 
Sabatier and A. Maiihe, 202 : Preoaration of Phenyl- 
nitro-methane bv the Interaction of Mercurous Nitrite 
and Benzvl Chloride, Panchanan Neogi and Birendra 
Bhusan .Adhlkarv, 292 ; a Manual of Dyeing, Prof. P. 
Knecht, C. Rawson, and Dr. R. Loewenthal, 295 ; 



Index 



t Nature^ 

Novt»i6er 3^, 1911 



Death of Dr. Charles Fahlberg, 313; Alleged AUolropy 
of Lead, E. Cohen and K. Inouye, 316; Some Ethylenic 
Cyclic Derivatives (Ether Oxides) and their Bromine 
Derivatives, M. Busignies, 324 ; New Researches on 
Bitter Wines and the Acrylic Eermentation of Glycerol, 
E. Voisenet, 324 ; Lead and Zinc Pigments, Dr. C. D. 
Holley, Dr. A. P. Laurie, 325 ; Chemistry for Photo- 
graphers, Chas. F. Townsend, 327 ; Preparation of 
Acrolein, J. B. Senderens, 356; Soft Crystals and the 
Measurement of their Indices of Refraction, Paul 
("laubert, 356; A. B.C. Five Figure Logarithms and 
Tables for Chemists, including Electrochemical Equiva- 
lents, Analytical Factors, Gas Reduction Tables, and 
other Tables useful in Chemical Laboratories, C. J. 
Woodward, 360 ; Practical Chemistry, Dr. James Bruce 
and Harry Harper, 360; Qualitative Analysis, E. J. 
Lewis, 360; Outlines of Organic Chemistry, Dr. F. J. 
Moore, 360 ; the Calculations of General Chemistry, with 
Definitions, E.\pIanations, and Problems, Prof. William 
J. Hale, 360; Death of Dr. Charles A. Goessmann, 370; 
lonisation of Gases and Chemical Change, Dr. H. 
Brereton Baker, F.R.S., at Royal Institution, 388; 
Chemistry of the Sugars, J. S. Hepburn, 403 ; Testi- 
monial to Prof. Charles Frederick Chandler, 403 ; 
.\nnual Report of the Government Laboratory, 405 ; 
Beet Sugar Making and its Chemical Control, Y. 
Nikaido, 424; Complexity of Tellurium, W. R. Flint, 
43S ; Analytical Chemistry, Prof. F. P. Treadwell, 4111; 
Recent Work on Colloidal Solutions, Prof. Paterno, 471 ; 
Organic Compounds of Tetravalent Tellurium, Charles 
Lederer, 488 ; Action of Quinones and their Sulphonic 
Derivatives on the Photographic Images formed by 
Silver Salts, A. and L. Lumi^re and M. Seyewetz, 48S ; 
World's Consumption of Nitrate, 502 ; the Study of the 
Precipitins, Dr. H. G. Chapman, 522 ; Leitfaden der 
graphischen Chemie, Dr. R. Kremann, 525 ; Abhandl- 
ungen Jean Rev's, iiber die Ursache der Gewichts- 
zunahme von Zinn und Blei beim Verkalten, Ernst 
Ichenhauser and Max Speter, 527; Luminous Paint. 
R. G. Durrant, "Jso ; Absorption of Helium in Salts and 
Minerals, Prof. A. Piutti, 543 ; Batteries with Antimony 
and Antimony Selenides, H. Pelabon, 55s ; Reduction of 
Oxide of Iron by Solid Carbon, G. Charpy and S. 
Bonnerot, 555 ; Presence of a .Small Quantity of Carbon 
Monoxide in the Air of Coal Mines, P. Mahler and 
J. Denet, 555 ; see also British Association 

Cheshire and Liverpool Bay, the Vertebrate Fauna of, 
175 

Chick (Harriettp), Process of Disinfection by Chemical 
Agencies and Hot Water, 469 

Cholera and its Control, 239 

Cholnoky (E. v.), Resultate der Wissenschaftlichen Untcr- 
suchungen des Balaton, das Eis Balatonsees, 299 

Chree (Dr. Charles), Atmospheric Electricity, 51.^ ; So- 
called " Sudden Commencements " of Magnetic Storms, 

Christian Topography of Cosmas Indicopleustes, the, 

133 

Christy (Miller), a History of the Mineral Waters and 
Medicinal Springs of the County of Essex, 361 

Chronology : Reforms of the Calendar, Prof. Forster. 36.S 

Chronometry : Suggested Bill making Greenwich Time 
Compulsory in Paris, 81 ; Greenwich Watch and 
Chronometer Trials, 210; Comparison of Two Astro- 
nomical Pendulums with the Aid of Electrical Signals 
Transmitted by a Submarine Cable of Great Length, 
K. Bourgeois, 456 

Church Congress, Heredity at the, 431 ; Dr. G. E. Shuttle- 
worth, 431: Mrs. Pinsent, 431; Bishop of Ripon, 431; 
W. C. D. Whetham, 431 

Churches, Lightning and the, Alfred Hands, 238 

Chwolson (O. D.), Trait6 de Physique, 65 

Clark (A. H.). New Species of Feather-star (.\ntedon) 
from the Adriatic, 150 ; Proisocrinus ruberrimus, a New 
Genus and Species of Stalked Crinoid from the Philip- 
pines. t;47 

Clark (F. IL), American Engine-houses and their Appli- 
ances, ii;5 

Clark (J. E.), a Brilliant Meteor on October 23, 1544 

Clark (John Willis), Death of, 468 ; Obituary Notice of, 
Dr. Sidney F. Harmer, F.R.S., .i;oi 



Clarke (Frank Wigglesworth), the Constants of Nature, 
Part v., a Recalculation of the Atomic Weights, 207 

Clausmann (P.), .Action of Iron and its Oxides, at a Red 
Heat, on Carbonic Acid, 64 ; Action of Mixtures of 
Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen, or of Carbon Dioxide 
and Hydrogen, upon the Oxides of Iron, 196 

Clement (J. K.), Measurements of the Heat Transmitted 
through a Steel Tube of ij-inch External Diameter, 
with Walls J-inch Thick, from Steam Outside to Water 
Inside running through the Tube, 18 

Clerk (Dugald), Principles of Mechanical Flight, 515 

Climates, Reports on, 377 

Clutterbuck (W. J.), Great Lu-Chu Island, iSo 

Coal, Increase in Germany's Imports of British, 24S 

Coal Mining, First Steps in, Alexander Forbes, 492 

Coal Tar and Ammonia, Prof. George Lunge, ib6 

Cobbett (Dr.), " Grouse Disease," 48; Absence of Tubercle 
Bacilli from Old Tuberculojs Lesions, 63 

Cockayne (Dr. L.), Celmisia spectabiUs, 160 

Cockburn (Sir John), Growth of Sanitary Science, 313 

Cockerell (Prof. T. D. A.), Bees of the Genus Nomia, 49 ; 
Plant-remains from the Cretaceous of Mesa Verde, 89 ; 
the Fur Trade, 428 

Cocos-Keeling Atoll, 432; Dr. F. Wood-Jones, 528; the 
Reviewer, 529 

Coe (H. L), Manganese in Cast Iron and the N'olume 
Changes during Cooling, 440 

Coggia (M.), Observations of the Comet igiod (Metcalf, 
.\ugust g, 1910), 261 

Cohen (E.), Alleged Allotropy of Lead, 316 

Coker (Prof.), Cyclical Changes of Temperature in a Gas- 
engine Cylinder near the Walls, 553 ; Optical Determina- 
tion of Stress, 554 

Cole (Prof. Grenville A. J.), Causal Geology, Prof. E. H. 
Schwarz, 397 

Coleman (Prof. A. P., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.), Opening 
.'\ddress in Section C at the Meeting of the British 
.Association at ShelTield, the History of the " Canadian 
Shield," 333; Various Subdivisions of the Pre-Cambrian. 
Rocks, 443 

Colgate (Mr.), Crystallographic Examination of Twenty- 
nine Derivatives of the /j-Dihalogenbenzenesulphonic 
Acids, 403 

Collin (Eugene), Nature of the Wick of a Punic Lamp, 
132 

Collinge (W. E.), Wild-bird Protection, 156 

Coloration in the .Animal Kingdom, Concealing, Gerald H. 
Thayer, 532 

Colour : Colour of the Sea, J. Y. Buchanan, F R.S., 87 ; 
A Manual of Dyeing, Prof. E. Knecht, C. Rawson, and 
Dr. R. Loewenthal, 295 ; the Colours and Spectrum of 
Water, T. W. Backhouse, 530 

Colour-blindness, Tests for. Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green, 
495 ; the Reviewer, 49.^ 

Colour-blindness and Colour-perception, Dr. F. W. 
Edridge-Green, 263 

Colour-vision, R. M. Deeley, 267 

Colour-vis"ion at the Ends of the Spectrum, on, Rt. Hon. 
Lord Rayleigh, O.M., F.R.S., 204 

Colour-vision, Tests for, 208; Commander D. Wilson- 
Barker, 303 

Coloured Stars between the Pole and 60° N. Declination, 
Herr Kriiger, 439 

Colver-Glauert (E.), Sulphurous .Acid as an Etching Agent 
for Metallographic Work, 440 

Comets : Halley's Comet, Dr. James Moir, 9 ; Dr. Wolf. 
TO : Prof. Seeligcr, 19 ; M. Eginitis, 19, 52 ; Comas 
Sola. 10 ; M. Nordmann, 10 : Mr. Leach, 19 ; Dr. 
Ebell, ";2 ; Prof. Fowler, !;2 ; Father Iniguez, s;2 : Hcrr 
V. d. Pahlen, S6 ; Dr. Ristenpart, 86 ; G. Millochau 
and H. Godard. 120; Prof. Frost, 152; Mr. Mother- 
well, 183 ; Prof. Barnard, 188, 322 ; Mr. Helmcken, 
1S4; Father Stein, 184: Herr Sykora, 322; Dr. Hart- 
mann, 322 ; M. .Antoniadi, 322 ; K. Saotome, 322 ; Drs. 
Cowell and Crommelin, 322 ; M. Iwanow, 322 ; Mr. 
Merfield, 322 ; Messrs. Crawford and Meyer, 322 ; Mr. 
Slocum, 323 ; Earth-current Observations in Stockholm 
during the Transit of Halley's Comet on May 19, D. 
Stenquist and E. Petri, 9; Further Observations of 
Hnllev's Comet, Michie Smith and John Evershed, 374: 
C. D. Perrine, 374; Velocities and Accelerations of the 



4, 19IO J 



Index 



Ejecta from Halley's Comet, Profs. Barnard and Lowell, 
404 ; J. Comas Sola, 404 ; Time of the Solar 
Transit of Halley's Comet, 472 ; Photographs of More- 
house's Comet, Messrs. Hirayama and Toda, 19; 
Kphemeris for Comet igioa. Prof. Kobold, 10; Prof. 
Barnard, 19 ; Observations of Comet 1910a, Dr. Karl 
Bohlin, 272 ; Prof. Ricco, 472 : a New Comet, Rev. J. H. 
Metcalf, 213; Mr. Burton, 213; Metcalf's Comet, 1910b, 
249, 273 ; M. Guillaume, 249 ; Dr. Kobold, 249, 344, 507 ; 
Prof. Pickering, 344 ; M. Ov.enisset, 507 ; Observations 
of Comets, Dr. Max Wolf, 213; Photographs of Daniel's 
Comet 1907^, Prof. Barnard, 249 ; Rediscovery of 
D'Arrest's Comet (1910c), M. Gonnessiat, 317; Observa- 
tion of the D'.Arrest Comet at the Observatory of Algiers, 
M. Gonnessiat, 324; M. Baillaud, 324 ; Search-Ephemerides 
for Comets 18S9 V. (Brooks) and 1890 \\\. (Spitaler), Dr. 
Bauschinger, 317; F. Hopfer, 317; Rediscovery of 
Brooks's Periodical Comet (1SS9 V.), Messrs. Aitken and 
Wilson, 438; Definitive Elements for Comet 1852 IV., 
.Adolf Hnatek, 344; Search-Ephemerides for Westphal's 
Comet, 1852 IV., A. Hnatek, 545 ; the Passage of the 
Earth through the Tail of the 1S61 Comet, R. Baer, 344; 
Observations of Comets, M. Gonnessiat, 404 ; Mr. Innes, 
404 ; the Luminosity of Comets, W. L. Dudley, 439 ; 
Comets and Electrons, Prof. Righi, 507 

Compton (R. H.), Accident in Heredity, 63 ; Right- and 
Left-handedness in Barley, 63 

Concealing Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, Gerald H. 
Thayer, 532 

Concrete, a Concise Treatise on Reinforced, C. F. Marsh, 
35S 

Concrete-Steel Construction, Prof. Emil Morsch, 35S 

Conference, the International Cancer, at Paris, 54,'; 

Conference on Tuberculosis, the Ninth International, 507 

Congress, Library of, a List of Geographical Atlases in the 
Library of Congress, with Bibliographical Notes, 325 

Congresses : the First International Congress of Entomo- 
logy, 214; the Fifth International Congress of Photo- 
graphy, 215; International Congress ot Anatomists at 
Brussels, 252 ; the International Zoological Congress at 
Graz (August 15-20, 1910), 318; the Third International 
Congress of School Hygiene at Paris, August 2-7, 1910, 
320; International Congress of Pharmacy. 354; the 
Geological Congress at Stockholm, 440; the Inter- 
national Congress of Radiology and Electricity, 478 ; the 
International Scientific Congress at Buenos Aires, Prof. 
C. D. Perrine, 509 

Conklin (Prof.), Power of Regulation in Echinoderm Eggs, 

319 
Conorhinus, the Blood-sucking, J. D. H., 172 
Conseil (E.), Properties of the Serum of Convalescents and 

Animals Cured of Exanthematic Typhus, 456 
Consumption, the Crusade against, 374 
Cook (Mr.), Experimental Investigation of the Strength 

of Thick Cylinders, 554 
Cook (O. F.), Systematic Position of the Tropical American 

Genus Phytelephas, 151 
Copeman (Dr. S. M., F.R.S.), on the Nature, Uses, and 

Manufacture of Ferro-Silicon, with Special Reference to 

Possible Danger arising from its Transport and Storage, 

53 ; Ferro-Silicon, 519 
Coquillett (D.), Type-species of North American Genera of 

Diptera, 547 
Cora (Prof. Guido), Meteors and Bolides, 317 
Coral and Atolls, F. Wood-Jones, 432 
Cordite, 109 

Core (Prof. T. H.), Death of, 47 
Cornu (F.), " Hydrogelen im Mineralrelche," 375 
Cortie (Father A. L.), Brilliant Meteor of July 31, 204 
Cosmas Indicopleustes, the Christian Topography of, 133 
Cosmogony : Scientific Papers, Sir George Howard Darwin, 

K.C.B., F.R.S., ?35 
Cossar (James), Midlothian District, 552 
Cotton (L. A.l, Ore-deposits of Borah Creek, New England, 

N.S.W., 422 
Coward (Dr. H. F.), Production of Methane by the Direct 

L'nion of Hydrogen with Carbon, 248 
Coward (T. .X.), the Mammals and Birds of Cheshire, 17s ; 

the Reptiles and, .Amphibians of Cheshire, 175 
Cowell (Dr.), Hallev's Comet, 322 
Cox (Harry W.), Death of, 47 ' 



Cox (W. Herbert), a New Italian Orchid, 104 

Crampton (Prof.), Distribution of Species of Partula, 319 

Crawford (Mr.), Halley's Comet, 322 

Crawley (A. E.), Totemism and Exogamy : a Treatise on 
Certain Early Forms of Superstition and Society, Prof. 
J. G. Frazer, 31 ; Town-planning, 498 

Cretaceous Plants, Studies on the Structure and Affinities 
of. Dr. Marie C. Stopes and Prof. K. Fujii, 129 

Cromer (Lord), Value of Research in Medicine, 541 

Crommelin (Dr.), Halley's Comet, 322 

Crooke (W., B.A.), Opening Address in Section H at the 
Meeting of the I5ritish Association at Sheffield, 414 

Cross (Dr. W.), the Natural Classification of Igneous Rocks, 
29 

Crowther (J. A.), Scattering of Homogeneous ^ Rays and 
the Number of Electrons in the Atom, 61 ; Number of 
Electrons in the Atoms, 514 

Crustacea : New Species of Amphipod Crustacean, G. C. 
Embody, 149 ; Guide to the Crustacea, Arachnida, Ony- 
chophora, and Myriopoda Exhibited in the Department of 
Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), 171 ; Am- 
phipod Crustaceans of Bermuda and the West Indies, 
Dr. W. B. Kunkel, 180 ; Catalogue of the Indian 
Decapod Crustacea in the Collection of the Indian 
Museum, Lt.-Col. A. Alcock, F.R.S., 524 

Crystallography : the Chemical .Significance of Crystal 
Structure, Prof. William J. Pope, F.R.S., at Royal 
Institution, 187; Crystallographic Examinations of 
Twenty-nine Derivatives of the f-dihalogenbenzenesul- 
phonic Acids, Prof. Armstrong and Messrs. Colgate and 
Rodd, 403 
Cunningham (Lieut. -Colonel Allan), the Theory of Numbers, 

514 
Curie (Madame), Isolation of Pure Radium, 313; Metallic 

Radium, 356; Isolation of Metallic Radium, 478 
Curve Tracing and Curve Analysis, A. P. Trotter, 40 
Cushman (J. A.), a Monograph of the Foraminifera of the 
North Pacific Ocean, 265 ; Collection of Arenaceous 
Foraminifera obtained by the Alhatross during her Recent 
Cruise in the Philippines, 547 
Customs at Holy \\'ells, Zorah Godden, 429 
Cuthbertson (Wm.), Pansies, Violas, and Violets, 326 
Cyanogen, the Spectrum of, Comte de Gramont and M. 

Drecq, 344 
Cytology: the Plant Cell, its Modifications and Vital Pro- 
cesses, H. A. Haig, 36 



Dabbene (Roberto), Catalogo Sistematico y Descriptivo de 
las Aves de la Republica Argentina, 427 

Dakin (Dr. Wm. J.), British Marine Zoology, 396 ; the 
Biologv of Teleost and Elasmobranch Eggs, 550 

Dakyns" (John Roche), Death of, 46S 

Dalby (Prof. W. E., M.A., M.lnst.C.E.), Opening Address 
in Section G at the Meeting of the British Association at 
Sheffield : British Railways : Some Facts and a Few 
Problems, 407 ; Measurement of the Air Supply to a Gas- 
engine Cylinder, 554 

Dalgliesh (G.), Limitations of Species and Races of the 
Yellow-necked Field-mouse, 180 

Dallimore (W.), Tree Plantations in Inverness-shire, 470 

Daly (Dr. R. -A.), Average Chemical Compositions of 
Igneous-rock Types, 376; Origin of Augite-.Andesite, 376; 
Pre-Cambrian Fauna, 442 

Dalziel (Dr. J. M.), Botanical Resources of Yola Province, 
Northern Nigeria, 50 

Daniel's Comet 1907^, Photographs of. Prof. Barnard, 249 

Danilov (A. N.), Lichens, 117 

Darboux (M.), Measurements of the Exact Volume of the 
Kilogram of Water, 456 

Darling (Dr. S. T.), Factors in the Transmission and Pre- 
vention of Malaria in the Panama Canal Zone, 401 

Darton (Mr.), the Laramie Basin in South-Eastern 
Wyoming, 121 

Darwin (Erasmus), on Flying Machines, 370 ; Arthur Piatt, 

397 
Darwin (Sir George Howard, K.C.B., F.R.S.), Elementaire 
Theorie der Getijden — Getij-Constanten in den Indische 
Archipel, Dr. J. P. van der Stork, 144; Scientific Papers, 
235 



Index 



[.v.. 



Davenport (C. B.), Inheritance of Characteristics in Domes- 
tic Fowl, z^T, 
Davis (Dr. J. Ainsworth), Science in Modern Life, Zoology, 

464 
Davis (Captain J. K.), Voyage of the Niiiirod from 

Sydney lo Monle \'ideo, 551 
Dawson (P.), Electrification of the London, Brighton, and 

South Coast Railway between Victoria and London 

Bridge, 553 
Debicrne (A.), Atomic Weight of the Radium Emanation, 

03; Isolation of Pure Radium, 313; Metallic Radium, 356 
Dcchy (Dr. von). Glacial Erosion, 442 
Dee as a Wildfowl Resort, the, John A. Dockray, 175 
Deeley (li. M.), Colour-vision, 267 
Definite Proportions, the Law of, 364 
Deimler (T.), Physiologische Studien im Hochgebirgc, 

\'ersuche ijber den repiratonschen Stoffwechsel im 

Hochgebirge, 369 
Dcmeny (M.), Physical Training, 320 
Dcmoussy (E.), Toxic Qualities of Certain Salts towards 

Green Leaves, 131 
den Broeck (Ernest van). Conditions of Effective Filtration 

of the Underground Waters in Certain Chalk Forma- 
tions, 422 
Dendy (Prof. A.), Structure, Development, and Morpho- 
logical Interpretation of the Pineal Organs and Adjacent 

Parts of the Brain in the Tuatara (Sphenodon punctaius), 

61 
Denet (J.), Presence of a Small Quantity of Carbon Mon- 
oxide in the Air of Coal Mines, 555 
Denning (W. F.), Present Meteoric Displays, 105 ; Perseid 

Meteoric Shower, igio, 204; the Perseid Meteoric 

Shower, 248 ; Fireball of September 2, 364 ; a Brilliant 

Meteor on October 23, 544 
der Stork (Dr. J. P. van), Elementaire Theorie der 

Gctijden — Getij-Constanten in den Indische Anchipel, 144 
Derbyshire, H. H. Arnold-Bemrose, 426 
Derjugin (K.), Fauna of the Kola Fjord, 505 
Derry (Dr. D. E.), the Archa:ological Survey of Nubia, 406 
Desalme (J.), Theory of Development, 215 
Desch (Dr. C. H.), Some Common Defects occurring in 

Alloys, 421 
Dcslandres (H.), Phenomena Presented by the Tail of 

Halley's Comet during the Passage o-f May 19 last, 163 ; 

Properties of the Polar Filaments of the Sun, 228 
Determination of Position near the Poles, Mr. Hinks, 19 
Deutsche Sudpolar-Expcdition, igoi-3, die Grundproben der 

Deutschen Si,jdpolar-Expedition, igoi-3, E. Philippi, 167 
Deville (E.), Photo-surveying in Canada, 215 
Devon and Dorset Coast, the South, Sidney Heath, 138 
Devonshire, F. A. Knight and Louie M. Dutton, 426 
Dew Deposit upon Lens Surfaces, Prevention of, Franklin 

Adams, 52 
Dirkins (F. Victor), the New School of Japan, Founded 

for the Purpose of Making the Use of the Newly Invented 

Letters, 7 
Diels (Dr. L.), Formations and Flora-elements in the 

North-west of Cape Colony, 160 
Diener (Prof. C), Marine Lower Triassic Formations of 

the Himalayas, 159 ; Fauna of the Traumatocrinus 

Limestone of Painkhanda, 159 
Digby (W. P.), Tests of the Electrical Conductivity of the 

Water, 373 
Dillcr (J. S.), the Taylorsville Region at the North End of 

the Sierra Nevada in California, 121 
Dines (Mr.), Records from the Upper Atmosphere Obtained 

during Passage of the Earth through the Tail of Halley's 

Comet, 516 
Disease, House-flies and. Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, 73 
Distant Lands, H. J. Mackinder, 426 
Distribution of Weeds, 547 . 
Dixon (Prof. H. B.), Explosion of Hydrogen and Chlorine 

by Light, 517; the Ignition of Gases by Adiabatic Com- 
pression, 553 
Dixon (W. E.), Action of Potash Salts taken by the Mouth, 

63 
Doberck (Dr.), a New Micrometer, 439 
I')ockray (John .A.), the Dee as a Wildfowl Resort, 175 
Doflein (Prof. Franz), Tierbau und Tierleben in ihrcm 

Zu^amnicn hang betractet, 538 
Dominici (Dr.), Radium Treatment, 153 



Doncaster (Mr.), the Colours of Insect Larvae, 550 
Donkey Hybrid, an Interesting, R. I. Pocock, 329 
Donkin (Dr. H. B.), Some Aspects of Heredity in Relation 

to Mind, Harveian Oration at Royal College of 

Physicians, 541 
Dorrien-Smith (Capt. .\. A.), Botanical Excursions in 

Chatham Island, 160 
Dorset, A. L. Salmon, 426 

Dorset Coast, the South Devon and, Sidney Heath, 13S 
Double Stars, Measures of, Prof. Burnham, 152 ; Dr. Lau, 

317 ; Mr. Sellors, 507 
Douvill^ (Henri), Formulion of the Loam of the Plateaux, 

-■iSS 
Downing (Dr.), New Ephemerides for Saturn, Uranus, and 

Neptune, 472 
Doyen (M.), Use of Thermo-electric Baths without Altera- 
tion of Normal Tissue, 98 
Drecq (M.), the Spectrum of Cyanogen, 344 
Driesch (Hans), Zwei Vortrage zur Naturphilosophie, 294 
Drummond (J. M. F.), Science in Modern Lif';, Botany, 464 
Drysdale (Dr. C. V.), the Foundations of Alternate-current 

Theory, 6 
Du Sablon (Leclerc); the Ascent of Sap, 98 
du Toit (A. L.), Evolution of the River System of Griqua- 

land West, 158 
Duane (William), Evolution of Heat in a Mixture of 

Radium and a Phosphorescent Salt, 196 ; the Energy of 

the Radium Rays, 262 ; Arrangement for Registering 

Photographically the Number of a Particles Emitted by 

a Radio-active Substance, 316 
Duckworth (Dr. W. L.), Collection of Human Bones 

Found on the .Site of an Augustinian Friary near the 

Corn Market, Cambridge, 16 
Dudley (W. L.), Luminosity of Comets, 439 
Duefias (E. T.), the Provinces of Tayacaja, Angaraes, and 

Huancavelica, 217 
Dufferin (Lord), Letters from High Latitudes, being Some 

Account of a Voyage in 1856 in the Schooner-yacht 

Foam to Iceland, Jan Mayen, and Spitzbergen, 202 
Duggar (Prof. B. M.), Fungous Diseases of Plants. 233 
Durrant (R. G.), Luminous Paint, 530 
Diisseldorf, the International Congress at, 20 
Dutch Meteorological Work in the East, 159 
Dutton (Louie M.), Devonshire, 426 
Dyeing, a Manual of. Prof. E. Knecht, C. Rawson, and 

Dr. R. Loewenthal, 291; 
Dynamics : Innsbrucker Fohnstudien, iv., Weitere Beitrage 

zur Dynamik der Fohns, Dr. H. v. Ficker, 368 
Dyson (Prof. F. W., F.R.S.), Astronomy, a Handy Manual 

for Students and Others, 393 



Eagle (.Albert), Practical Spectroscopy, 159 

Eardley-Wilmot (S.), Indian State Forestry, 56 

Earth, the Passage of the, through the Tail of the iSiii 
Comet, R. Baer, 344 

Earthquakes : Earthquake in Sicily, 15 ; the California 
Earthquake of .April 18, iqo6, vol. ii., the Mechanics of 
the Earthquake, Harry F. Reid, Prof. John Milne. 
F.R.S., 165; the Jamaica Earthquake, Sir D. Morris, 
K.C.M.G.,'239 

Eastbourne, " Mock Suns " at, Mrs. A. M. Butler, 374 

Ebell (Dr.), Halley's Comet, 52 

Eccles (Dr. W. H.), Energy Relations of Certain Detectors 
used in Wireless Telegraphy, 195 

Eclipses : the Next Total Eclipse of the Sun, Dr. William 
J. S. Loclfyer, 7^ ; the Total Solar Eclipse, May 9. 1910, 
Dr. William J. S. Lockver, 113; the Total Solar Eclipse 
of April 28, 1911, Dr. Pio Emanuelli, 172 

Economic Biologists, Association of, 156 

Edible and Poisonous Fungi, 361 

Edinburgh Royal Society, 30, 07, 227 

Edridse-Green (Dr. F. W.), Rel.ation of Light Perception 
to Colour Perception, 62 ; Colour-blindness and Colour- 
perception, 261 ; Tests for Colour-blindness, 495 

Edser (E.), Light and Sound, \\' S. Franklin and Barry 
Macnutt, 103 

Education : Death of R. Russell, 14 ; the Association of 
Technical Institutions, qo ; Examinations for Evening 
Students, 90 ; Trade Schools and Trade Preparatory 



Jink: 



Schools, 90 ; the Position of University Education in 
Great Britain, W. Runciman, 91 ; Suggestions for the 
Consideration of Teachers and Others Concerned in the 
Work of PubUc Elementary Schools, 220 ; Broad Lines in 
Science Teaching, 254 ; the Third International Congress 
of School Hygiene at Paris, August 2-7, 1910, 320; 
Uniformity of Method in Medical Inspection, Ur. James 
Kerr, 320; Open-air Schools, Dr. Newfert, 320; Dr. 
Mumford, 320; Physical Training, Dr. Digby Bell, 320; 
M. Dtmeny, 320 ; Discovery of a Trustworthy Mathe- 
matical Formula which shall Determine the State of 
Nutrition of a Child in Relation to Physical .Measure- 
ments, Prof. Guttman, 320; Fatigue in School Children, 
Dr. Janala, 320; Inattention, Prof. Schuyten, 320; the 
Reform of 0.\ford University, 331 ; Medical Education in 
the United States and Canada, Abraham Flexner, 332 ; 
Opening of the Medical Session, 479 ; see also British 
Association 

Edwards (C. A.), Theory of Hardening Carbon Steels, 440 

Eggar (W. D.), a Manual of Geometry, 138 

Kginitis (Prof. D.), Halley's Comet, 19, 52; Some Pheno- 
mena shown by Halley's Comet after its Passage Across 
the Sun, 64 

Egypt : the Year-book of the Khedii-ial Agricultural 
Society, Cairo, igog, 184 ; Studies of Egyptian Cotton, 
Lawrence Ball, 184 

Egyptology : the Funeral Papyrus of loniya, Edouard 
Xaville, 237 ; Earlv Burial Customs in Egypt, Prof. G. 
Elliot Smith, F.R^S., 461, S2g ; Prof. W. M. Flinders 
Petrie, F.R.S., 494 

Ehrenhaft (Dr. F.), Ultra-microscopic Method of Measur- 
ing the Electric Charges carried by Small Particles, 182 

Elderton (W. Palin), Mortality of the Tuberculous in 
Relation to Sanatorium Treatment, 371 

Electricity : the Foundations of Alternate-current Theory, 
Dr. C. y. Drysdale, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 6 ; Static 
Charge in Bicycle Frame, Robert S. Ball, jun., 9 ; 
Leitfaden zum elektrotechnischen Praktikum, Dr. G. 
Brion, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 67; Experimental Study of 
Fulgurites, Prof. R. W. Wood, 70 ; Electrical Discharge 
Figures, Prof. W. Lermantoff, 72 ; Prof. Alfred W. 
Porter, 73 ; Distribution of Power from the Niagara 
Falls, 84 ; Notes on the Electric Smelting of Iron and > 
Steel, Dr. W. F. Smeeth, 103 ; Renewal of Sulphated ! 
Storage Cells, J. O. Hamilton, n8 ; Treatment of Storage i 
Cells, Dr. Bertram B. Boltwood, 174 ; Ultra-microscopic 
Method of Measuring the Electric Charges carried by 
Small Particles, Dr. F. Ehrenhaft, 182 ; Energy Rela- 
tions of Certain Detectors used in Wireless Telegraphy, 
Dr. W. H. Eccles, 195 ; Lightning and the Churches, 
Alfred Hands, 238 ; JDeterminations of the Effects of 
Atmospheres of Various Vapours on the Volt-ampere 
" Characteristic Curves " of the Carbon Copper Arc, M. 1 
Kimura and K. Yamamoto, 248 ; Electrical and other 
Properties of Sand, Charles K. S. Phillips at Royal 
Institution, 25^ ; Tests of the Electrical Conductivity of 
the Water, W. P. Digby, 37'? ; the International Congress 
of Radiology and Electricity, 47S ; New Electric Generat- 
ing Station at the Northampton Polytechnic Institute, 544 

Elemental Weight .'\ccurately a Function of the Volution 
of Best Space-symmetry Ratios, H. Newman Howard, 
71. 239 

Elkin (William L.), Parallax Investigations on Thirty-five 
Selected Stars, 433 

Elliot (G. F. Scott), Botany of To-dav, 146 

Ellis (T. S.), Winding Course of the River Wve, 83 

Ellison (Rev. W. F. A.), Meteoric Fireballs, 318 

Emanuelli (Dr. Pio), the Total Solar Eclipse of April 28, 
1911, 172 

Embody (G. C), New Species of .\mphipod Crustacea, 149 

Embryology : Die Saugetierontogenese in ihrer Bedeutung 
flit die Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere, Prof. A. A. W. 
Hubrecht, 134 ; Development of Aphysia punctata, A. M. 
Carr Saunders and Margaret Poole, 504 

Emerson (Dr. F. V.), Manual of Physical Geography, 201 

Engeln (O. D. von), a Laboratory Manual of Physical 
Geography, 201 

Engineering : Relative Merits of the Various Oil- and Air- 
cooling Devices, R. D. Gifford, 18 ; Measurements of the 
Heat Transmitted' through a Steel Tube of ij-inch 
External Diameter, with Walls ^inch thick, from Steam 



Outside to Water Inside running through the tube, J. K. 
Clement and C. M. Garland, 18 ; Rules for Internal- 
combustion Engines for -Marine Purposes, 18; the Design 
and Construction of Internal Combustion Engines, Hugo 
GiJldner, 197; Diesel Oil Engine Fitted to Three Fairly 
Large Vessels, 506 ; Novel Features Possessed by a Set 
of Internal-combustion Engines, 506; Diversity of Pub- 
lished Results of Compressive Tests on Cubes of Con- 
crete, 19 ; a Concise Treatise on Reinforced Concrete, 
C. F. -Marsh, 358 ; Concrete-steel Construction, Prof. 
Emil Mcirsch, 358 ; 11 Cemento Armato e la sua applica 
zione practica, Cesare Presenti, 358 ; Le Prove dei 
Material! da Construzione e le Construzione in Cemento 
-Armato, Giulio Revere, 358 ; New -Armoured Concrete 
Viaduct at Rotterdam, 373 ; the International Congress at 
Dusseldorf, 20 ; Floating Dock for the Brazilian Govern- 
ment, 84 ; -Aerial-propeller Testing Plant at Vickers' 
Works, 85 ; Aeroplanes fitted with the Gnome Rotary 
Engine, 119; the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 
154; Running-shed Practice, Cecil W. Paget, 155; 
Handling Locomotives at Terminals, F. M. White, 155 ; 
American Engine-houses and their Appliances, F. H. 
Clark, 155 ; Arrangements of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
at East Altoona, W. Forsyth, 155 ; Pooling System, 
H. H. Vaughan, 155 ; Tooth Gearing, J. D. Stevens, 155 ; 
Interchangeable Involute Gearing, Wilfrid Lewis, 155 ; 
Electrification of Railways, F. W. Carter, 155 ; Com- 
parison between Systems Employing Series Wound, Con- 
tinuous-electricity Train-equipments and the Single-phase 
System, H. M. Hobart, 155 ; Extended Distribution of 
Electricity for Industrial Purposes, G. Westinghouse, 155 ; 
Development of Apparatus for Higher Voltage Direct- 
current, W. B. Potter, 155 ; Electrification of Trunk 
Lines, L. R. Pomeroy, 155 ; the Maintenance and Ad- 
ministration of Roads, 160; Systems of Road Administra- 
tion, L. W. Page, 162; Death of Oscar Guttman, 179; 
Caissons for the New Foundations of the Quebec Bridge, 
183 ; Hydroplane Miranda IV., Sir John Thornycroft, 183 ; 
International Road Congress, 213 ; Torpedo-boat De- 
stroyers for Brazilian Government, 248 ; Rust-preventing 
Properties of Protective Coatings for Structural Steel, CM. 
Chapman, 272 ; die Kraftmaschinen, C. Schiitze, 295 ; Death 
of C. A. Brereton, 340; Tests of the Electrical Conduc- 
tivity of the Water, W. P. Digby, 373 ; Science in Modern 
Life, vol. vi.. Engineering, J. W. French, 395 ; Photo- 
graph of Submarine " D i," 403; Progress of the Great 
Barren Jack Dam in Australia, 403 ; Arrest of Steam 
Ships either by Reversing the Engine or by Allowing to 
Slow Down by F"riction of the Water, E. Bertin, 421 ; 
the Perfilograph, Augustus Mercau, 434; Trials of H.M. 
Second-class Cruiser Bristol, 438 ; Portsmouth Water 
Works, 471 ; the White Star Liner Olympic, 544; see also 
British Association 
Entomology: the Giant Moth-borer, J. J. Quelch, 17; 
the Clover Root-borer, Mr. Webster, 18; the Large Corn- 
stalk-borer, Mr. Ainslie, 18; a Synopsis of the Orthoptera 
of Western Europe, Dr. Malcolm Burr, 39 ; Death of 
Prof. Cyrus Thomas, 47 ; Bees of the Genus Nomia, Prof. 
T. D. A. Cockerell, 49 ; Gipsy Moth Parasite Laboratory, 
49 ; Parasites of the Sugar-Cane Borer {Sphenophorus 
obscurus, 50 ; Notes on the Procession of Cnethocampa 
pinivora, H. H. Brindley, 62 ; House-flies and Disease, 
Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, 73 ; the House-fly, Musca domes- 
tica Linnaeus : a Study of its Structure, Development, 
Bionomics, and Economy, Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, 202 ; 
Ticks and other Blood-sucking Arthropoda of Jamaica, 
R. Newstead, 83 ; Determinate Evolution in the Colour- 
pattern of "Lady-beetles," R. H. Johnson, 116; Life- 
history and the Means of Controlling the Hop Flea-beetle, 
W. B. Parker, 117; Catalogue of British Hymenoptera 
of the Family Chalcidse, Claude Morley, 138 ; the Blood- 
sucking Conorhinus, J. D. H., 172 ; the Genus Synthemis 
(Neuroptera : Odonata), R. J. Tlllyard, 196 ; New Species 
of Carabldse, T. G. Sloane, 196; the First International 
Congress of Entomology, 214; New Spider, Erigone 
capra. Dr. A. R. Jackson, 246; a Bomberx Preying on 
the Glossina of Dahomey, E. Rouband, 292 ; Experiments 
with Silkworms, R. Inoue, 371 ; New Genera and Species 
of Cullcids, F. V. Theobald, 407 ; Protest against Un- 
necessary Subdivision and Splitting in the Culicidae, E. 
Brunette, 407 ; the Death-dealing Insects and their 



Index 



Story, C. Conyers Morrell, 526 ; Type-species of North 
American Genera of Diptera, D. Coquillctt, 547 

Eiitviis (Baron L.j, Resultate der VVissenschaftlichen Unter- 
suchungen des Balaton, Die Niveauflache des Balatonsees 
und die Veranderungen der Schwerkraft auf dieseni, 290 

Epiphyses, Fractures and Separated, A. J. Walton, Frank 
Ronier, 361 

Erdman (Prof. Hugo), Death of, 46 

Ernahrung der Wassertiere und der Stoffhaushalt der 
Gewasser, Die, Prof. August Putter, 5 

Eros, Results from Micrometric Observations of, igoo, Mr. 
Hinks, 181 

Erzlagerstatten, Lehre von den. Dr. R. Beck, 198 

Eskimos, Contributions to the Ethnology and Anthropogeo- 
graphy of the Polar, Dr. H. P. Steensby, 443 

Essex, a History of the Mineral Waters and Medicinal 
Springs of the County of. Miller Christv and May Thresh, 
361 

Etherton (Lieut. P T.), Journey from India through Gilgit, 
Hanza, across the Pamirs, and thence by Chinese Turke- 
stan, Mongolia, and Siberia to the Trans-Siberian Rail- 
way, 552 

Ethnography : the Castes and Tribes of Southern India, 
Edgar Thurston and K. Rangachari, 365 ; Handbook to 
the Ethnographical Collections, 536 

Ethnology : the Takelma Language, F. Sapir, 16 ; With a 
Prehistoric People : the .Akikuyu of British East Africa, 
W. Scoresby Routledge and Katherine Routledge, Sir 
H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.B., K.C.B., 41 ; Death of ProL 
Cyrus Thomas, 47 ; Notes on the Origin of the Hausas, 
Capt. A. J. N. Tremearne, jS ; Customs and Folk-lore 
of the Natives of the Upper Yukon, Alaska, Capt. F. 
Schmitter, Si ; Notes on Some Bushmen, Dr. L. P^rin- 
guey, gS ; the Ethnology, Botany, Geology, and Meteor- 
ology of German East Africa, Sir H. H. Johnston, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 106; Lacustrine Culture, S. A. 
Barnett, 116; Mundari Poetry, Father J. Hoffmann, 185; 
Unknown Region in New Guinea's Inhabitants, Dr. 
H. A. Lorentz, 269 ; the Machyengas, W. C. Farabee, 
314; Contributions to the Ethnology and Anthropogeo- 
graphy of the Polar Eskimos, Dr. \\. P. Steensby, 443 ; 
the Melanesians of British New Guinea, Dr. C. G. Selig- 
mann, S. H. Ray, 499 

Eugenics: " Natin-e and Nurture," Prof. Karl Pearson, 149 

Evans (Dr. A. J.), "Tomb of the Double Axes," 401 

Evans (E. J.), Recoil qf Radium B from Radium A, 516 

Evans (Dr. J. W.), An Earthquake Model, 29; Model to 
Illustrate the Movements along the Line of the San 
.Andreas Fault during the Recent Californian Earth- 
quake, 442 ; Pre-Cambrian Fauna, 442 

Evans (T. J.), the .Anatomy and Physiology of Calma 
glaucoides, 549 

Evershed (John), Further Observations of Halley's Comet, 

374 

Evolution : the Evolution of Worlds, Prof. Percival Lowell, 
William E. Rolston, gg ; Determinate Evolution in the 
Colour-pattern of " Lady-beetles," R. H. Johnson, 116 

Ewart (Prof. J. C, F.R.S.), Lord Morton's Quagga 
Hybrid and Origin of Horses, 328, 494 

Ewen (Donald), Shrinkage of Antimony-lead Alloys and of 
the Aluminium Zinc Alloys during and after Solidifica- 
tion, 421 

Exogamy, Totemism and, a Treatise on Certain Early 
Forms of Superstition and Society, Prof. J. G. Frazer, 
A. E. Crawley. 3 

Explosives: Cordite, 109 

Extinct Monsters and Creatures of Other Days, Rev. H. N. 
Hutchinson, 459 



Fabry (Prof. E.), Problimes et E.xerciccs dc MathcJ'm.atiqut's 
g^nirales, 8 

Fahlberg (Dr. Charles), Death of, 313 

Falconer (Dr. J. D.), Origin of some of the More Charac- 
teristic Features of the Topography of Northern Nigeria, 

Fantham (Dr. H. B.), Coccidia and Coccidiosis in Birds, 

,^48 
I-'arabee (W. C), the Machyengas, 314 
Farmer (Dr. R. C), Gas-calculator Designed by, 51 
Farming, a Manual of Practical, John McLennan, 38 



Feather Element, an Undescribed, Fredk. J. Stubbs, 329 ; 

W. P. Pycroft, 436; Prof. R. V. Lendenfeld, 436 
Fermat's Theorem, Dr. H. C. Pocklington, F.R.S., 531 
Fermor (H. Leigh), Memoirs of the Geological Survey in 
India, the Manganese-ore Deposits of India, 12S; 
Various Subdivisions of the Pre-Cambrian Rocks, 443 
Fernow (Bernard E ), the Care of Trees in Lawn, Street, 

and Park, 423 
F'errar (H. T.), Creation of an Artificial Water-table in 

Egypt. 343 
Ferro-silicon, on the Nature, Uses, and Manufacture of, 
with Special Reference to Possible Danger arising from 
its Transport and Storage, Dr. S. M. Copeman, F.R.S., 
S. R. Bennett and Dr. H. Wilson Hake, Prof. A. 
McWilliam, 53 
F^ry (Prof. C), Spectrograph with a Prism having 
Spherical Faces so designed that the Image of the Slit 
is in Focus on the Photographic Plate, 343 ; a Successful 
Attempt to Simplify the Long-range Spectrograph to 
Make it Suitable for Industrial Investigations concern- 
ing Metals, Alloys, &c., 516 
Fessenden (Prof.), Utilisation of Solar Radiation, Wind 
Power, and other Intermittent Natural Sources of 
Encg.v. .S54 
Feucht (Otto), die schwiibische Alp, 395 
Ficker (Dr. H. v.), Innsbrucker Fbhnstudien, iv., Weitere 

Beitriige zur Dynamik der Fohns, 368 
Fields (Prof. J. C), the Theory of Ideals, 514 
Figee (Dr. S.), Royal Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observatory at Batavia, Report on Cloud-observations at 
Batavia made during the International Cloud-year 1896-7 
and Subsequent Years, 249 
Filchner (Lieut.), Date of .Antarctic Expedition, 400 
Fire Tests with Textiles, 364 ; Leonard Parry, 429 
Fireball of September 2, Edmund J. Webb, 303 ; W. F. 

Denning, 364 
Fireballs, Meteoric, Rev. W. F. .A. Ellison, 318; Rev. 

J. C. W. Herschel, 318 
Fischer (Prof. Theobald), Death of, 400 
Fisheries : Science in Modern Life, Science and the Sea 
Fisheries, Dr. J. Travis Jenkins, 464; the Lancashire 
Sea-fisheries Laboratory, 548 ; Measurements of some 
55,000 Plaice from the District, James Johnstone, 548 
Fishes : Life-history and Habits of the Salmon, Sea-trout, 
Trout, and other Fresh-water Fish, P. D. Malloch, 168; 
the Fishes of Cheshire and Liverpool Bay, James John- 
stone, 175 ; Movements of Turbot and Plaice, 341 
Fishing : Norwegian and other Fish Tales, Bradnock Hall, 

bg 
Fleig (C), Experimental Ocular Action of the Dust on 

Tarred Roads, 456 
Fleming (Mrs.), Announcement of a Nova, 472 
Flemwell (G.), .Alpine Flowers and Gardens, Painted and 

Described, 37 
Flexner (.Abraham), Medical Education in the United States 

and Canada, 332 
Flint (W. R.), Complexity of Tellurium, 438 
Floquet (Paul), Comparison of the Different Methods of 

Measuring the Dielectric Current, 390 
Flower Pollination, Handbook of, Dr. P. Knuth, 66 
Fbhns, Innsbrucker Fohnstudien, iv., Weitere Beitrage zur 

Dynamik der. Dr. H. v. Ficker, 368 
Folk-lore : Luck of the Horse-shoe, Dr. A. Smythe-Palmer, 
180; Strange Myth of Theseus and the Minotaur, Andrew 
Lang, 246 
Fondard (L.), Composition of Carnations with Flexible 

.Stems and Rigid Stems, 292 
Foot (Constance M.), Insect Wonderland, 464 
Foraminifera of the North Pacific Ocean, a Monograph of 

the, J. A. Cushman. 265 
Forbes (.Alexander), First Steps in Coal Mining, 492 
Forest Flora of the Bombay Presidency and Sind, W. A. 

Talbot, 170 
Forestry : Berrya amnwnilla and Plerocarpus macrocarpus, 
55 ; Best Season for Coppice Fellings of Teak, R. S. Hole, 
56 ; Dipterocarp Trees in the Philippine Forests, H. N. 
Whitford, 56 ; Indian State Forestry, S. Eardley-W'ilmot, 
56; Selection of Seed, Dr. N. Sylvcn, 56; Beech Forests 
in Sweden, E. Wibeck, 56; the Jequid Manicoba Rubber 
Tree, R. Thomson, 56; Pine Forests of the Landes, 
J. H. Ricard, 84; Schlich's Manual of Forestry, Sir Wm. 



'"■"■"■'' 1 

fiiwii 24, 1910J 



Index 



Schlich, K.C.I.E., l-'.R.S., 137; Protection of Timber 
against White Ants, 342 ; Results of Trials in Inverness- 
shire with Belgian System of Tree Planting on Turfs, 
Sir John Stirling-Maxwell, 372 ; Tree Plantations in 
Inverncss-shire, VV. Dallimore, 470 ; New Type of Resin 
Collector, J. S. Woolsey, jun., 402 ; State Nurseries and 
Plantations in New Zealand, 505 ; Trees and Timber 
540 ; Distinguishing Characters of the Trees in the 
Cierman Cameroons, Dr. M. Biisgen, 546; Fissibility o' 
some Indian Woods, R. S. Troup, 547 ; Prospects of thi 
Match Industry in the Indian Empire, R. S. Troup, 547 
New Trees and Shrubs, W, J. Bean, 547 

Korster (Prof.), Reforms of the Calendar, 36S 

Forsyth (W.), Arrangements of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
at East .AUoona, 155 

Fossil Plants, Some Recent Studies of, 473 

I'^ossil Plants : a Te.\t-book for Students of Botany and 
Geology, Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., 490 

Fossil Vertebrates in the .American Museum of Natural 
History, 12 

Fossils : British Fossils, loi ; Leitfossilien, ein Hilfsbuch 
zum Bestimmen von Versteinerungen bei geologischen 
.\rbeiten in der Sammlung und im Felde, Prof. Georg 
Zurich, 200 

Fournier (E. E.), Wonders of Physical Science, idS 

Fournier (G. and V.), Observations of Mercury, 213 

Fowler (Prof.), Hallcy's Comet, 52 

F'raas (Dr. E.), Skeletons of Plesiosaurians from the Upper 
Lias of Holzmaden, 82 

Fractured and Separated Epiphyses, A. J. Walton, Frank 
Romer, 361 

Frankland (W. B.), Theories of Parallelism, an Historical 
Critique, 169 

Franklin (W. S.), Light and Sound, 103 

Eraser (Dr. F. W. D.), Death of, 468 

F'razer (Prof. J. G.), Totemisni and Exogamy, a Treatise 
on Certain Early Forms of Superstition and Society, 31 

French (J. W.), Science in Modern Life, vol. vi.. Engineer- 
ing. 395 

Freytags (Gustav), Kullur- und Geschichtspsycologie, Dr. 
Georg Schridde, 294 

Friedal (G.), Lchmann's .Anisotropic Liquids, 228 

Friend (Rev. Hildcric), Ooze and Irrigation, 39, 70; the 
Habits of Worms, 397 

Friend (H.), Wild Flowers and How to Identify Them, 460 

l-'riend (Dr. J. N.), Corrosion of Iron and Steel, 510 

Fritsche (Dr. H.), die Saecularen Aenderungen der 
Erdmagnetischen Elemente, 373 

Frohawk (W.), Feeding Habits of the Razor-bill, 378 

Frost (Prof.), the Determination of Stellar Radial 
Velocities, 86; Halley's Comet, 152; the Sun's Velocity 
through Space, 272 

Fuchs (R. F.), Physiologische Studien im Hochgebirge : 
Versuche iiber den repiratorischen Stoffwechsel im 
Hochgebirge, 369 

I'uol and Refractory Materials, Prof. A. H. Sexton, Prof. 
.A. McWilliam, 392 

Fugger (Prof. E.), Newly Discovered Ice-cave near 
Obertraum, 469 

Fujii (Prof. K.), Studies on the Structure and Affinities of 
Cretaceous Plants, 129 

F'ulgurites, Experimental Study of, Prof. R. W. Wood, 70 

Funeral Papyrus of loniya, the, Edouard Naville, 237 

Fungi : Edible and Poisonous Fungi, 361 ; Guide to Mr. 
Worthington Smith's Drawings of Field and Cultivated 
Mushrooms and Poisonous or Worthless Fungi often 
Mistaken for Mushrooms, Exhibited in the Department 
of Botany, British Museum (Natural History), 361 

Fungous Diseases of Plants, Prof. B. M. Duggar, Prof. 
E. .S. .Salmon, 233 

Fur Trade, the. Prof. T. D. A, Cockerell, 42S 



Gadow (Dr. H.), Nature and Meaning of the Colours of 

Birds, 378 
Gadow (Dr. H. F., F.R.S.), Coral Snakes and Peacocks, 

548. 
Galitzin Seismograph, the, 219 

Galle (Prof. J. G.)j Death and Obituary Notice of, 45 
Gall^ (Dr. P. H.), Wind and Current Observations, 343 
Gardening : the Educational Value of the School Garden, 



220 ; the Calendar of Garden Operations, 26b ; the 
Carnation Year-book, 1910, 460; Gardening Difficulties 
Solved, 460; Leitfaden fiir gartnerische Pflanzenzuchtung, 
M. Lbbner, 460; Wild FTowers and How to Identify 
Them, H. Friend, 460 

Gardner (Prof. Walter .M.), Tinctorial Chemistry, Ancient 
and Modern, 5b 

Garland (C. M.), Measurements of the Heat Transmitted 
through a Steel Tube of i-J-inch External Diameter, with 
Walls g-inch thick, from Steam Outside to Water Inside 
Running through the Tube, iS 

Garstang (Prof. Walter), the Colours of Insect Larv^, 549 

Gases, lonisation of, and Chemical Change, Dr. H. 
Brereton Baker, F.R.S., at Royal Institution, 388 

Gases, the Pressure of Light on, Dr. Lebedew, 86 

Gatty (R. A.), Pit-dwellings in the District of Holderness, 
16 

Gaubert (Paul), Soft Crjstals and the Measurement of iheir 
Indices of Refraction, 356 

Gaudechon (Henry), Mechanism of Photochemical Reactions 
and the Formation of Plant Principles, ig6 ; Photo- 
chemical Decomposition of the Alcohols, Aldehydes, 
-Acids, and Ketones, 262 

Gaupp (Prof.), Affinities of the Mammalia as Deduced by 
the Study of the Skull, 319 

Gauss and Non-Euclidean Geometry, Prof. H. S. Carslaw, 
362 

Gauthie (F.), Composition of Carnation with Flexible Stems 
and Rigid Stems, 292 

Gautier (.Armand), Action of Iron and its Oxides, at a 
Red Heat, on Carbonic Acid, 64; Action of Mixtures of 
Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen, or of Carbon Dioxide 
and Hydrogen, upon the Oxides of Iron, 196 

Geary (H.), Bees for Profit and Pleasure, 464 

Geer (Prof, de), the Geochronology of the Last 12,000 
Years, 440 

Geiger (Dr. H.), Properties of the a Particles Sent Out by 
Radio-active Substances, 213 

r) Geminorum, the Recent Occultation of, by Venus, M.M. 
Baldet, Qu^nisset, and .Antoniadi, 317 

Genth (Dr. Frederick A., jun.). Death of, 370 

Geodesy : Death of Prof. A. P. Sokolpff, 46 ; Probable 
Exactness of Different Evaluations of the Altitude o£ 
Lake Chad, C. H. Lalleniand, 64 

Geography: Rivers of Dacca District, F. D. Ascoli, 30; 
the Economic Geography of Bolivia, Prof. Isiah Bowman, 
118; Across A'unnan, Archibald Little, 177; Great Lu-Chu 
Island, W. J. Clultcrbuck, 180 ; Trans-Himalaya, Dr. 
Felix Oswald, 180 : .Manual of Physical Geography, Dr. 
V. V. Emerson, 201 ; a Laboratory Manual of Physical 
Geography, Prof. R. S. Tarr and O. D. von Engeln, 

201 ; Letters from High Latitudes, being some .Account 
of a Voyage in 1856 in the Schooner-yacht Foam to 
Iceland, Jan Mayen, and Spitzbergen, Lord Dufferin, 

202 ; Coast of Southern Peru and the Pampas West of 
the Andes, V. F. Marsters, 217 ; the British Isles in 
Pictures, H. Clive Barnard, 23S ; On and Off Duty in 
Annam, Gabrielle M. Vassal, J. Thomson, 243 ; Docu- 
ments scientifiques de la Missioji Tilho (1906-1)), Sir 
H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 244: Lake Edward, 
kuwenzori, and the Uganda-Congo Frontier, 267 ; Death 
of Prof. Pedroso, 313; Library of Congress, a List of 
(-ieographical Atlases in the Library of Congress, with 
Bibliographical Notes, 325 ; Exploration of the Region 
Westward from Davis Inlet to George River, Prof. 
MacMillan, 340 ; Home-work Atlas of Maps in Black and 
White, 395 ; Death of Prof. Theobald Fischer, 400 ; 
Distant Lands, H. J. Mackinder, 426 ; a First Book of 
Physical Geography, W. M. Carey, 426 ; a Physio- 
graphical Introduction to Geography, Prof. A. J. Herbert- 
son, 426; an Economic Atlas, J. G. Bartholomew, 426; 
Devonshire, F. .A. Knight and Louie M. Dutton, 436; 
Dorset, A. L. Salmon, 426; Derbyshire, H. H. Arnold- 
Bemrose, 426 ; a Systematic Geography of Asia, G. W. 
Webb, 426 ; Physical and Commercial Geography, Profs. 
H. E. Gregory, A. G. Keller, and .A. L. Bishop, 4C0 • 
Exploration in Western Labrador, Prof. Raymond 
McFarland, 468 ; Land of the Incas, Sir Clements R. 
Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., 470: Royal Scottish Geo- 
graphical Society's Medal Awards, 502 ; Recent Nor- 
wegian Explorations in Spitzbergen, 503 ; Exploration in 



Index 



China, A. de C. Sowerby, 504 ; Elementary Regional 
Geography, Great Britain and Ireland, J. B. Reynolds, 
527 ; Cambridge County Geographies, Nottinghamshire, 
Dr. H. H. Swinnerfon, Lanarkshire, Frederick Mort, 
527 ; sec also British Association 
Geology: " Les Variations p^riodiques des Glaciers," Prof. 
E. Bruckner and E. Muret, 17; the International Con- 
gress at Dijsseldorf, 20 ; Geological Society, 29 ; Natural 
Classification of Igneous Rocks, Dr. W. Cross, 29 ; the 
Denudation of the Western End of the Weald, H. Bury, 
29; the Yakutat Bay Region, Alaska, Ralph S. Tarr, 76; 
Areal Geology, R. S. Tarr and Bert S. Butler, 76; the 
Geology and Ore Deposits of Goldfield Nevada, F. L. 
Ransome, 76 ; Landslides in the San Juan Mountains, 
Colorado, including a Consideration of their Causes and 
Classification, E. Howe, 76 ; on a Theory that a Connec- 
tion between Africa and South America Persisted into 
the Tertiary, Dr. A. E. Ortmann, 89; the Ethnology, 
Botany, Geologv, and Meteorology of German East 
Africa, Sir H. 'H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 106; 
Recent Work of Geological Surveys, IV. : the United 
States, 121 ; the Laramie Basin in South-eastern 
Wyoming, Messrs. Darton and Siebenthal, 121 ; the 
Taylorsville Region at the North End of the Sierra 
Nevada in California, J. S. Diller, 121 ; Western Arizona, 
W. T. Lee, 121 ; the " Manzano Group," W. T. Lee, 121 ; 
Glacial History of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains, 
W. W. .Atwood, 122 ; the Guadalupian Fauna of New 
Mexico, G. H. Girty, 122 ; Ore Deposits of the Coeur 
d'.Al^ne District, Idaho, Messrs. Ransome and Calkins, 
122 ; Pioneer Work in Southern Oregon, G. A. Waring, 
122 ; History of the Salton Sea, W. C. Mendenhall, 122 ; 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey in India : the Man- 
ganese Ore Deposits of India, H. Leigh Fernior, 128; 
Extinct Geyser of Waimangu, New Zealand, 148 ; Evolu- 
tion of the River System of Griqualand West, A. L. du 
Toit, 158; the Tanami Goldfield in Central Australia, 
H. Y. L. Brown, 182 ; Lehre von den Erzlagerstatten, 
Dr. R. Beck, 198 ; Leitfossilien : ein Hilfsbuch zuni 
Bestimmen von Versteinerungen bei geologischen 
Arbeiten in der Sammlung und im Felde, Prof. Georg 
Gijrich, 200 ; Expedition .Antarctique Beige, R^sultats du 
Voyage du s.y. Belgica en 1897-8-9, sous le Commande- 
ment de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports scientifiques, 
Geologie-Petrographische Untersuchung der Gesteins 
proben, A. Pelikan, 205 ; Die Polarwelt und ihre Nach- 
barlander, O. Nordenskjbld, 236; Note on " Verneuk 
Pan," Dr. A. W. Rogers, 262; Analyses of Rocks and 
Minerals made in the Laboratory of the U.S. Geological 
Survey during 1880-1908, 271 ; the Ore Deposits of South 
.Africa, J. P. Johnson, 293 ; the Geology of Ore Deposits, 
IL H. Thomas and D. A. MacAlister, 293 ; Death of 
Prof. William H. Niles, 370, 468 ; Stagnant Glaciers, 
G. W. Lamplugh, F.R..S., 297; Causal Geology, Prof. 
E. H. L. Schwarz, Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole, 397 ; Con- 
ditions of Effective Filtration of the Underground Waters 
in certain Chalk Formations, Ernest van den Broeck 
and E. A. Martel, 422 ; Geology, Prof. J; W. Gregory, 
426 ; Tectonic Development of the Armenian Highlands, 
Dr. Feli.x Oswald, 437 ; the Geological Congress at Stock- 
holm, 440; the Geochronology of the Last 12,000 Years, 
Prof, de Geer, 440 ; Influence of Applied Geology and the 
Mining Industry upon the Economic Development of the 
World, Prof. Van Hise, 441 ; Iron Ore Supplies, M. 
Lindman, 441 ; Prof. Sjogren, 441 ; Prof. Beyschlag, 441 ; 
M. de Launay, 441 ; Prof. J. F. Kemp, 441 ; Prof. J. W. 
Richards, 441 ; Glacial Erosion, Prof. Penck, 441 ; Prof. 
Hiigbom, 441 ; Prof. WahnschaPfe, 441 ; Prof. Reusch, 

441 ; Dr. Becker, 442 ; Dr. Nordenskjold, 442 ; Prof. 
.Salomon, 442 ; Dr. von Dechy, 442 ; Prof. Wahnschaffe, 

442 ; Prof. Helm, 442 ; Prof. Hogbom, 442 ; Prof. E. 
Stolley, 442 ; Prof. Reusch, 442 ; Prof. Penck, 442 ; Pre- 
Cambrian Fauna, Prof. Barrois, 442 ; Dr. Sederholm, 442 ; 
Prof. Rothpletz, 442 ; Dr. J. W. Evans, 442 ; Dr. R. A. 
Daly, 442 ; Profs. Sollas and Steinmann, 442 ; Prof. 
Walther, 442 ; Model to Illustrate the Movements along 
the Line of the San Andreas Fault during the Recent 
Californian Earthquake, Dr. Evans, 442 ; the Fracture 
Systems of the Earth's Crust, Prof. Hobbs, 442 ; Advance 
of Glaciers in Alaska as a Result of Earthquake Shaking, 
Prof. Tarr, 442 ; Pre-Cambrian Geology, 442 ; Various 



.Sub-divisions of the Pre-C.imbrian Rocks, W. G. Miller, 
442 ; Prof. Coleman, 443 ; Dr. Sederholm, 443 ; Prof. Van 
r-lise, 443 ; Mr. Fermor, 443 ; Geological and Archaeo- 
logical Notes on Orangia, J. P. Johnson, 465; Death of 
John Roche Dakyns, 468 ; Newly Discovered Ice-cave 
near Obertraun, Prof. E. Fugger, 469; United States 
Geological Survey, Contributions to Economic Geology, 
part ii. Coal and Lignite, -M. R. Campbell, 511 ; the 
Ketchikan and Wrangell Mining Districts, Alaska, F. E. 
Wright and C. W. Wright, 511; .Mineral Resources of 
the Kotsina-Chitina Region, Alaska, F. H. Moffit and 
A. G. Maddren, 511 ; Mineral Resources of Alaska, A. H. 
Brooks, 511; Contributions to Economic Geology, part i, 
Metals and Non-metals except Fuels, C. W. Hayes and 
W. Lindgren, 511 ; Papers on the Conservation of .Mineral 
Resources, 511 ; Formation of the Loam of the Plateaux, 
Henri Douvill^, 551; ; see also British Association 

Geometry : a First Course in Analytical Geometry, Plane 
and Solid, with Numerous Examples, C. N. Schmall, 136; 
a Manual of Geometry, W. D. Eggar, 138 ; Elementary 
Projective Geometry, A. G. Pickford, 136; Theories of 
Parallelism : an Historical Critique, W. B. Frankland, 
169 ; the Early History of Non-Euclidean Geometry, 
D. M. Y. Sommerville, 172 ; Gauss and Non-Euclidean 
Geometry, Prof. H. S. Carslaw, 362 

Geophysics : Scientific Papers, Sir George Howard Darwin, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., 235 

Gernez (D.), Colours Arising in Colourless Solutions of 
Coloured Bodies at the Moment of the Solidification of 
the Colourless Solvent, 164 

Ghose (A.), Manganese-ore Deposits of the Sandur State, 406 

Gibson (H.), Dew-ponds on the Thorpe Downs, Berkshire, 
246 

Gifford (R. D.), Relative .Merits of the Various Oil- and 
Air-cooling Devices, 18 

Gilkinet (Prof. A.), Expedition Antarctique Beige, R^sultats 
du Voyage du s.y. Belgica en 1897-8-9, sous le Com- 
mandement de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports scien- 
tifiques, Quelques Plantes Fossiles des Magellaniques, 205 

Girty (G. H.), the Guadalupian Fauna of New Mexico, 122 

Glaciers, Stagnant, G. W. Lamplugh, F.R.S., 297 

Glamorgan, Arthur's Round Table in. Rev. John Griffith, 8 

Glasgow Institute of Metals, 421 

Glinka (Prof.), Russian Soils, 157 

Gnomon in .Ancient Astronomy, the, Jules Sagaret, 120 

Godard (H.), Halley's Comet, 120 

Godden (Zorah), Customs at Holy Wells, 429 

Godwin-Austen (Lieut. -Col. H. H.J, Land and Fresh-water 
Mollusca of India, 427 

Goessmann (Dr. Charles A.), Death of, 370 

Goetz (Rev. E.), Rainfall of Rhodesia, 187 

Gold (E), Die Temperatur Verhaltnisse in der freien 
Atmosphare [Ergebnisse der internationalen unbemannter 
Ballonaufstiege], Dr. Arthur Wagner, 42 ; Royal Mag- 
netical and Meteorological Observatory at Batavia, Report 
on Cloud-observations at Batavia made during the Inter- 
national Cloud-year 1896-187 and Subsequent Years, Dr. 
S. Figee, 249 ; Volociti e Direzione delle Correnti Aeree 
alle diverse Altitudini Determinate a Mezzo del Palloni- 
Sonde e Pilote, Dr. G. Pericle, 249 ; Tables for the Reduc- 
tion of Meteorological Observations, Dr. G. C. Simpson, 
326; Results of an Investigation into the Effect of Radia- 
tion on H the Height and Te the Temperature of the 
Advective Region, 516 

Gomery (A. de Gerlache de). Expedition Antarctique Beige, 
Resultats du Voyage du s.y. Belgica on 1897-8-g, sous 
le Commandement de, 205 

Gonder (Dr. R.), Development of Piroplasma parvum 
(Protozoa) in the Various Organs of Cattle, 132 

Gonnessiat (M.), Rediscovery of D'Ai'rest Comet (igioc), 
317; Observation of the D'Arrest Comet at the Observa- 
tory of Algiers, 324 ; Observations of Comets, 404 

Goodhart (Dr. J. F.), Chronic Constipation, 153 

Goodyear (Prof. William H.), Report of Pisa Commission 
on the Leaning Tower, 471 

Gore (J. Ellard), Death of, 116 

Gorzawsky (H.), Die Familien der Primnoiden, Muricriden 
und .Acanthogorgiiden, 34 

Gottingen Royal Society of Sciences, 390, 556 

Government Laboratory, .Annual Report of the, 405 

Gramont (Comte de), the Spectrum of Cyanogen, 344 



:..o] 



Inde. 



Grandjean (F.), Lehmann's Anisotropic Liquids, 228 

Graphischen Chemie, Leitfaden der, Dr. R. Kreniann, 525 

Gray (H. St. George), Excavations at the Glastonbury Lal<n- 
village, 82 

Gray (R. C), Magnetism of the Copper-Manganesc-Tin 
Alloys under \"arying Thermal Treatment, 97 

Gray (Dr. Robert Whytlaw), Density of the Radium Emana- 
tion, C18 ; Molecular Weight of Radium Emanation, 517 

Graz, the International Zoological Congress at, (August 
15-20, 1910), 318 

Great Britain, the Position of University Education in, 91 

Great Britain and Ireland, Elementary Regional Geography, 
J. B. Reynolds, 527 

Greek and Roman Methods of Painting : Some Comments 
on the Statements made bv Plinv and Vitruvius about 
Wall and Panel Painting, Dr. A. P. Laurie, 265 

Green (Prof. J. Reynolds, K.R.S.), a History of Botany, 
1860-1900, being a Continuation of Sach's " History of 
Botany, 1 530-1860," 391 

Greenwell (Canon), Pit-dwellings in the District of Holder- 
ness, 16 

Greenwich Watch and Chronometer Trials, 210 

Gregory (Prof. H. E.), Physical and Commercial Geo- 
graphy, 459 

Gregory (Prof. J. W., F.R.S.), Catalogue of the Fossil 
Bryozoa in the Department of Geology, British Museum 
(Natural History), 8; Geology, 426 

Gregory (W. K.), the Orders, of Mammals, 216 

Griffith (Rev. John), Royal Commission on Welsh Monu- 
ments, 404; Arthur's Round Table in Glamorgan, 8 

Griffiths (B. Millard), Pwdre Ser, 73 

Grouse and Grouse Moors, Charles Malcolm and Aymcr 
Maxwell, 466 

Grove (W. B.), Pwdre Ser, 73 ; an .Agaric with Sterile 
Gills, 531 

Grundprcben der Deutschen Siidpolar-e.xpedition, 1901— 5, 
die, E. Philippi, 167 

Griineisen (Dr. E.), Thermal E.\pansion of JNIetals, 403 

Guerrieri (Dr. E.), the Sun-spots of 1909, 317 

Guertler (Dr. W.), Metallographie, ein ausfiihrliches Lehr- 
und Handbuch der Konstitution, und der physikalischen, 
chemischen und technischen Eigenschaften der Metalle 
und metallischen Legierungen, 200 

Guichard (Marcel), Absorption of Iodine by Solid Bodies, 

132 

Guillaume (J.), Metcalf's Comet, i9iofi, 249 ; Observations 
of Metcalf's Comet, 261 ; Occultation of t; Geminorum 
by Venus, July 26, Observed at Lyons, 390 

Guillemard (H.), Observations on Animal Calorimetry made 
on Mt. Blanc, 456 

Gvildner (Hugo), the Design and Construction of Internal 
Combustion Engines, 197 

Gulf Stream Drift and the Weather of the British Isles, 
the, Dr. H. Bas.sett, 44 

Giinther (Dr. A. C), Description of Collection of Fishes 
made in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific by .Andrew 
Garrett, 402 

Giirich (Prof. Georg), Leitfossilien, ein Hilfsbuch zum 
Bestimmen von Versteinerungen bei geologischen 
Arbeiten in der Sammlung und im Felde, 200 

Guttmann (Oscar), Death of, 179 

Guttmann (Prof.), Discovery of a Trustworthy Mathe- 
matical Formula which shall Determine the State of 
Nutrition of a Child in Relation to Physical Measure- 
ments, 320 

Hackspill (L.), Electrical Resistance of the .\lkali Metals, 
164 

Haddon (Dr. A. C, F.R.S.), Antiquities of the Ouachita 
\'alley, Clarence B. Moore, 129 ; the Jesup North Pacific 
Expedition, the Kwakiutl of Vancouver Inland, Frank 
Boas, Chukchee Mythology, Waldemar Bogoras, the 
Vukaghir and the Yukaghirized Tungus, Waldemar 
Jockelson, 250 

Hague (.^.), Influence of Silicon on the Properties of Pure 
Cast Iron, 440 

Hahn (Dr.), Magnetic Deflection of /3 Rays, 478 

Haig (H. A.), the Plant Cell, its Modifications and Vital 
Processes, 36 

Hake (Dr. H. Wilson), on the Nature, Uses, and Manu- 



facture of Ferro-silicon, with Special Reference to 
Possible Danger arising from its Transport and Storage, 
53 ; Ferro-silicon, 519 

Hale (Prof. William J.), the Calculations of General 
Chemistry, with Definitions, Explanations, and Problems, 
360 

Hall (A. D., M.A., F.R.S.). Secondary Effects of Manures 
on the Soil, 219; Opening Address in Sub-section of B 
at the Meeting of the British .Association at Sheffield, 309 

Hall (Bradnock), Norwegian and other Fish Tales, 69 

llall (Richard N.), Prehistoric Rhodesia, 32 

Halley's Comet, Dr. James Moir, 9; Dr. Wolf, 19; Prof. 
Seeliger, ig ; M. Eginitis, 19, 52 ; Comas Sola, 19 ; M. 
Nordmann', 19 ; Mr. Leach, ig ; Dr. Ebell, 52 ; Prof. 
Fowler, 52 ; Father Iniguez, 52 ; Herr v. d. Pahlen, 85 ; 
Dr. Ristenpart, 86; G. Millochau and H. Godard, 120; 
Prof. Frost, 152 ; Mr. Motherw^ell, 183, Prof. Barnard, 
183, 322; Mr. Helmcken, 1S4 ; Father Stein, 184; Herr 
Sykora, 322 ; Dr. Hartmann, 322 ; M. Antonidi, 322 ; 
K. Saotome, 322 ; Drs. Cowell and Crommelin, 322 ; N. 
Iwanow, 322 ; Mr. Merfield, 322 ; Messrs. Crawford and 
Meyer, 322 ; Mr. Slocum, 323 ; Earth-current Observa- 
tions in Stockholm during the Transit of Halley's Comet 
on May 19, D. Stenquist and E. Petri, g ; Further 
Observations of Halley's Comet, Michie Smith and John 
Evershed, 374 ; C. D. Perrine, 374 ; Velocities and 
Accelerations of the Ejecta from Halley's Comet, Profs. 
Barnard and Lowell, 404; J. Comas Sola, 404 ; Time of 
the Solar Transit of Halley's Comet, 472 

Halley Meteors, Prof. David Todd, 439 

Hamilton (J. O.), Renewal of .Sulphated Storage Cells, 118 

Hands (.Alfred), Lightning and the Churches, 238 

Hann (Dr. J.), Meteorology of Peru, 377 

Hansen (H. J.), Expedition Antarctique Beige, R^sultats du 
Voyage du S.Y. Belgica en 1897-8-9, sous le Commande- 
ment de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports scien- 
tifiques, Zoologie-Schizopoda and Cumacea, 205 

Happiness, the Science of. Dr. H. S. Williams, 202 

Hardenburg (W. E.), System of " Wireless Telegraphy " 
in Use among the Indian Tribes of the Putumayo River, 
436 

Harley (Rev. Robert, F.R.S.), Death of, 148; Obituary 
Notice of, 210 

Harmer (Dr. Sidney F., F.R.S.), Death and Obituarj 
Notice of John Willis Clark, 501 

Harper (Harry), Practical Chemistry, 360 

Harrison (Frank), Our Teeth, 237 

Hart (Dr. D. Berry), \'alidity of the Mendelian Theory, 22S 

Hartert (Dr.), Nomenclature of some British Birds, 504 

Hartmann (Dr.), Halley's Comet, 322 

Hartmann (M.), Cytology of the Flagellata, 504 

Hartog (Prof.), Sex and Immunity, 549 

Harvard College Observatory, Prof. E. C. Pickering, 86 

Hastings (Somerville), Summer Flowers of the High .Alps, 
37 

Hausas, Notes on the Origin of the, Capt. A. J. N. 
Tremearne, 58 

Hayes (C. W.), Contributions to Economic Geology, Part i., 
Metals and Non-metals except Fuels, 511 

Hayhurst (Mr.), Examination of the Atmosphere at various 
Altitudes for Oxides of Nitrogen and Ozone, 119 

Health Progress and .Administration in the West Indies, 
Sir Rubert W. Boyce, F.R.S., 174 

Heat : the Temperature Coefticients of the Ferromagnetic 
Metals, Dr. J. R. Ashworth, 238 

Heath (Sidney), the South Devon and Dorset Coast, 13.S 

Heawood (Edward), the Uganda-Congo Boundary, 531 

Heckel (Edouard), Action of Cold and .Anaesthetics upon 
the Leaves of Atigraeciim pagrans and the Green Husks 
of Vanilla, gS 

Hegels Asthetik im Verhaltnis zu Schiller, A. Lewkowitz, 
294 

Heim (Prof.), Glacial Erosion, 442 

Heinricher (Prof. E.), die Aufzucht und Kultur der 
Parasitischen Samenpflanzen, 327 

Helbronner (.A.), New Researches on the Sterilisation of 
Large Quantities of W'ater by the Ultra-violet Rays, 556 

Hellmann (Prof.), Results of the Exposure of Thermo- 
meters in Windows and in Screens, 17-8 ; Climate of 
Berlin, 377 

Helmcken (Mr.), Halley's Comet, 183 



Index 



[.w. 



Helmholtz, cine Zeitschrift fiir die exakten Wissenschaflen 
mit besonderer Bcriiclcsichtigung ihrer Anwendung, 237 

Hcmsalech (G. A.), Relative Duration of the Lines of the 
Spectrum emitted by Magnesium in the Electric Spark, 
556 

Henri (Victor), Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon 
Certain Carbohydrates, 164 ; New Researches on the 
Sterilisation of Large Quantities of Water by the Ultra- 
violet Rays, 556 

Hens, How to Keep, for Profit, C. S. Valentine, 13S 

Hepburn (J. S.), Chemistry of the Sugars, 403 

Herbertson (A. J., M.A., Ph.D., Professor of Geography in 
the University of Oxford), Opening Address in Section E 
at the Meeting of the British Association at Sheffield, 
Geography and some of its Present Needs, 383 ; a 
Phvsiographical Introduction to Geography, 426 

Hcid'man (Prof. \\'. A., E.R.S.), British Marine Zoology, 
329, 396, 462 

Heredity : the Laws of Heredity, G. Archdall Reid, Sir 
W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., i ; Determina- 
tion of the Chief Correlations between Collaterals in the 
Case of a Simple Mendelian Population Mating at 
Random, E. C. Snow, 61 ; Accident in Heredity, F. J. M. 
Stratton and R. H. Compton, 63 ; Validity of the 
Mendelian Theory, Dr. D. Berry Hart, 228 ; Chromo- 
somes and Heredity, Prof. T. H. Morgan, 246; Inherit- 
ance of Characteristics in Domestic Fowl, C. B. Daven- 
port, 253; Heredity at the Church Congress, 431; Dr. 
G. E. Shuttleworth, 431 ; Mrs. Pinsent, 431 ; Bishop of 
Ripon, 431 ; W. C. D. Whetham, 431 ; Hormones in 
Relation to Inheritance, Prof. Gilbert C. Bourne, F.R.S., 
462 ; Some Aspects of Heredity in Relation to Mind, 
Harveian Oration at Royal College of Physicians, Dr. 
H. B. Donkin, 541 

Herissey (Prof. H.), Preparation of Pure Arbutine, 228; 
Chemical Method of Obtaining the True Glucoside 
Arbutin, 354 

Herrick (Prof. F. H.), Instinct and Intelligence in Birds, 
378 

Herschel (Rev. J. C. W.), Meteoric Fireballs, 31S 

Hcrtwig (Prof. R.), Lehrbuch der Zoologie, 234 

Hesse (Prof. Richard), Tierbau und Tierleben in ihrem 
Zusammenhang betraclet, i., der Tierkorper als 
selbstandigen organismus, 538 

Heurck (H. Van), E.xp^dition Antarctique Beige, R^sultats 
du Voyage du S.Y. Bclgica en 1897—8-9, sous le Com- 
mandegient de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports 
scientifiqucs, Botanique-Diatom^es, 205 

Hewitt (Dr. C. Gordon), House-flies and Disease, 73 ; the 
House-fly, Musca domestica, Linnceus, a Study of its 
Structure, Development, Bionomics, and Economy, 202 

Hewitt (J.), the Zoological Region of South Africa, 542 

Hewlett (Prof. R. T.), Standardisation of Disinfectants, 
156 

Heysingor (Dr. Isaac W.), Spirit and Matter before the 
Bar of Modern Science, 36 • 

Hicks (Prof. W. M.), the Relation of Spectra to the 
Periodic Series of the Elements, 515 

Hickson (Prof. S. J.), Place of Economic Zoology in the 
Modern University, 156 

Hiede, die, W. Wagner, 326 

Hilbert (Prof. David), Bolyai Prize Awarded to, 541 

Hildebrand (Mr.), Fish-fauna of the Chicago District, 547 

Hill (Leonard, F.R.S.), Physiologische Studien im Hoch- 
gebirge, Versuche iiber den repiratorischen Stoffwechsel 
im Hochgebirge, R. F. Fuchs and T. Deimler, 369 

Hillebrand (W. F.), Analyse der Silikat- und Karbonat- 
gesteine, 425 ; the Analysis of Silicate and Carbonate 
Rocks, 425 

Hilpert (S.), Sulphurous Acid as an Etching Agent for 
Metallographic Work, 440 ; Preparation of Magnetic 
Oxides of Iron from Aqueous .Solutions, 440. 

Himalaya, Peaks and Glaciers of Nun Kun, a Record of 
Pioneer-exploration and Mountaineering in the Punjab, 
Fanny Bullock Workman and Dr. W. H. Workman, Sir 
T. H. Holland, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., 78 

Hindle (E.), Life-history of Trypanosoma lewisi in the 
Rat-louse Haematopinus spinulosus, 150 

Hindu Chemistry from the Earliest Times to the Middle 
of the Sixteenth Century a.d., with Sanskrit Texts, &c., 
a History of, Prof. Praphulla Chandra Ray, 68 



Hinks (Mr.), the Determination of Position near the Poles, 
19 ; Results from Micrometric Observations of Eros, 
1900, 184 
Hinterlechner (Dr.), Eruptive Rocks of Ihe Bohemian 

Eisengebirge, 377 
Hirayama (Mr.), Photographs of Morehouse's Comet, 19 
Hise (Prof, van), Influence of Applied Geology and the 
Mining Industry upon the Economic Development of the 
World, 440 ; Various Sub-divisions of the Pre-Cambrian 
Rocks, 443 
Hittite Discovery, Recent, D. G. Hogarth, 318 
Hnatek (Adolf), Definitive Elements for Comet 1852 IV., 
344; Search-Ephemerides for Westphal's Comet 1832 IV., 
54s 
Hobart (H. M.), Comparison between Systems Employing 
Series W'ound, Continuous-electricity Train-equipments 
and the Single-phase System, 155 
Hobbs (Prof.), the Fracture Systems of the Earth's Crust, 

442 

Hobson (Prof. E. W., Sc.D., F.R.S.), Opening Address in 

Section A at the Meeting of the British Association at 

Sheffield, 284 ; Present State of the Theory of Integral 

Equations, 514 

Hodges (Dr. .\. P.), Uganda Sleeping-sickness Camps, 315 

Hodson (F.), Influence of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion, 

Solubility, and Solution Pressures of Steel, 519 
Hoffmann (Father J.), Mundari Poetry, 185 
Hogarth (D. G.), Recent Hittite Discovery, 31S 
Hogbom (Prof.), Glacial Erosion, 441, 442 
Hole (R. S.), Best Season for Coppice Fellings of Teak, 56 
Holland (Sir T. H., K.C.I.E., F.R.S.), Peaks and Glaciers 
of Nun Kun : a Record of Pioneer-exploration and Moun- 
taineering in the Punjab Himalaya, Fanny Bullock Work- 
man and Dr. W. H. Workman, 78 
HoUey (Dr. C. D.), Lead and Zinc Pigments, 325 
Hollis (E.), European Hedgehog, 437 
HoUis (H. P.), Chats about Astronomy, 393 
Holt (E. W. L.), Report of a Survey of the Trawling 
Grounds on the Coasts of Counties Down, Louth, Meath, 
and Dublin, 394 
Holy Wells, Customs at, Zorah Godden, 429 
Holz, Das, H. Kottmeier and F. Uhlmann, 326 
Honda (Kotaro), the Law of Variation of the Coeflficient of 
Specific Magnetisation of the Elements of Heating, 

324 

Hood (G. F.), a First \ ear's Course of Inorganic Chem- 
istry, 266 

Hooper (D.), Medicinal Lizards, 30 

Hopfer (F.), Search-Ephemerides for Comet iSgo VII., 
Spitaler, 317 

Hopkinson (Prof.), Radiation from Gases in a Closed Com- 
bustion Chamber, 553 

Hormones in Relation to Inheritance, Prof. Gilbert C. 
Bourne, F.R.S., 462 

Horses, Lord Morton's Quagga Hybrid and Origin of 
Dun, Prof. James Wilson, 328, 494; Prof. J. C. Ewart, 
F.R.S., 328, 494 

Horwood (.\. R.), Ooze and Irrigation, 40 

Hosseus (Dr. C. C), tultivation in Dalmatia of the Spine- 
less Variety of Cactus, 372 

House-flies and Disease, Dr. C. Gordon Hewitt, 73 

House-fly, Musca domestica, Linnseus : a Study of its Struc- 
ture, Development, Bionomics, and Economy, Dr. C. 
Gordon Hewitt, 202 

Houston (Dr.), Results of the Chemical and Bacteriological 
Examination of London Waters, 212; Metropolitan Water 
Examinations, 246 

Houston (Dr. R. A.), Spectrophotometer of the Hiifner 
Type, 513 

Houstoun (R. A.), Aqueous Solutions of Ferrous .\mmonium 
Sulphate Form a Good Filter for Stopping Heat Rays, 
182 

Hovey (Edmund O.), Large Meteorites, 152 

Howard (H. Newman), Elemental Weight Accurately a 
Function of the Volution of Best Space-symmetry Ratios, 

71. 239 
Howard (Mr. and Mrs.), Tobacco produced in India, 15: 
Howard (Mr.), Fruit Experiments, 247 
Howe (E.), Landslides in the San Juan Mountains, 

Colorado, including a Consideration of their Causes and 

Classification, 76 



.o] 



Index 



Howe (Prof. H. M.), Allotropy or Transmutation, 518: 
Closing and Welding of Blow-holes in Steel Ingots, 518 

Hubbard (Dr. J. C), Curious Visual Phenomenon Resulting 
from Stimulation of the Macular Region of the Retina, 
148 

Ilubrecht (Prof. A. A. W.), die Saugetierontogenese in 
ihrer Bedcutung (iir die Phylogenie der Wirbeltiere, 134 

Hudson (O. F.). the Heat Treatment of Brass, 421 

Hughes (Prof. T. McKenny, K.R.S.), Pwdre Ser, 171, 46? 

Hull (A. F. Basset), Description of a Fossil Chiton (Mol- 
lusca) from North-w-est Tasmania, 522 

Hume (M.), Psychism, 103 

Humphreys (Prof.), Radiation and .Absorption, 52 

Hunterian Lectures at Royal College of Surgeons: the 
.Anatomy and Relationship of the Negro and Negroid 
Races, Prof. .Arthur Keith, 54 

Hutchinson (Rev. H. N.), E.\tinct Monsters and Creatures 
of Other Days, 459 

Huygens (Christiaan), CEuvres Completes de, 491 

Hybridisation : the Origin of the Domestic " Blotched " 
Tabby Cat, H. M. Vickers, 29S, 331 ; R. J. Pocock, 298; 
Lord Morton's Ouagga Hybrid and Origin of Dun 
Horses, Prof. James Wilson, 328, 494 ; Prof. J. C. Ewart, 
F.R.S., 328, 494 ; an Interesting Donkey Hybrid, R. J. 
Pocock, 329 

Hydrography : the Gulf Stream Drift and the Weather of 
the British Isles, Dr. H. Bassett, 44 ; Hydrographical 
Work Carried on by the Marine Biological Station at 
San Diego, G. F. McEwen, 82 ; Colour of the Sea, J. Y. 
Buchanan, F.R.S., 87; Elementaire Theorie der Getijden- 
Getij-Constanten in den Indische Archipel, Dr. J. P. 
van der Stok, Sir G. H. Darwen, F.R.S., 144; Admir- 
alty Surveys for the Year, 1909, 342 

Hydrology : Problems of Winter Navigation on the River 
.St. Lawrence, H. T. Barnes, 83 ; Lake Temperatures, 
E. .A. Birge, 83 ; Winding Course of the River Wye, 
T. S. Ellis, 83 ; Creation of an Artificial Water-table in 
Egypt, H. T. Ferrar, 343 

Hygiene : the Sterilisation of Liquids by Light of very Short 
Wave-length, Prof. Theodore Lyman, 71 ; the Third Inter- 
national Congress of School Hj'giene at Paris, August 2-7, 
1910, 320; Uniformity of Method in Medical Inspection, 
Dr. James Kerr, 320 ; Open-air Schools, Dr. Neufert, 
320; Dr. Mumford, 320; Physical Training, Dr. Digby 
Bell, 320; M. Demeny, 320; Discovery of a Trustworthy 
Mathematical Formula which shall Determine the State 
of Nutrition of a Child in Relation to Physical Measure- 
ments, Prof. Guttmann, 320; Fatigue in School Children, 
Dr. Janale, 320; "Inattention," Prof. Schuyten, 320; 
Modern Methods of Water Purification, Dr. D. M. 
Tomory, 437 ; the Process of Disinfection by Chemical 
.Agei'cies and Hot Water, Hnrriette Chick, 469 

Hymenoptera of the Family Chalcidte, Catalogue of British, 
Claude Morley, 138 



Ichenhauser (Ernst), Abhandlungen Jean Rey's, iiber die 
Ursache der Gewichtszunahme von Zinn und Blei beim 
Verkalken, 527 

Tchinohe (Mr.), the Maximum of Mira in 1909, 273 

Ichthyology : Relative Sizes of the Otoliths in Various 
.Species and Groups of Bony Fishes. Col. C. E. Shepherd, 
270 ; Description of Collection of Fishes made in the 
Indian Ocean and South Pacific by Andrew Garrett, Dr. 
.A. C. Giinther, 402 ; Triacanthus Urberi, sp. Nor. B. L. 
Chaudhuri, 422 ; Chimzeroid Fishes, Messrs. Bean and 
Weed, 547 ; Fish-fauna of the Chicago District, Messrs. 
Meek and Hildebrand, 547 

Imms (A. D.), the Habits and Distribution of Scutigera in 
India, 429 

India : Smallpox and Vaccination in British India, Major 
.S. P. James, 5 ; Reference Libraries in India, 85 ; 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey in India : the Man- 
ganese-ore Deposits of India, H. Leigh Fermor, 128; 
Indian Palaeontology, 159; Forest Flora of the Bombay 
Presidency and Sind, W. A. Talbot, 170; on the Meteor- 
ological Evidence for Supposed Changes of Climate in 
India, Dr. Gilbert T. Walker, F.R.S., Dr. William J. S. 
Lcckyer, 178; Science in Bengal, 1S5 ; Malaria Prophy- 
laxis in India, 540; Astronomy in India, 374; the Castes 
and Tribes of Southern India, Edgar Thurston and K. 



Rangachari, 365 ; Manganese-ore Deposits of the Sandur 
State, A. Ghose, 406 ; Zoological Work in India, 406 ; 
Land and Fresh-water MoUusca of India, Lieut. -Col. 
H. H. Godwin-Austen, 427 ; the Habits and Distribution 
of Scutigera in India, -A. D. Imms, 429; Catalogue of 
the Indian Decapod Crustacea in the Collection of the 
Indian Museum, Lieut. -Col. A. Alcock, F.R.S., 524 
Iniguez (Father), Halley's Comet, 52 
Innes (Mr.), Observations of Comets, 404 
Inoue (R.), Experiments with Silkworms, 371 
Inouye (K.), Alleged Allotropy of Lead, 316 
Insect Wonderland, Constance M. Foot, 464 
Insects, Jack's, Edward Selous, 427 
Insects, the Death-dealing, and their Story, C. Conyers 

Morrell, 526 
Institute of Metals, the Journal of the, 89 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the, 154 
Internal Combustion Engines, the Design and Construction 

of, Hugo Giildner, 197 
International Agrogeological Conference, the First, Dr. 

E. J. Russell, 157 
International Cancer Conference at Paris, the, 545 
International Congress at Diisseldorf, the, 20 
International Congress of Ornithologists, the Fifth, 53 
International Union for Cooperation in Solar Research, 22 
lonisation of Gases and Chemical Change, Dr. H. Brereton 

Baker, F.R.S., at Royal Institution, '3SS 
loniya, the Funeral Papyrus of, Edouard Naville, 237 
Ireland, Great Britain and. Elementary Regional Geo- 
graphy, J. B. Revnolds, 527 
Iron and Steel, Notes on the Electric Smelting of, Dr. 

W. F. Smeeth, 103 
Iron and Steel Institute, the Autumn Meeting of the, 440 
Irrigation, Ooze and, Rev. Hilderic Friend, 39, 70 ; A. R. 

Horwood, 40 
Isaac (F.), Spontaneous Crystallisation and the Melting- 
and Freezing-point Curves of Mixtures of Two .Substances 
which form Mixed Crystals and Possess a Minimum or 
Eutectic Freezing-point, 61 
Iwanow (M.), Halley's Comet, 322 



Jackson (Dr. A. R.), New Spider, Erigone capra, 246 
Jacot (E.), Effect of the Electric Discharge on Water 

Vapour, 262 
Jacquerod (A.), Application of the Principle of Archimides 

to the E.xact Determination of Gaseous Densities, SS^ 
Jamaica Earthquake, the. Sir D. Morris, K.C.M.G., 239 
James (Major S. P.), Sniallpo.x and Vaccination in British 

India, 5 
James (William), Death and Obituary Notice of, 268 
Janala (Dr.), Fatigue in School Children, 320 
Japan : the New School of Japan, Founded for the Purpose 

of Making the Use of the Newly Invented Letters, F. 

Victor Dickins, 7 ; Korean Peninsula an Integral Part of 

Japanese Territory, 313 
Japan-British Exhibition, Science at the, 125 
Jarry-Desloges (M.), Observations of Mercury, 213 
Jeffrey (Dr. E. C), Remains of a Triassic Forest in 

Arizona, 247 ; Fossil Remains of a Conifer, 247 
Jenkins (J. T.), Pelagic Sealing, 115 
Jenkins (Dr. J. Travis), Science in Modern Life, Science 

and the Sea Fisheries, 464 
Jenkinson (Dr. J. W.), the Relation of Regeneration and 

Developmental Processes, 550 
Jensen (Dr. H. I.), Distribution, Origin, and Relationships 

of Alkaline Rocks, 376 
Jerrold (Walter), Shakespeareland, 138 
Jesup North Pacific Expedition, the, the KwakiutI of 

Vancouver Island, Frank Boas, Chukchee Mythology, 

Waldemar Bogoras, the Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized 

Tungus, Waldemar Jockelson, Dr. A. C. Haddon, 

F.R.S., 250 
Jochamowitz (.A.), Mineral Resources of Apurimac, 217 
Jockelson (Waldemar), the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 

the Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized Tungus, 250 
John (C. von). Eruptive Rocks of the Bohemian Eisenge- 

birge, 377 
Johnson (Amy F. M.), a Text-book of Botany for Students, 

146 



Index 



Johnson (F.), Effect of Silver, Bismuth, and Aluminium on 
the Mechanical Properties of " Tough-pitch " Copper 
containing Arsenic, 421 
Johnson (J. P.). the Ore Deposits of South Africa, 293 ; 

Geological and Archaeological Notes on Orangia, 465 
Johnson (R. H.), Determinate Evolution in the Colour- 
pattern of " Lady-beetles," 116 
Johnson (Prof. T.), die Flora von Irland, 395 ; an Irish 

Pteridosperm, 531 
Johnson (W.), the Perseid M»teoric Shower, 248 
Johnston (Sir H. H., G.C.M.G., K.C.B.), With a Pre- 
historic People, the Akikuyu of British East Africa, VV. 
Scoreby Routledge and Katherine Routledge, 41 ; the 
Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History 
Society, 80 ; the Ethnology, Botany, Geology, and 
Meteorology of German East Africa, 106 ; Documents 
scientifiques de la Mission Tilho (1906-9), 244 
Johnston-Lavis (Dr.), Occurrence of a Basalt in the 

Volcanic Cone of Tritriva in Central Madagascar, 376 
Johnstone (James), the Fishes of Cheshire and Liverpool 

Bay, 175 ; Measurements of some 55,000 Plaice, 548 
Jolibois (Pierre), Relations between White Phosphorus, 

Red Phosphorus, and Pyromorphic Phosphorus, ig6 
Jonckheere (M.), New Canals and Lakes on Mars, 20 
Jones (Llewellyn), the Manufacture of Cane Sugar, 199 
Jordan (Dr. A. C), Rontgen-ray Diagnosis, 153 
Julius (Dr.), Anomalous Scattering of Light, 214 
Jupiter, an Oblique Belt on, Scriven Bolton, 362 



Kammerer (Dr. Paul), Colour-physiology, 319 
Kapp (Prof. Gisbert), the Foundations of Alternate-current 
Theory, Dr. C. V. Drysdale, 6 ; Leitfaden zum elektro- 
technischen Praktikum, Dr. G. Brion, 67 
Kapteyn (Prof.), the Sun's \'clocity through Space, 272 ; 

Paralla.K of Fourth-type Stars, 273 
Kearney (Dr. T. H.), Date Gardens of the Jerid, 247 
Keeling (B. F. E.), Temperature of " Invar " Wire, 272 
Keith (Prof. .Arthur), the Anatomy and Relationship of the 
Negro and Negroid Races, Hunterian Lectures at Royal 
College of Surgeons, 54 ; Illustrated Guide to the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, 296 
Keller (Prof. A. G.), Physical and Commercial Geography, 

459 

Keller (Otto), die Antike Tierwelt, 357 

Kelvin (Lord), Statue of, 340 

Kemp (Prof. J. F.), Iron Ores Supplies, 441 

Kemp (Stanley M.), the Decapod Natantia of the Coasts of 
Ireland, 394 

Kenipf (P.), the Rotation of Sun-spots, 152 

Kendall (Prof. P. F.), the Concealed Coalfield of Notts, 
Derby, and Yorkshire, 520; Importance to Sheffield of 
the Uno.xidised Iron Ores of Leicestershire and Lincoln- 
shire, 552 

Kennedy (W. T.), Active Deposit Obtained when the 
Emanation from Actinium is Allowed to Diffuse Freely 
between Two Parallel Plates Placed about 2 millimetres 
apart over the .Actinium Salt, the Plates being Main- 
tained at a Difference of Potential of 250 volts, 516 

Kent, a History of the Birds of, Norman F. Ticehurst, 241 

Kernbaum (Miroslaw), Decomposition of Steam by the 
Brush Discharge, 164 

Kerr (Prof. Graham), Presence of a Posterior Vena Cava 
in Polypterus, 341 

Kerr (Dr. James), Uniformity of Method in Medical Inspec- 
tion, 320 

Kershaw (J. A.), Remains of Subfossil Emeus and 
Marsupials from King Island, Bass Strait, 186 ; Existing 
Species of Wombats, 186 

Kimura (M.), Determinations of the Effects of Atmospheres 
of Various Vapours on the Volt-ampere " Characteristic 
Curves " of the Carbon Copper Arc, 248 

Kinematograph, the Ultra-rapid, Prof. C. V. Boys, F.R.S., 
112 

Kingzett (C. T.), the Rideal-Walker Test, 156 

Kleemann (Dr. R. D.), Attractive Constant of a Molecule 
of a Compound and its Chemical Properties, 514 

Kleinschrod (Dr. Franz), the Inherent Law of Life, a New 
Theory of Life and of Disease, 493 

Knecht (Prof. E.), a Manual of Dyeing, 295 

Knight (F. .\.'), Devonshire, 426 



Knudsen (Dr. M.), Absolute Manometer for the Measure- 
ment of Gas Pressures not Greater than a Few 

Thousandths of a -Millimetre of Mercury, 471 
Knuth (Dr. P.), Handbook of F'lowor Pollination, 66 
Kobold (Prof.), Ephemeris for Comet 1910a, 19 ; Metcalf's 

Comet 19106, 249, 344, 507 
Koidzumi (G.), Plants Obtained in Southern Half of the 

Island of Saghalien, 470 
Kolowrat (L^on), the ^ Ravs of Radium at its Minimum 

Activity, 356 
Komarov (V. L.), Plants Gathered by Dr. Th. Derbeck on 

the Shores of the Gulf of Tartary, 542 
Koritsky (Dr. K.), Discovery of the Site of the Famous 

Cyprian Temple of Aphrodite-Astarte, 149 
Kossel (Prof. Albrecht), Nobel Prize Awarded to, 540 
Kottmeier (H.), das Holz, 326 
Kraft : das ist animalische, mechanische, soziale Energien 

und deren Bedeutung fiir die Machtenfaltung der Staaten, 

Prof. Dr. E. Reyer, 103 
Kraftmaschincn, die, C. Schiitze, 295 
Krebs (Dr. Wilhelm), a Suggested Volcanic Origin of 

Martian Features, 344 
Kreman (Dr. R.), Leitfaden der Graphischen Chemie, 525 
Kremer (Dr. E.), Non-periodical Variations of Rainfall and 

Famines in German East Africa, 343 
Kretschmer (F.), the " Kalksitikatfelse " near Mahrisch- 

Schbnberg in the Sudetic, 377 
Kriiger (Herr), Coloured Stars between the Pole and 

60° N. Declination, 439 
ICudu, the Spotted, R. Lydekker, F.R.S., 396 
Kiikenthal (Prof. W.), Japanische Alcyonaceen, 34; die 

Familien der Primnoiden, Muriceiden, und Acantho- 

gorgiiden, 34 ; die Familien der Plexauriden Chryso- 

gorgiiden und Melitodiden, 34 
Kunkel (Dr. W. B.), .Amphipod Crustaceans of Bermuda 

and the West Indies, 180 



Laboratories : Annual Report of the Government Labora- 
tory, 405 ; the Biological Laboratories at Woods Hole, 
F'rancis B. Sumner, 527 ; Unemployed Laboratory 
Assistants, G. E. Reiss, 462 

Laby (Prof. T. H.), Tables of Constants of lonisation and 
of Radio-activity, 316 

I^acroix (A.), Minerals Formed by the Action of Sea-water 
upon Roman Metallic Objects found off the Coast of 
Mahdia, Tunis, 164 

Lallemand (Ch.), Probable Exactness of Different Evalua- 
tions of the Altitude of Lake Chad, 64 

Lamplugh (G. W., F.R.S.), Stagnant Glaciers, 297; the 
Shelly Moraine of the Sefstrom Glacier, Spitsbergen, 520 

Lamson-Scribner (Prof. F.), the Grasses of Alaska, 17 

Lanarkshire, Frederick Mort, 527 

Lancashire Sea-fisheries Laboratory, the, 548 

Landouzy (Prof.), Influence of Predisposition and Heredilv, 
50S 

I^andscape Beautiful, the, F. A. Waugh, 464 

Lane (Arbuthnot), Operative Treatment of Simple Frac- 
tures, 153 

Lang (.Andrew), Strange Myth of Theseus and the Mino- 
taur, 246 

Langevin (P.), Electric and Magnetic Double Refraction, 
262 

Langton (John), Death of, 340 

Lankester (Sir Ray, K.C.B., l-'.R.S.), Science from an 
Easy Chair, 37 

Larsen (Mr.), .Synthetic Study of Diopside and its Relations 
to Calcium and Magnesium Metasilicates, 375 ; New 
Views on Quartz, 375 

Latitude, the Variation of. Prof. -Albrecht, 20 

Lau (Dr.), Measures of Double Stars, 317; the Mean 
Parallax of Tenth Magnitude Stars, 439 

Launay (M. de). Iron Ore .Supplies, 441 

Laurie (Dr. A. P.), Greek and Roman Methods of Paint- 
ing, Some Comments on the .Statements made by Pliny 
and Vitruvius about Wall and Panel Painting, 265 : 
Lead and Zinc Pigments, Dr. C. D. Holley, 325 

I^averan (A.), Forms of Endogenous Multiplication of 
Haemogregarina sebai, 131 ; an Epidemic Disease in 
Trout, 228 ; Treatment of Different Trypanosomiases by 
.■\rsenic and .Antimony Emetic, 456 



ilbtr ^, 1910J 



Index 



Lavison (Jean de Rufz de), the Elective U6lc of the Root 
in the Absorption of Sails, 556 

Law of Definite Proportions, the, C. E., 364 

Leach (Mr.), Halley's Comet, 19 

Lead and Zinc Pigments, Dr. C. D. Holley, Dr. A. P. 
Laurie, 325 

Leaf (Cecil H.), Death of, 468 

Leaning Tower of Pisa, the. Prof. A. Batelli, 146 ; Edward 
G. Brown, 297; .Arthur T. Bolton, 297 

Lebedew (Dr.), the Pressure of Light on Gases, 86 

Lebon (Ernest), Prof. Emile Picard, " Savant du Jour," 
119 

Lederer (Charles), Organic Compounds of Tetravalent 
Tellurium, 488 

Lee (\V. T.), Western -Xrizona, 121; the " Manzano " 
Group, 121 

Leeds Astronomical Society, the, 120 

Leger (Mr.), Establishment of the Constitution of the 
Aloins, 3S4 

Lendenfell (Prof. R. v.), an Undescribed Feather-element, 
436 

Lermantoff (Prof. W.), Electrical Discharge Figures, 72 

Lessings Briefwechsel mit Mendelssohn und Nicolai iiber 
das Trauerspiel, Prof. Dr. Robert Petsch, 294 

L4vy (Prof. Maurice), Death of, 468 ; Obituary Notice of, 
502 

Lewis (E. J.), Qualitative Analysis, 360 

Lewis (F. C), Effect of Mosquito Larva; upon Drinking 
Water, 150 

Lewis (Francis J.), Plant Remains in the Scottish Peat 
Mosses, 227 

Lewis (T.), Separating Power of a Telescope, 266 

Lewis (Prof. W. J., F.R.S.), Wiltshireite, a New Mineral, 
203 

Lewis (Wilfrid), Interchangeable Involute Gearing, 155 

Lewkowitz (.A.j, Kegels Asthetik im Verhaltnis zu Schiller, 
294 

Leyden (Prof. Ernst von), Death of, 468 

Life, the Inherent Law of, a New Theory of Life and of 
Disease, Dr. Franz Kleinschrod, 493 

Light : the Sterilisation of Liquids by Light of Very Short 
Wave-length, Prof. Theodore Lyman, 71 ; the Pressure 
of Light on Gases, Dr. Lebedew, 86 ; Light and Sound, 
A\'. S. Franklin and Barry Macnutt, E. Edser, 103 ; the 
Pressure of Light against the Source, the Recoil from 
Light, Bakerian Lecture at Royal Society, Prof. J. H. 
Poynting, F.R.S., and Dr. Guy Barlow, 139 ; Dispersion 
of Light in Interstellar Space, Herr Beljawsky, 213; 
.■\nomalous Scattering of Light, Dr. Julius, 214; Light 
Visible and Invisible, Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S., 395 

Lightning and the Churches, Alfred Hands, 238 

Lindgren (W.), Contributions to Economic Geology, 
Part i., Metals and Non-metals except Fuels, 511 

Lindman (M.), Iron Ore Supplies, 441 

Linnean Society, 29 

Linncan Society, New South Wales, 64, 196, 422, 522 

Little (.Archibald), Across Yunnan, 177 

Lloyd (Ur. R. E.), Variation in Indian Rats, 407 

Lobner (M.), Leitfaden fiir gartnerische Pflanzenzuchtung, 
460 

Lockyer (Sir Norman), the Relation of Spectra to the 
Periodic Series of the Elements, 515 ; Stars and their 
Temperatures, 516 

Lockyer (Dr. William J. S.), Death and Obituary Notice 
of the Hon. Charles Stewart Rolls, 46; the Next Total 
Eclipse of the Sun, 75 ; the Total Solar Eclipse of May g, 
1910, 113; on the Meteorological Evidence for supposed 
Changes of Climate in India, Dr. Gilbert T. Walker, 
F.R.S., 178 

Lodge (Sir Oliver, F.R.S.), the Newer Spiritualism, Frank 
Podmore, 489 ; Existence of a Positive Gradient of 
Potential during Fine Weather and a Negative Gradient 
during Wet Weather, 515; Velocity of Sound not a 
Constant Quantity, 517 

Loewenthal (Dr. R.), a Manual of Dyeing, 295 

Logie (J.), Aqueous Solutions of Ferrous Ammonium Sul- 
phate Form a Good Filter for Stopping Heat Rays, 
182 

London, the British Medical Association in, 153 

London, Wild Plants on Waste Land in, 184 

Longitude, the Determination of, Dr. Jean Mascart, 404 



Lonnberg (Dr. Einar), Teeth of Very Young White Whales 

(Dclphinapteriis leucas), 270 
I.oomis (F.), Complete Slccleton of a New Species of the 

Camel-like Genus Stenomylus from the Harrison Beds of 

Nebraska, 89 
Lorentz (Dr. H. A.), Inhabitants of Unknown Region in 

New Guinea, 269 
Lovassy (A.), Resultate der Wissenschaftlichen Untersuch- 

ungen des Balaton, die Tropischen Nymphseen des 

H^vezsees bei Keszthely, 299 
Love (Prof. A. E. H., F.R.S.), Elements of the Differential 

and Integral Calculus, 136; New Gyroscopic Apparatus, 

S>3 
Lowell (Prof. Percival), the Evolution of Worlds, 99 ; 

Mars in 1909 as Seen at the Lowell Observatory, 172 ; 

Velocities and Accelerations of the Ejecta from Halley's 

Comet, 404 
Ludendorff (Dr.), Spectrum and Radial Velocity of 

4> Persei, 507 
Liihe (Dr. M.), a Handbook of Practical Parasitology, 393 
Lull (Prof. R. S.), Evolution of the Horned Dinosaurs, 

89 ; Relation of Embryology and Vertebrate Palaeonto- 
logy, 211 
Lumi^re (A. and L.), Various Gelatine-hardening Agents, 

2i6; Action of Quinones and their Sulphonic Derivatives 

on the Photographic Images Formed by Silver Salts, 48S 
Luminosity of Comets, W. L. Dudley, 439 
Luminous Paint, R. G. Durrant, 530 
Lunge (Prof. George), Technical .Methods of Chemical 

Analysis, loi ; Coal Tar and Ammonia, 166; the Manu- 
facture of Sulphuric Acid and Alkali, with the Collateral 

Branches, 166 
Lushington (A. W.), the Genus Citrus, 315 
Lussana (Prof. S.), Coefficients of Compressibility and of 

Dilation with Temperature of Certain Pure Metals and 

Alloys, 118 
Lydekker (R., F.R.S.), the Spotted Kudu, 396 
Lyman (Prof. Theodore), the Sterilisation of Liquids by 

Light of Very Short Wave-length, 71 



Maas (O.), Japanische Medusen, 34 

Mc.Adie (A.), Diversity of Systems of Notation in Meteoro- 
logy, 506 

MacAlister (D. A.), the Geology of Ore Deposits, 293 

.Macallum (Prof. A. B., M.A., M.B., Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S.), Opening Address in Section I at the Meeting 
of the British Association at Sheffield, 444 

Macallum (N.), Resolution of the Spectral Lines of Mercury 
by a High-grade Echelon Spectroscope, 516 

MacBride (Prof. E. W., F.R.S.), British Marine Zoology, 
252. 330. 396, 462 

McCabe (Joseph), Prehistoric Man, 39 

.McCall (Mr.), Bacterial Blight in Cotton caused by Bad. 
Malvacearum, 247 

.\I 'David (J. W. M.), Specific Volumes of Solutions of 
Tetrapropylammonium Chloride, 97 

Macdougal (Dr. D. T.), Inducing Dependent Nutrition by 
the Insertion of Prepared Slips into a Host Plant, 505 

MacDougall (Dr. R. Stewart), Animal Pests, 157 

McEwen (G. F.), Hydrographical Work carried on by the 
Marine Biological Station at San Diego, 82 

McFarland (Prof. Raymond), E.xploration in Western 
Labrador, 468 

M'llroy (Dr. A. Louise), Development of the Germ Cells 
in the Mammalian Ovary, 97 

Mclsaac (Isabel), Bacteriology for Nurses, 493 

Mack (Amy E.), a Bush Calendar, 464 

Mackinder (H. J.), Distant Lands, 426 

McLennan (John), a Manual of Practical Farming, 38 

McLennan (Prof.), Resolution of the Spectral Lines of 
Mercury by a Biigh-grade Echelon Spectroscope, 516 

Macmillan (H. F.), Flowering Trees, 55 

Macnutt (Barry), Light and Sound, 103 

McWiUiam (Prof. A.), on the Nature, Uses, and Manu- 
facture ot Ferro-silicon, with Special Reference to 
Possible Dinger arising from its Transport and Storage, 
Dr. S. M. Copeman, F.R.S., S. R. Bennett, and Dr. H. 
Wilson Hike, 53 ; la M^tallographie Microscopique, 
Louis R6\illon, 295 ; Fuel and Refractory Materials, 
Prof. A. H. Sexton, 392 ; Properties of a Series of Steels 

c 2 



Index 



with Varying Carbon Contents, 519; Metallurgical 
Industries in Relation to the Rocks of the District, 

Maddren (A. G.), Mineral Resources of the Kotsina-Chitina 
Region, Alaska, 511 

Maggini (M.), a Bright Projection on Saturn, 507 

Magnetism : Earth-current Observations in Stockholm 
during the Transit of Halley's Comet on May 19, 1). 
Stenquist and E. Petri, g ; Magnetism of the Copper- 
manganese-tin Alloys under Varying Thermal Treatment, 
A. D. Ross and R. C. Gray, 97 ; Magnetic Results of 
the First Cruise of the Carnegie, Dr. L. A. Bauer and 
W. J. Peters, 119; die secularen Arnderungen der 
lu'dmagnetischen elemente. Dr. H. Fritsche, 373 ; 
Results of some Recent Investigations on Magnetic Dis- 
turbances, Dr. L. A. Bauer, 192 ; Magnetic Survey of 
Sardinia, Prof. L. Palazzo, 437 ; Liste der Observatoires 
Magn^tiques et des Observatoires S^ismologiques, E. 
Merlin and O. SomviUe, 460; Tables of Corrections to 
the British Admiralty, the German Admiralty, and the 
United States Hydrographic Department, Magnetic 
Charts of the North Atlantic, Dr. L. A. Bauer and W. J. 
Peters, 544 

Mahler (P.), Presence of a Small Quantity of Carbon 
Monoxide in the -Air of Coal Mines, 555 

Mailhe (A.), Calalylic Preparations of .\lkyl-aryl Ethers, 
196 ; Catalytic Preparation of the Phenolic Oxides and 
the Diphenylenic O.xides, 292 

Makowcr (Dr. \V.), Recoil of Radium B from Radium A, 
516 

Malaria Prophylaxis in India, 240 

Malcl^s (Louis), Appearance of Certain Dielectric Anomalies 
by Changing the State of the Insulating Medium, 64 

Malcolm (Charles), Grouse and Grouse Moors, 466 

Malloch (P. D.), Life-history and Habits of the Salmon, 
Sea-trout, Trout, and other Fresh-water Fish, 168 

Mammalia : the Mammals and Birds of Cheshire, T. A. 
Coward and C. Oldham, 171; ; the Orders of .Mammals, 
W. K. Gregory, 216; Life-histories of Northern 
Mammals, an Account of the Mammals of Manitoba, 
Ernest Thompson Seton, 423 ; a History of British 
Mammals, G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, 493 

Man and Nature on Tidal Waters, Arthur H. Patterson, 100 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 521 

Manganese-ore Deposits of India, the, H. Leigh Fermor, 
128 

Manganese-ore Deposits of the Sandur State, A. Ghose, 406 

Mangin (L.), Observations on Callose, 164 

Mantegazza (Prof. Paolo), Death of, 270 

Maps, Home-work Atlas of, in Black and White, 395 

Maquenne (L.), Toxic Qualities of Certain Salts towards 
Green Leaves, 131 

Marconi (Mr.), Wireless Messages from a Distance of 3500 
Miles, 400 ; Wireless Telegraphic Messages Transmitted 
between Clifden (Galway) and Buenos Aires, 435 

Marcuse (Prof. A.), Navigation in der Luft, 229 

Marguet (Prof.), History of Navigation, 317 

Marine Biology • die Ern.ahrung der Wassertiere und der 
Stoffhaushalt der Gewasser, Prof. August Piitter, 5 ; 
Leptocephalus hyoproroides and L. tkoriamts, Jobs. 
Schmidt, 9 : Marine Biological Photography, Francis 
Ward, 10 ; New Marine Biological Station at Venice, 
Cal., 81 ; New Species of F'eather-star (Antedon) from 
the Adriatic, A. H. Clark, 150; PolycIiEetous Annelids 
Dredged off the Californian Coast by the Albatross in 
1904, J. P. Moore, 246; a Monograph of the Foramini- 
fera of the North Pacific Ocean, J. A. Cushman, 265 ; 
the Decapod Natantia of the Coasts of Ireland, Stanley 
M. Kemp, 394 ; Report of a Survey of the Trawling 
Grounds on the Coasts of Counties Down, Louth, Meath, 
and Dublin, E. W. L. Holt, 304 ; Bulletin Trimestrie, 
Conseil Permanent International pour I'Exploration de 
la Mer, R^sumc^ des Observations sur le Plankton des 
Mers exploril'cs par le Conseil pendant les Annies 1902-8, 

394 
Marine Zoology, British, Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., 

252, 330, 306, 462 ; Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., 329, 

396, 462 ; Dr. Wm. J. Dakin, 396 
Markham (Sir Clements K., K.C.B., F.R.S.), Land of the 

Incas, 470 
Marloth (Dr. R.), Observations on the Biology of Roridula, 



98 ; Experiments to Find Out whether the Aerial Parts of 
Plants absorb Moisture from the Air, 158 
Mars : New Canals and Lakes on, M. Jonckheere, 
20; Subjective Phenomenon on Mars, M. Anloniadi, 
120; Mars in 1909 as Seen at the Lowell Observatory, 
Prof. Percival Lowell, 172 ; Water Vapour on Mars, Prof. 
Campbell, 317; Prof. Frank W. Very, 495; a Suggested 
Volcanic Origin of Martian Features, Dr. Wilhelm 
Krebs, 344 
Marsh (C. F.), a Concise Treatise on Reinforced Concrete, 

358 
Marsh (Prof. Howard), Medicine and Biology, 48 
Marshall (A.), Centre of Gravity of Annual Statistics, 104 
Marshall (F. H. A.), Physiological Problems of the Stock- 
breeder, 219 
Marsters (V. F.), Coast of Southern Peru and the Pampas 

West of the Andes, 217 
Martel (E. A.), Conditions of Effective Filtration of the 

Underground Waters in Certain Chalk Formations, 422 
Mascart (Dr. Jean), the Determination of Longitude, 404 
Massol (G.), Vibration of a Tuning Fork, 228 
Mathematics : Problfemes et Exercises de Math^matiques 
g^n^rales. Prof. E. Fabry, 8 ; Curve Tracing and Curve 
Analysis, A. P. Trotter, 40; Savants du Jour, Prof. 
Emile Picard, Ernest Lebon, 119; Elements of the 
Differential and Integral Calculus, Prof. A. E. H. Love, 
F'.R.S., 136; Plane Trigonometry, Prof. H. S. Carslaw, 
136 ; Elementary Projective Geometry, A. G. Pickford, 
136 ; a First Course in .Analytical Geometry, Plane and 
Solid, with Numerous Examples, C. N. Schmall, 136; 
a Manual of Geometry, W. D. Eggar, 138 ; Death of 
Rev. Robert Harley, F.R.S., 148; Obituary Nofice of, 
210; Theories of Parallelism, an Historical Critique, 
W. B. Frankland, 169 ; the Early History of Non- 
Euclidean Geometry, D. M. Y. Sommerville, 172 ; Gauss 
and Non-Euclidean Geometry, Prof. H. S. Carslaw, 362 ; 
the Bicentenary of Thomas Simpson, Edgar C. Smith, 
254 ; Factorisable Continuants, Dr. T. Muir, 262 ; Death 
of Eugene Rouch^, 339 ; Mathematics in Austria, 399 ; 
Oiuvrcs completes de Christiaan Huygens, 491 ; Death of 
Prof. Maurice Levy, 4(38 ; Obituary Notice of, 502 ; 
Fermat's Theorem, Dr. H. C. Pocklington, F.R.S., 531 ; 
Bolyai Prize .Awarded to Prof. David Hilbert, 541 ; see 
also British Association 
Mathias (E.), Rectilinear Diameter of O.xygen, 131, 262 
Maxwell (Aymer), Grouse and Grouse Moors, 466 
Mechanical Engineers, the Institution of, 154 
.Medicine : Medicine and Biology, Prof. Howard Marsh, 
48 ; Special Screening against Mosquitoes, Dr. H. W. 
Thomas, 48 ; Annual Report for 1908 of the Chief 
Medical Officer of the Board of Education, 57; .Action of 
Potash Salts taken by the Mouth, W. E. Dixon, 63 ; the 
British Medical Association in London, 153 ; Radiology 
and Medical Electricity, Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., 153; 
Rontgen-ray Diagnosis, Dr. H. Orton and Dr. .A. C. 
Jordan, 153 ; Operative Treatment of Simple Fractures, 
.Arbuthnot Lane, 153 ; Chronic Constipation, Dr. J. F". 
Goodhart, 153 ; Radium Treatment, Drs. Dominici and 
Wickham, 153 ; Treatment of Cancer, Prof. Gilbert 
Barling, 154 ; Important -Additions to Medical Know- 
ledge, Dr. J. Mitchell Bruce, 154 ; Recent Advances in 
our Knowledge of Tropical Diseases, Dr. John L. Todd, 
181; Death of Prof. Paolo Mantegazza, 270; Medical 
Education in the United States and Canada, Abraham 
Flexner, 332 ; the Municipal Control of Tuberculosis, 
353 ; Preventive Medicine in School Life, 353 ; Disease 
Carriers, 353 ; a Handbook of Practical Parasitology, 
Prof. Max Braun and Dr. M. Liihe, 393 ; Use of X-Ray 
in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Dr. C. L. 
Minor, 436; Death of Prof. Ernst von Leyden, 468; 
Opening of the Medical Session, 479 ; a Guide for Medi- 
cine and Surgery, Compiled for Nurses, Sydney Welham, 
526 ; Nobel Prize Awarded to Prof. Albrccht Kosse!, 540 ; 
Value of Research in Medicine, Lord Cromer, 541 
Meek (Mr.), Fish-fauna of the Chicago District, 547 
Melanesians of British New Guinea, the, Dr. C. G. Selig- 

mann, S. H. Ray, 499 
Mendel (Gregor), Memorial to, 435 
Mendenhall (W. C), History of the Salton Sea, 122 
Mental Diseases, a Text-book of. Prof. Eugenio Tanzi, 458 
Menzies (A. W. C), Static Method for Determining the 



'aturt, "I 

Otr 24, lyioj 



Index 



Vapour Pressures of Solids and Liquids, and the Vapour 
Pressures of Mercury, 97 

Mercantile Marine, Sight Tests in the, 537 

Mercau (Augustus), the Perfilograph, 434 

Mercury, Observations of, G. and V. Fournier, 213; M. 
Jarry-Desloges, 213 

Merfieid (Mr. J, Halley's Comet, 322 

Merlin (E.), Liste des Observaloires Magn^tiques et dcs 
Observatoires S^ismologiques, 460 

Merlin (J.), Occultation of jj Geminorum by Venus, July 26, 
Observed at Lyons, 390 

Merrill (E. D.), the Grasses of Alaska, 17; Philippine 
Leguminosa;, 211 

Merrill (G. P.), Averages of Analyses of Stony Meteorites, 
376 

Merry (E. \\.), Molecular Complexity of Nitrosoamines, 
520 

Metallography : Metallografia applicata ai Prodotti Sidtr- 
urgici, Uniberto Savoia, 39 ; Lo Zinco, Prof. K. Musu- 
Boy, 39 ; Metallographie, ein ausfiihrliches Lehr- und 
llandbuch der Konstitution, und der physikalischen, 
I hemischen und technischen Eigenschaften der Metalle 
und nietallischen Legierungen, Dr. W. Guertler, 200 ; la 
Metallographie Microscopique, Louis R^villon, A. 
McWilliam, 295 ; Metallography as an Aid to the Brass 
Flounder, H. S. Primrose, 421 

Metallurgy: the International Congress at Diisseldorf, 20; 
on the Nature, Uses, and Manufacture of Ferro-silicon, 
with Special Reference lo Possible Danger arising from 
its Transport and Storage, Dr. S. M. Copeman, E.R.S., 
S. R. Bennett, and Dr. H. Wilson Hake, Prof. A. 
McWilliam, 53 ; Nature of Intermetallic Compounds, Dr. 
T. Slater Price, 83 ; the Journal of the Institute of 
Metals, 89 ; Elastic Breakdown of Non-ferrous Metals, 
A. C. M. Smith, 89 ; Magnetism of the Copper- 
manganese-tin Alloys under Varying Thermal Treatment, 
A. D. Ross and R. C. Gray, 97; Notes on the Electric 
Smelting of Iron and Steel, Dr. W. F. Smeeth, 103 ; 
New Process for Producing Protective Metallic Coatings, 
AL U. Schoop, 218; New Alloy Duralumin, 313; 
Shrinkage of Antimony-lead Alloys and of the Aluminium- 
zinc Alloys during and after Solidification, Donald Ewen 
and Prof. T. Turner, 421 ; Effect of Silver, Bismuth, and 
Aluminium on the iMechanical Properties of " Tough- 
pitch " Copper containing Arsenic, F". Johnson, 421; 
Magnetic Alloys F'ormed from Non-magnetic Materials, 
A. D. Ross, 421 ; the Heat Treatment of Brass, G. D. 
Bengough and O. K. Hudson, 421 ; Some Common 
Defects occurring in Alloys, Dr. C. H. Desch, 421 ; the 
Autumn Meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, 440; 
Theory of Hardening Carbon Steels, C. A. Edwards, 
440 ; Prof. Arnold, 440 ; Dr. Carpenter, 440 ; Prof. 
Turner, 440; Influence of Silicon on the Properties of 
Pure Cast Iron, A. Hague and Prof. T. Turner, 440; 
Manganese in Cast Iron and the Volume Changes during 
Cooling, H. I. Coe, 440; Sulphurous Acid as an Etching 
Agent for Metallographie Work, S. Helpert and E. 
Colvert Glauert, 440 ; Preparation of Magnetic Oxides of 
Iron from Aqueous Solutions, S. Hilpert, 440 
Metals, the Temperature Coefficients of the Ferromagnetic, 

Dr. J. R. Ashworth, 23S 
Metcalf (Rev. J. H.), a New Comet, 213 
Metcalf's Comet igiob, 249, 273 ; M. Guillaume, 249 ; Dr. 
Kobold, 249, 344, 507; Prof. Pickering, 344; ^L 
(Ju^nisset, 507; Observations of, J. Guillaume, 261; i\I. 
Coggia, 261 ; M. Borrelly, 261 ; M. Schaumasse, 292 ; 
Observations of, at the Paris Observatory, J. Chatelu, 261 
Meteorites : Large Meteorites, Edmund O. Hovey, 152 ; 
Meteoric Iron which Fell on August i, 1898, near Quesa, 
Prof. Friedrich Berwerth, 372 
Meteorology : Results of the Exposure of Thermometers in 
Windows and in Screens, Prof. Hellman, 17-8 ; oie 
Temperatur Verhaltnisse in der freien Atmosphare 
[Ergebnisse der internationalen unbemannter Ballon- 
aufstiege], Dr. Arthur Wagner, E. Gold, 42 ; the Gulf 
Stream Drift and the W'eather of the British Isles, Dr. 
H. Bassett, 44 ; Meteorological Chart of North Atlantic 
for July, 50 ; Meteorological Charts of the North Atlantic 
and North Pacific Oceans for September, and of the 
South Atlantic and South Pacific for September- 
November, 1910, 247; Meteorological Chart of the North 



Atlantic and Mediterranean for September, 3 if; Meteoro- 
logical Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean tor November, 
Prof. W. L. Moore, 543 ; Two Notable Typhoons which 
Crossed the Philippine Archipelago during November, 50 ; 
W'eather for the Five Weeks ending July 9, 50; July 
Weather, 148 ; Weather for Week ending August 27, 
271; Weather, June 25 to September 3, 316; Models of 
Meteorological Conditions in the Free Air, 59 ; Centre 
of Gravity of Annual Statistics, A. Marshall, 104; the 
Ethnologv, Botanv, Geologv, and Meteorology of German 
East Africa, Sir 'H. H. Johnstone, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
106; Examination of the Atmosphere at Various Alti- 
tudes for Oxides of Nitrogen and Ozone, Messrs. Hay- 
hurst and Pring, 119; Meteorological Conditions Prevail- 
ing before the South-west Monsoon of 1910, Dr. Walker, 
118; Comparison of the Barometers of the Various 
Meteorological Institutes,, 118; Reports of Meteorological 
Observatories, 123 ; the Meteorological Service of Canada 
(1906), 123; Toronto Observatory (1907), 123; Bombay 
and Alibag Observatories (1909), 123 ; Helwan Observa- 
tory (1909), 123 ; Royal Prussian Meteorologcial Institute 
(1909), 124; the Deutsche Seewarte (1909), 124; the 
.Sonnblick Observatory (1909), 124; Norwegian Meteoro- 
logical Institute (igog), 124; the Southport Meteoro- 
logical Observatory (1909), 124; Falmouth Observatory 
(igog), 124; Observatory Department of the National 
Physical Laboratory (igog), 124; Koninklijk Neder- 
landsch Meteorologisch Instituut, No. 105, Oceano- 
graphische en Meteorologische Waarnemingen bij Kaap 
Guardafui, 159 ; Regenwaarnemingen in Nederlandscli- 
Indie, 159 ; on the Meteorological Evidence for Supposed 
Changes of Climate in India, Dr. Gilbert T. Walker, 
F.R.S., Dr. William J. S. Lockyer, 178; Rainfall of 
Rhodesia and Australia, 187 ; Rainfall of Rhodesia, Rev. 
E. Goetz, 187 ; Dew-ponds on the Thorpe Downs, Berk- 
shire, H. Gibson, 24b; Royal Magnetical and Meteoro- 
logical Observatory at Batavia, Report on Cloud- 
observations at Batavia made during the International 
Cloud-year i8g6-7 and Subsequent Years, Dr. S. Figee, 
E. Gold, 249 ; Velocita e Direzione delle Correnti 
.\eree alle diverse Altitudini Determinate a Mezzo dei 
Palloni-Sonde e Piloti, Dr. G. Pericle, E. Gold, 249; 
Diurnal Variation of Level at Kimberley, Dr. J. K. 
Sutton, 262 ; Report of Meteorological Committee for the 
Year ending March 31, 271 ; Meteorology, Practical and 
.\pplied. Sir John Moore, 293 ; Monsoon Conditions Pre- 
vailing during June and July, 316; Tables for the Reduc- 
tion of Meteorological Observations, Dr. G. C. Simpson, 
E. Gold, 326 ; Non-periodical Variations of Rainfall and 
Famines in German East Africa, Dr. E. Kremer, 343 ; 
Wind and Current Observations, Dr. P. H. Gall^, 343 ; 
Innsbrucker Fbhnstudien, iv., Weitere Beitrage zur 
Dynamik der Fijhns, Dr. H. v. Ficker, 368; Great 
Tropical Storm of October, 1909, 372 ; Average Rainfall 
Map and Isohyets of New South Wales, 373 ; Reports on 
Climates, 377; Meteorology of Peru, Dr. J. Hann, 377; 
Climate of the Lower Guinea Coast and Hinterland, Dr. 
R. Sieglerschmidt, 377; Climate of Berlin, Prof. G. 
Hellmann, 377 ; Rainfall of Northern Spain and 
Portugal, Dr. W. Semmelhack, 377 ; Australian Common- 
wealth Bureau of Meteorology, 402 ; a Meteorological 
Phenomenon, Rev. R. ."^shington BuUen, 429 ; the 
Summer Season, 435 ; Vegetation and Rainfall, Dr. .A. 
Morrison, 437 ; .•\pplication of the Method of Correlation 
to Investigations of the Connection between Meteoro- 
logical Elements at Different Places, Dr. T. Okada, 
470 ; Daily Variation of Wind and the Displacement of 
the Air at Nagasaki, Y. Tsuiji, 471 ; Diversity of Systems 
of Notation in Meteorology, A. Mc.Adie, 506 ; Meteoro- 
logical Outlook in South Africa, 506; British Rainfall, 
1909, Dr. Hugh Robert Mill, 523 ; Cloud-burst in the 
Island of Ischia, 541 ; Snowfall in the Transvaal, H. E. 
Wood, 543 ; Bremen Meteorological Year-book, igog, 
546; Liverpool Observatory (igog), 546; Royal Alfred 
Observatory, Mauritius (igog), 546; Transvaal Meteoro- 
logical Department (1908-9), 546; Deutsche uberseeische 
meteorologische Beobachtungen, 546 
Meteors : Present Meteoric Displays, W. F. Denning, 105 ; 
a Central Bureau for Meteor Observations, 152 ; Ob- 
servations of Perseids in igog, S. Beljawsky, 184 ; 
Perseid Meteoric Shower, 1910, W. F, Denning, 204 ; 



hi dex 



U. 



Brilliant Meteor of July 31, Father A. L. Cortie, 204; 
the Perseid Meteoric Shower, Mr. Denning, 248; C. L. 
Brook, 24S ; W. H. Stevenson, 248; Miss Warner, 248; 
Dr. E. Packer, 248 ; W. Johnson, 248 ; the Perseid 
Shower, igio, E. F. Sawyer, 439; Meteors and Bolides, 
Prof. Guide Cora, 317; Meteoric Fireballs, Rev. 
W. F. .\. Ellison, 31S; Prof. J. C. W. Herschel, 318; 
Fireball on September 2, Edmund J. Webb, 3b3 ; W. F. 
Denning, 364 ; a Bright Meteor, 438 ; Halley Meteors, 
Prof. David Todd, 439 ; a Brilliant Meteor on October 23, 
W. I-'. Denning, 544; J. E. Clark, 544; Simultaneous 
Photographic Observations of a Remarkable Meteor, 
Herr Sykora, 544 

Metzograph Grained Screen, the, 182 

Meyer (.Air.), Halley's Comet, 322 

Meyrick (E., F.R.S.), Revision of Australian Tortricina, 64 

Michaelis (Prof. A.), Death of, 210 

Micrometer, a New, Dr. Doberck, 439 

Micronietric Observations of Eros, Results from, 1900, Mr. 
Hinks, 184 

Microscopy : Royal Microscopical Society, 29 

Microtome, New Large, 470 

Miers (Principal H. A., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.), Opening 
Address in Section L at the Meeting of the British 
Association at Sheffield, 480 

Milk, Methods Used in the Examination of, and Dairy 
Products, Dr. Chr. Barthel, 69 

Mill (Dr. Hugh Robert), British Rainfall, 1909, 533 

Miller (W. G.), Various Subdivisions of the Pre-Cambrian 
Rocks, 443 

Millochaa (G.), Halley's Comet, 120 

Milne (Prof. John, F.R.S.), the California Earthquake of 
April 18, 1906, vol. ii., the Mechanics of the Earthquake, 
Harry F. Reid, 165 

Milner (Dr. S. R.), the Sheffield Meeting of the British 
Association, 174 ; Photographic Study of the Mercury 
Arc >■)! vacuo, 515 

Minakata (Kumagusu), a Singular Mammal called 
" Orocoma," 40 

Minchin (Prof. E. .A.), Nova tripansomiaze humana, C. 
Chagas, 142 

Mineral Waters and Medicinal Springs of the County of 
Esse.K, a History of the. Miller Christy and May Thresh, 
361 

Mineralogy : Leitfaden der Mineralogie, Prof. Julius Ruska, 
38 ; Minerals Formed by the Action of Sea-water upon 
Roman Metallic Objects Found off the Coast of Mahdia, 
Tunis, .\. Lacroi.x, 164 ; Wiltshireite, a New Mineral, 
Prof. W. J. Lewis, F.R.S., 203; the Mineral Survey of 
Peru, 217; Mineral Resources of Apurimac, A. 
Jochamowitz, 217; the Provinces of Tayacaja, Angaries, 
and Huancavelica, E. T. Duenas, 217; Occurrences of 
Antimony Ores throughout Peru, E. Weckwarth, 217; 
the Ratio between Uranium and Radium in Minerals, 
Alex. S. Russell, 238 ; Electrical and Other Properties 
of Sand, Charles E. S. Phillips at Royal Institution, 255 ; 
the Ratio between Uranium and Radium in Minerals, 
Frederick Soddy, F.R.S., 296; Relations of Uralite and 
Other Secondary .^mphiboles to their Parent Minerals, 
Dr. \. Wilmore, 372 ; Ore-deposits of Borah Creek, New 
England, N.S.W., L. A. Cotton, 422 

Minerals : Mineral Specimens acquired by British Museum, 
467 ; United States Geological Survey, Contributions to 
Economic Geology, Part ii.. Coal and Lignite, M. R. 
Campbell, 511; the Ketchikan and Wrangell Mining 
Districts, .Alaska, F. E. Wright and C. W. Wright, 511 ; 
Mineral Resources of the Kotsina-Chitina Region, 
Alaska, F. H. Moffit and A. G. Maddren, 511; Mineral 
Resources of Alaska, A. H. Brooks, 511; Contributions 
to Economic Geology, Part i., Metals and Non-metals 
except Fuels, C. W. Hayes and W. Lindgren, S" I 
Papers on the Conservation of Mineral Resources, 

5" 
Mining: the International Congress at Diisseldorf, 20; 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey in India, the Man- 
ganese-ore Deposits of India, H. Leigh Fermor, 12S; 
Tananii Goldfield in Central Australia, H. Y. L. Brown, 
182 ; Mining Operations in the State of South Australia, 
342 ; Death of A. H. Stokes, 468 ; First Steps in Coal 
Mining, .Alexander Forbes, 492 ; Manganese-ore Deposits 
of the Sandur State, \. Chose, 406 



-Minor (Dr. C. L.), Use of X-rays in the Diagnosis ol 
Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 436 

.Mira, the Maximum of, in 1909, Prof. Nijland, 273; Mr. 
Ichinohe, 273 

-Mirande (Marcel), Action of Vapours on Green Plants, 262 

.Mitchell (A. D.), Elimination of a Carbethoxyl Group 
during the Closing of the F'ive-membered Ring, 519 

-\Iitton (G. E.), the Thames, 138 

Miyoshi (Dr. M.), Rhododendron producing Double 
Flowers in its Wild State, 372 

" Mock Suns," James F. Ronca, 345 

" Mock Suns" at Eastbourne, Mrs. A. M. Butler, 374 

Moffit (F. H.), Mineral Resources of ths Kotsina-Chitina 
Region, Alaska, 511 

Moir (Dr. James), Halley's Comet, 9 

.Moir (J. Reid), Discovery of Worked F'lints beneath Un- 
disturbed Deposits of Crag in the Neighbourhood of 
Ipswich, 503 

Moir (Dr. T.), Absorption Spectrum of O.xygen and a New 
Law of Spectra, 98 

Molinari (Prof. Ettore), Chimica Generale e Applicata all' 
Industria, 170 

Molisch (Prof. H.), Note on Local Coloration of the CeH 
Wall in Certain Water Plants induced by Manganese 
Compounds, 151 

MoUusca, Land and Fresh-water, of India, Lieut. -Col. 
H. H. Godwin-Austen, 427 

Monro (C. F. H.), Indigenous Trees of Southern Rhodesia, 
55 

Moodie (Dr. R. L.), Alimentary Canal of a Branchio- 
saurian Salamander from the Carboniferous Shales of 
Mazon Creek, 17 

Moon : the Genesis of Various Lunar Features, M. 
Puiseux, 120 

Moore (Dr. Benjamin), Effect of an Increased Percentage 
of O.xygen on the Vitality and Growth of Bacteria, 181 

.Moore (Clarence B.), Antiquities of the Ouachita Valley, 
129 

.Moore (Dr. F. J.), Outlines of Organic Chemistry, 360 

Moore (Sir John), Meteorology, Practical and Applied, 293 

.VIoore (J. P.), Polycheetous Annelids Dredged off the 
Californian Coast by the .WhaUoss in 1904, 246 

.Moore (Prof. W. L.), Meteorological Chart of the North 
Atlantic Ocean for November, 543 

.Mora (Enzo), Irregularities in the Motion of Algol's 
Satellite, 472 

Morbology : Smallpox and Vaccination in British India, 
Major S. P. James, 5 ; Sleeping Sickness, Colonel Seely, 
16 ; Sleeping Sickness in Europeans, 469 ; Uganda 
Sleeping-sickness Camps, Dr. A. P. Hodges, 315; the 
Tuberculosis Conference and Exhibition, 22 ; Mortality of 
the Tuberculous in Relation to Sanatorium Treatment, 
W. Palin Elderton and S. J. Perry, 371 ; the Crusade 
against Consumption, 374 ; the Ninth International Con- 
ference on Tuberculosis, 507 ; Influence of Predisposition 
and Heredity, Prof. Landouzy, 508 ; Special Suscepti- 
bility of Children of Tuberculous Parents, Prof. Calmette, 
508; M. Piery, 508; Analysis of 232 Fatal Cases of 
Tuberculosis, Dr. Nathan Raw, 508 ; Importance of Pre- 
disposition, Dr. C. Theodore Williams, 508; Action of 
Sunlight and High Altitudes, Dr. Hermann von 
Schrijtter, 509 ; Grouse Disease, Drs. Cobbett and 
Graham Smith, 48; House-flies and Disease, Dr. C. 
Gordon Hewitt, 73 ; the Progress of Cancer Research, 
126; the International Cancer Conference at Paris, 545^ 
Ayia\ilasma marginale, a New Genus and Species of the 
Protozoa, Dr. A. Theiler, 132 ; Development of Piro- 
plasma parvum (Protozoa) in the Various Organs of 
Cattle, Dr. R. Gonder, 132 ; Nova tripanosomiaze 
humana, C. Chagas, Prof. E. A. Minchin, 142 ; Original 
Source and Spread of Bubonic Plague, H. B. Wood, 
149 ; Treatment of Trypanosomiasis of Man and Animals, 
150; Health, Progress and Administration in the West 
Indies, Sir Rubert W. Boyce, F.R.S., 174; an Epidemic 
Disease in Trout, A. Laveran and A. Pettit, 22S ; Cholera 
and its Control, 239; Malaria Prophylaxis in India, 240; 
Prevention of Malaria, Dr. Malcolm Watson, 340: 
Factors in the Transmission and Prevention of Malaria 
in the Panama Canal Zone, Dr. S. T. Darling, 401 ; 
Etiology of Beriberi, 401 ; Death of Cecil H. Leaf, 468; 
Trypanosome Found in the Blood of a Patient in 



/ 



AWi'wAcr 24» iqi' 



Index 



Sumatra, Dr. C. Elders, 504 ; Recent Investigations on 
Pellagra, Dr. Louis Sambon, 538 
Morehouse's Comet, Photographs of, Messrs. Hirayaiiia 

and Toda, 19 
Moreux (.^bb6 Th.), the Relations between Solar and 

Terrestrial Phenomena, 545 
Morgan (A. P.), How to Build a 20-foot Biplane Glider, 229 
Morgan (Prof. T. H.), Chromosomes and Heredity, 246 
Morley (Claudn), Catalogue of British Hymenoptera of the 

Family Chalcidse, 138 
Morphology : Glandular Structures Supposed to Form Part 
of the Postate Gland in Rats and Guinea Pigs, Dr. 
Walker, 82 ; Morphology of the Manus in Platanista 
gangetica. Sir William Turner, 97 ; the Thyroid Body 
and Related Structures, F. D. Thompson, 181 ; Presence 
of a Posterior \'cna Cava in Polypterus, Prof. Graham 
Kerr, 341 
^[orreIl (C. Conycrs), the Death-dealing Insects and their 

S'ory, 526 
Morris (Sir D., K.C.M.G.), the Jamaica Earthquake, 239 
Morrison (Dr. A.), Vegetation and Rainfall, 437 
Morsch (Prof. Emil), Concrete-steel Construction, 358 
Morse (H. W.), Evaporation from a Solid Sphere, 51 
Mort (Frederick), Lanarkshire, 527 
Moser (Dr. Fanny), Japanische Ctenophoren, 34 
Mosquitoes, Special Screening against, Dr. H. W. Thomas, 

48 
Motherwell (Mr.), Halley's Comet, 183 

Mountaineering : Peaks and Glaciers of Nun Kun, a Record 
of Pioneer-e.xploration and Mountaineering in the 
Punjab Himalaya, Fannv Bullock Workman and Dr. 
W. H. Workman, Sir T.'H. Holland, K.C.LE., F.R.S., 
78 
Mijhtmann (M.), a Theory of Death, 117 
Muir (Dr. T.), Factorisable Continuants, 262 
Mumford (Dr.), Open-air Schools, 320 
Miinsterberg (Prof. Hugo), Psychotherapy, 458 
Muret (E.), Ics Variations p^riodiques des Glaciers, 17 
Museums : Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa in the Depart- 
ment of Geology, British Museum (Natural History), 
Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., 8; Guide to the Crustacea, 
Arachnida, Onychophora, and Myriopoda Exhibited in the 
Department of Zoology, British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), 171 ; Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, Maps, 
and Drawings in the British Museum (Natural History), 
266; Guide to Mr. Worthington Smith's Drawings of 
Field and Cultivated Mushrooms and Poisonous or 
Worthless Fungi often Mistaken for Mushrooms, 
Exhibited in the Department of Botany, British Museum 
(Natural History), 361 ; Handbook to the Ethnographical 
Collection, 536 ; Fossil Vertebrates in the American 
Museum of Natural History, 12 ; Illustrated Guide to the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, 
Prof. Arthur Keith, 296; Important Accessions to Hull 
Museum, 314; Report of the Madras Government 
Museum, 370 
Music : a Lisu Jew's Harp, J. Coggin Brown, 422 
Musu-Boy (Prof. R.), Lo Zinco, 39 

Mycology : Bacteria in their Relation lo Plant Pathology, 
Prof. M. C. Potter, 18 ; Destructive Action of Fungi and 
Bacteria, Prof. Potter, 181 ; Fungous Diseases of Plants, 
Prof. B. M. Duggar, Prof. E. S. Salmon, 233 ; Annual 
Foray of the Mycological Section of the Yorkshire 
Naturalists' Union, 400; Cause of .Serious loss of Goose- 
berry Bushes in Cambridgeshire, T. F. Brooke and 
A. W. Bartlett, 402 



Nadir Observations, a Modified Method for, R. M. Stewart, 
439 

Nagelschmidt (Dr. Franz), Thermal Effects Produced by 
High-frequency Currents, Address at Royal Society of 
Medicine, 542 

Natural History : Early Developmental History of the 
Canadian Oyster. Dr. J. Stafford, 17; Linnean Society, 
29; a Singular Mammal called " Orocoma," Kumagusu 
Minakata, 40; Pwdre Ser, F. M. Burton, 40; W. B. 
Grove and B. Millard GriflRths, 73 ; C. Fitzhugh Talman, 
73; Prof. Frank Sfhlesinger, 105; Geo. H. Pcthybridge, 
139; Prof. T. McKenny Hughes, F.R.S., 171, 462; 
Revision of Australian Tortricina, E. Meyrick, F.R.S., 



64; New South Wales Linnean Society, 64, 196, 422, 
522 ; the Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural 
History Society, Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
80; Death of Col. Georges Agassiz, 81; the Nature- 
study Idea, L. H. Bailey, 100; Man and Nature on Tidal 
Waters, Arthur H. Patterson, 100; Tommy's Adventures 
in Natureland, Sir Digby Pigott, C.B., 100; Animal 
Romances, Graham Renshaw, 100; Pelagic Sealing, J. T. 
Jenkins, 115; Method Employed in American Museum of 
_ Natural History for Mounting Skins of Large Mammals, 
117; Traffic in Feathers and the Need for Legislation, 
J. Buckland, 117; Short History of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 119; the Prince and 
his ."^nts (Ciondolino), Luigi Bertelli, 138; the Book of 
Nature Study, 146 ; Tillers of the Ground, Dr. Marion 
I. Newbigin, 16S ; Threads in the Web of Life, Margaret 
R. Thomson and Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, i6S ; Natur- 
wissenschaftliches Unterrichtswerk fiir hohere Madchen- 
schulen. Dr. K. Smalian and K. Bermau, 171 ; Limita- 
tions of Species and Races of the Yellow-necked Field- 
mouse, G. Dalgliesh, 180 ; National Antarctic Expedi- 
tion, 1901-4, Natural History, vol. v., Zoology and 
Botany, 206; Date Gardens of the Jerid, Dr. T. H. 
Kearney, 247 ; Natural Features of the Australian 
Grampians, A. G. Campbell, 271 ; Centenary of Death 
of Filippo Cavolini, 313, 500; "Schools" of Caa'ing 
Whales, Clobicephalus meles, in the Faroes, 315; the 
Black Bear, William H. Wright, 327 ; History of the 
Discovery of the Chinese Alligator, T. Barbour, 341 ; die 
Antike Tierwelt, Otto Keller, 357 ; Flower Gardens upon 
Vacant Land, 369 ; Additional Protected Area for Birds 
in East Sussex, 371 ; Cultivation in Dalmatia of the 
Spineless Variety of Cactus, Dr. C. C. Hosseus, 372 ; 
the Habits of Worms, Rev. Hilderic Friend, 397 ; Hunting 
Birds with the Camera, W. Bickerton, 402 ; Revisional 
Notes on Carabidae (Coleoptera), T. G. Sloane, 422 : 
Jack's Insects, Edward Selous, 427; the Fur Trade. 
Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, 428 ; Monument to Gregor Mendel, 
435 : Science in Modern Life, Botany, J. M. F. Drum- 
mond. Zoology, Prof. J. R. Ainsworth Davis, Science 
and the Sea Fisheries, Dr. J. Travis Jenkins, 464 ; a 
Bush Calendar, Amy E. Mack, 464 ; Nature Studies bv 
Night and Day, F. C. Snell, 464: Insect Wonderland, 
Constance M. Foot, 464: the Landscape Beautiful, F. A. 
Waugh, 464; Bees for Profit and Pleasure, H. Geary. 
464 ; Grouse and Grouse Moors, Charles Malcolm and 
Aymer Maxwell, 466 ; Life and Sport on the Norfolk 
Broads in the Golden Days, Oliver G. Ready, 466 ; Fauna 
of the Kola Fjord, K. Derjugen, 505 ; Our .Search for a 
Wilderness, Mary Blair Beebe and C. William Beebc, 
525 ; Concealing Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, 
Gerald H. Thayer, 532 
Navigation, History of. Prof. Marguet, 317 
Naville (Edouard), the Funeral Papyrus of loniya, 237 
Nebula M51 (Canum Venaticorum), the Spiral, Madame 

Dorothea Isaac Roberts, 214 
NebulsE, Photographs of. Dr. Ritchey, 183 
Needham (Prof. James G.), General Biology, 137 
Negro and Negroid Races, the Anatomy and Relationship 
of the, Hunterian Lectures at Royal College of Surgeons, 
Prof. Arthur Keith, 54 
Neogi (Panchanan), Preparation of Phenyl-nitro-methane 
by the Interaction of Mercurous Nitrite and Benzyl 
Chloride, 292 
Neptune, New Ephemerides for Saturn, Uranus, and. Dr. 

Downing, 472 
Neptune's Satellite, Observations of. Prof. Barnard, 472 
Neufert (Dr.), Open-air Schools, 320 
Neumann (Prof. F. von). Death of, 245 

Neurology : Cutaneous Innervation of the Lumbo-sacral 
Region in the Dog, Dr. Ferruccio Rossi, 315 ; Death of 
Prof. Fulgence Raymond, 435 
New South Wales Linnean Society, 64, 196, 422, 522 
Newall (Prof.), the Cambridge Observatory, 472 
Newbigin (Dr. Marion I.), Tillers of the Ground, 16S 
Newcomb (Prof. Simon), Popular Astronomy, 171 
Newstead (R.), Ticks and other Blood-sucking Arthropoda 

of Jamaica, 83 
Nicholson (Dr. J. W.), Initial Motion of Electrified Spheres, 

514 
Nicol (J.), X-Ray Spectra, 139 



Index 



u 



Nature, 
.'euibey 24, 1910 



Nicolle (Charles), Properties of the Serum of Convalescents 
and Animals Cured of Exanthematic Typhus, 456 

Niedere I'fianzen, Dr. R. Timm, 326 

Nijland (Prof.), the Maximum of Mira in 1909, 273 

Nikaido (Y.), Beet Sugar Making and its Chemical Control, 
424 

Niles (Prof. William H.), Death of, 370, 468 

Nomenclature of Radio-activity, the, Norman R. Campbell, 
203 

Nordenskjold (Dr. O.), die Polarwelt und ihre Nachbar- 
lander, 236 ; Glacial Erosion, 442 

Nordmann (M.), Halley's Comet, 19 

Norfolk Broads, Life and Sport on the, in the Golden Days, 
Oliver G. Ready, 466 

Norwegian and Other Fish Tales, Bradnock Hall, 69 

Nottinghamshire, Dr. H. H. Swinnerton, 527 

Novvikoff (Dr. M.), Structure, Development, and Signific- 
ance of the Parietal Eye of Saurians, 469 

Nubia, the Archfeological Survey of, Prof. G. Elliot Smith 
and Dr. D. E. Derry, 406 

Observatories : Harvard College Observatory, Prof. E. C. 
Pickering, 86 ; Reports of Meteorological Observatories, 
123 ; the United States Naval Observatory, 152 ; Mars in 
1909 as Seen at the Lowell Observatory, Prof. Percival 
Lowell, 172 ; the Paris Observatory, M. BaiUaud, 272 ; 
the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington, 404 ; 
Transactions of the Astronomical Observatory of Yale 
University, Parallax Investigations on Thirty-five Selected 
Stars by Frederick L. Chase, Mason F. Smith, and 
William L. Elkin, 433 ; Liste des Observatoires Magn^- 
tiques et des Observatoires S^ismologiques, E. Merlin and 
O. .Somville, 460 ; the Cambridge Observatory, Sir Robert 
Ball, 472 ; Prof. Newall, 472 ; Bremen " Meteorological 
Year-book," 1909, 546; Liverpool Observatory (1909), 
546: Royal Albert Observatory, Mauritius (1909), 546; 
Transvaal Meteorological Department (1908-9), 546; 
Deutsche iiberseeische meteorologische Beobachtungen, 
546 

Oceanography : Report of the Danish Oceanographic Ex- 
pedition, 116; Deep-sea Observations in the North 
Atlantic made by the Michael Sars Expedition, 149 : 
Expedition Antarctique Beige, R^sultats du Voyage du 
S.Y. Belgica en 1897-8-9, sous le Commandement de A. 
de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports scientifiques, Oceano- 
graphic — les Glaces — Glace de Mer et Banquises, H. 
-Arctowski, 205 

Occultation, an Interesting, Arthur Burnet, 73 

Odontology : Our Teeth, R. Denison Pedley and Frank 
Harrison, 237 

Okada (Dr. T.), Application of the Method of Correlation 
to Investigations of the Connection between Meteoro- 
logical Elements at Different Places, 470 

Oldham (C), the Mammals and Birds of Cheshire, 175 ; 
the Reptiles and Amphibians of Cheshire, 175 

Oliver (R. B.), Flora and Plant Formations of the 
Kermadec, 543 

Olivier (Dr. Louis), Death of, 245 ; Obituary Notice of, 269 

Onnes (H. Kamerlingh), Rectilinear Diameter of Oxvgcn, 
131, 262 

Ooze and Irrigation, Rev. Hilderic Friend, 39, 70; .'\. R. 
Horwood, 40 

Ophthalmology : Experimental Ocular Action of the Dust 
on Tarred Roads, H. True and C. Fleig, 456 

Optics : Relation of Light-perception to Colour Perception, 
Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green, 62 ; Instruments optiques 
d'Observation et de Mesure, Jules Raibaud, 68 ; the 
Pressure of Light against the Source, the Recoil from 
flight, Baknrian Lecture at Royal Society, Prof. J. H. 
Poynting, F.R.S., and Dr. Guy Barlow, 139; Curious 
\'isual Phenomenon Resulting from Stimulation of the 
Alacular Region of the Retina, Dr. J. C. Hubbard, 148 ; 
Colour Vision at the Ends of the Spectrum, Rt. Hon. 
Lord Rayleigh, CM., F.R.S., 204; Tests for Colour 
Vision, 208 ; Commander D. Wilson-Barker, 363 ; Colour- 
blindness and Colour-perception, Dr. F. W. Edridge- 
Green, 263; Colour-vision, R. M. Deeley, 267; Tests for 
Colour-blindness Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green, 495 ; the 
Reviewer, 495 ; .Sight Tests in the Mercantile Slarine, 
537 ; Influence of Uniformity and Contrast on the Amount 



of Light Required, H. Bohle, 422 ; the Thomas Young 
Oration at the Optical Society, Prof. R. \V. Wood, 443 

Orangia, Geological and Archaeological Notes on, J. P. 
Johnson, 465 

Orationes et Epistote Cantabrigicnses (1876-1909), Dr. 
John Edwin Sandys, Dr. R. Y. Tyrrell, 35 

Orchid, a New Italian, W. Herbert Cox, 104 

Ore Deposits, the Geology of, H. H. Thomas and D. A. 
MacAlister, 293 

Ore Deposits of South Africa, the, J. P. Johnson, 293 

Ore Deposits, Structure and Distribution of, 198 

Ornithology : the Fifth International Congress of Ornith- 
ologists, 53 ; Polyglot List of Birds in Turki, Manchu, 
and Chinese, Dr. E. D. Ross, 186 ; Playing-grounds and 
Nests of the Yellow-spotted Bower-bird {Chlamydodera 
giittala), F. L. Whitlock, 186; a History of the Birds of 
Kent, Norman F. Ticehurst, 241 ; an Undescribed 
Feather Element, Fredk. J. Stubbs, 329 ; W. P. Pycraft, 
436; Prof. R. V. Lendenfeld, 436; Death of William 
liarl Dodge Scott, 340 ; a History of Birds, W. P. 
Pycraft, 367 ; Bird Notes, 378 ; Nature and Meaning of 
the Colours of Birds, Dr. H. Gadow, 378 ; Feeding 
Habits of the Razor-bill, W. Frohawk, 378 ; Instinct and 
Intelligence in Birds, Prof. F. H. Herrick, 378; Catalogo 
Sistematico y Descriptive de las Aves de la Republica 
Argentina, Roberto Dabbene, 427 ; Report of Migration 
Committee for 1908-g, 469 ; Nomenclature of Some 
British Birds, Dr. Hartert, 504 

"Orocoma," a Singular Mammal called, Kumagusu 
Minokata, 40 

Orthoptera of Western Europe, a Synopsis of the, Dr. 
Malcolm Burr, 39 

Ortmann (Dr. A. E.), on a Theory that a Connection 
between Africa and South America Persisted into the 
Tertiary, 89 

Orton (Dr. H.), Rontgen-rav Diagnosis, 153 

Osaka (Y.), Solubility of Ether in Water, 248 

Oscroft (P. W.), a Manual of Elementary Practical 
Chemistry for Use in the Laboratory, 266 

Oswald (Dr. Felix), Trans-Himalaya, 180 ; Tectonic De- 
velopment of the Armenian Highlands, 437 

Ouachita Valley, Antiquities of the, Clarence B. Moore, 
Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 129 

Oxford University, the Reform of, 331 

Oxley (A. E.), Apparatus for a Production of Circularly 
Polarised Light, 5:5 

Packer (Dr. E.), the Perseid Meteoric Shower, 24S 

Page (L. W.), Systems of Road Administration, 162 

Paget (Cecil W.), Running-shed Practice, 155 

Pahlen (Herr v. d.), Halley's Comet, 86 

Painlev6 (Prof. Paul), 1 'Aviation, 229 

Paint, Luminous, R. G. Durrant, 530 

Painting, Greek and Roman Methods of. Some Comments 
on the Statements Made by Pliny and Vitruvius about 
Wall and Panel Painting, Dr. A. P. Laurie, 265 

Palaiobotany : Plant-remains from the Cretaceous of Mesa 
Verde, Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, 89 ; Studies on the 
Structure and Affinities of Cretaceous Plants, Dr. Marie C. 
Stopes and Prof. K. Fujii, 129; Expedition Antarctique 
Beige, R^sultats du Voyage du S.Y. Belgica en 1897— 8-g 
sous le Commandement de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, 
Rapports scientifiques, Quelques Plantes Fossiles des 
Magellaniques, Prof. A. Gilkinet, 205 ; Plant Remains in 
the Scottish Peat Mosses, Francis J. Lewis, 227; 
Remains of a Triassic Forest in Arizona, Dr. E. C. 
Jeffrey, 247 ; Fossil Remains of a Conifer, Dr. E. C. 
Jeffrey, 247 ; Some Recent Studies of Fossil Plants, 473 ; 
Fossil Plants, a Text-book for Students of Botany and 
Geology, Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., 490; the Relation 
of PalEeobotany to Plant-phylogeny, Prof. Penhallow, 
505 ; Ancient Plants, being a Simple Account of the Past 
Vegetation of the Earth and of the Recent Important 
Discoveries made in this Realm of Nature Study, Dr. 
Marie C. Stopes, 523 ; an Irish Pteridosperm, Prof. T. 
Johnson, 531 

PaIa>ontographical Society, loi 

PnliEontology : Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa in the 
Department of Geology, British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), Prof. J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., 8; Fossil Vertebrates 



Nature, "I 

ciul'cr 24, iQiuJ 



Index 



in the American Museum of Natural History, 12 ; Ali- 
mentary Canal of a Branchiosaurian Salamandar from 
the Carboniferous Shales of Maion Creek, Dr. R. L. 
Moodie, 17 ; Remains of the Gigantic Extinct Australian 
Marsupial Uiprolodon, 49; New Model of the Skull and 
Mandible of the Gigantic Extinct Lemur, Megaladapis 
insignis, from Madagascar, 49 ; Skeletons of Plesio- 
saurians from the Upper Lias of Holzmaden, Dr. E. 
Kraas, 82 ; Evolution of the Horned Dinosaurs, R. S. 
Lull, 8g ; Complete Skeleton of a New Species of the 
Ca[nel-like Genus Stenomylus from the Harrison Beds of 
Nebraska, F. Loomis, 89 ; Relationship of the South 
African Fossil Reptiles to those Found in other Parts of 
the World, Dr. Broom, 158; Indian Pakeontology, 159; 
Marine Lower 'I'riassic Formations of the Himalayas, 
Prof. C. Diener, 159; F'auna of the Traumatocrinus 
Limestone of Painkhanda, Prof. C. Diener, 159 ; 
Devonian Faunas of the Northern Shan Stales, F. R. 
Cowper Reed, 159 ; Relation of Embryology and Verte- 
brate Palajontology, Prof. R. S. Lull, 211 ; Local Races 
of the Musk-ox, Dr. K. Wanderer, 211; Existence in 
Belgian Caverns of Layers containing Remains of Arctic 
Rodents, A. Rutot, 315 ; Cambrian Fossils from the 
Bhabch Rocks of Spiti, F. R. C. Reed, 342 ; Eyes of 
Trilobites, Prof. C. D. Walcott, 371 ; Silurian Fossils of 
the South Yarra District, F. Chapman, 401 ; Hum.m 
Skulls and Skeletons and Supposed Evidence of Human 
Work, Dr. F. .^meghino, 402 ; Cetacean Remains from 
the Superficial Deposits of Canada, G. H. Perkins, 371 ; 
Relationship of Permian Reptiles of North America to 
those of South, Dr. R. Broom, 402 ; Extinct Monsters 
and Creatures of Other Days, Rev. H. N. Hutchinson, 
459 ; Discovery of a Skeleton of Diprotodon in the 
Smithton District, H. H. Scott, 469 ; Discovery of 
Worked Flints beneath Undisturbed Deposits of Crag in 
the Neighbourhood of Ipswich, J. Reid Moir, 503 ; 
Description of a Fossil Chiton (.Mollusca) from North- 
west Tasmania, A. F. Basset Hull, 522 ; New Genera and 
Species of Mammals from the Indian Siwaliks, G. E. 
Pilgrim, 542 

Palazzo (Prof. L.), Magnetic Survey of Sardinia, 437 

Pansies, Violas, and Violets, 326 

Parallelism, Theories of, an Historical Critique, W. B. 
Frankland, 169 

Parasitischen Samenpflanzen, die Aufzucht und Kultur der, 
Prof. E. Heinricher, 327 

Parasitology : Development of Trypanosoma leivisi in the 
Rat-flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus). Dr. N. H. Swellen- 
grebel and C. Strickland, 63 ; Nova tripanosomiaze 
humana, C. Chagas, Prof. E. A. Minchin, 142 ; Life- 
history of Trypanosoma Icwisi in the Rat-louse, Haemato- 
piiiiis spinulosiis, A. Brienl and E. Hindle, 150 ; a Hand- 
book of Practical Parasitology, Prof. Max Braun and 
Dr. .\L Liihe, 393 ; Trypanosome Found in the Blood of 
a Patient in Sumatra, 504 

Paris : Paris Academy of Sciences, 63, 98, 131, 163, 196, 
228, 261, 292, 324, 356, 390, 421, 45O, 488, 555; the Paris 
Observatory, M. Baillaud, 272 ; the Third International 
Congress of School Hygiene at Paris, August 2-7, 1910, 
320; the International Cancer Conference at, 545 

Parker (W. B.), Life-history and the Means of Controlling 
the Hop Flea-beetle, 117 

Parry (Leonard), Fire Tests with Textiles, 429 

Paterno (Prof.), Recent Work on Colloidal Solutions, 471 

Pathology : Death of Prof, von Recklinghausen, 339 

Patten (Prof. C. J.), Semination in the Sanderling, 550 

Patterson (Arthur H.), -Man and Nature on Tidal Waters, 
100 

Pearson (Dr. H. H. W'.), Botanical Expedition through 
Western Districts of Cape Colony, 160 

Pearson (Prof. Karl), Nature and Nurture, 149 

Pearson (R. Hooper), Pansies, Violas, and Violets, 326 

Peddie (Prof. W.), Continuous and Stable Isothermal 
Change of .State, 30 

Peddle (C. J.), Molecular Association in Water, 519 

Pedley (R. Dcnison), Our Teeth, 237 

Pedroso (Prof.), Death of, 313 

Peile (Dr. John), De.ath and Obituary Notice of, 467 ; a 
Correction, the Writer of the Article, 49(1 

Pelabon (H.), Batteries with Antimony and ."Antimony 
Selinides, 555 



Pelikan (A.), Expedition Antarctique Beige, R^sultats du 
\'oyage du S.Y. Belgica en 1897-8-9, sous le Commande- 
ment de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports scienti- 
fiques, Geologic — Petrographische Untersuchung der 
Gesteinproben, 205 
Pellagra, Recent Investigations on, Dr. Louis Sambon, 538 
Pelseneer (Prof.), Occurrence of Hermaphroditism in 

Lamellibranchs, 319 
Penck (Prof.), Glacial Erosion, 441, 442 
Penhallow (Prof.), the Relation of Palaiobotany to Plant- 

phylogeny, 505 
Perfilograph, the, Augustus Mercau, 434 
Pericle (Dr. G.), Velocity e Direzione delle Corrente Aeree 
alle diverse Altitudini Determinate a Mezzo dei Palloni- 
Sonde e Pilote, 249 
Peringuey (Dr. L.), Notes on some Bushmen, 98 ; Recent 
Finds Made in Rock Shelters once Occupied by Strand 
Loopers, 262 
Pcrkin (Dr. F. MoUwo), the British Section of the Brussels 

Exhibition, 398; .Action of .Metals upon Alcohols, 520 
Perkins (G. H.), Cetacean Remains from the Superficial 

Deposits of Canada, 371 
Perot (A.), Displacement of Spectral Lines at the Sun's 

Limb, 85 
Perrine (Prof. C. D.), Further Observations of Halley's 
Comet, 374 ; the International Scientific Congress at 
Buenos Aires, 509 
Perry (S. J.), Mortality of the Tuberculous in Relation to 

Sanatorium Treatment, 371 
(p Persei, Spectrum and Radial \'elocily of, Dr. Ludendorff, 

507 
Perseid Meteoric Shower, 1910, W. F. Denning, 204, 248; 
C. L. Brook, 248 ; W. H. Steavenson, 248 ; Miss Warner, 
248; Dr. E. Packer, 248; W. Johnson, 248; E. F. 
Sawyer, itio 
Pcrseids, Observations of, in 1909, S. Beljawsky, 184 
Peru, the Mineral Survey of, 217 
Petch (Mr.), Root Disease of the Cocoa-nut Palm caused 

by the Fungus Fames lucidus, 212 
Peters (W. J.), Magnetic Results of the First Cruise of the 
Carnegie, 119; Tables of Corrections to the British 
.Xdmiraltv, the German Admiralty, and the United States 
Hydrographic Department Magnetic Charts of the North 
.\tlantic, 544 
Pethybridge (Geo. H.), Pwdre Ser,ii39 
Petit (R.), How to Build an Aeroplane, 229 
Petri (E.), Earth-current Observations in Stockholm during 

the Transit of Halley's Comet on May J9, 9 
Petrie (Prof. Flinders), Discovery in the Neighbourhood of 
the Pyramid of Sneferu (B.C. 4600) of a Stone Tomb 
Dating from a Time before the Construction of the 
Pyramid, 401 ; Early Burial Customs in Egypt, 494 
Petrology : Recent Papers on Petrology, 375 ; Measurement 
of Extinction Angles in Thin Section, F. E. Wright, 
375 ; Synthetic Study of Diopside and its Relations to 
Calcium and Magnesium Metasilicates, Messrs. Allen, 
White, W'right, and Larsen, 375 ; New Views on Quartz, 
Messrs. Wright and Larsen, 375 ; Quartz in Druses from 
the Government of Olonetz, M. Borisov, 375 ; Binary 
Systems of Alumina with Silica, Lime, and Magnesia, 
Jiessrs. Shepherd, Rankin, and Wright, 375 ; Molecule 
Corresponding to Soda-anorthite in a Felspar from 
Linosa, Messrs. Washington and Wright, 375 ; Hydro- 
gelen im Mineralreiche, F. Cornu, 375 ; Galactite, a 
Mixture of Natrolite and Scolezite, G. C^saro, 376 ; 
.Average Chemical Compositions of Igneous-rock Types, 
R. A. Daly, 376 ; Averages of Analyses of Stony 
Meteorites, G. P. Merrill, 376 ; the Gases in Rocks, R. T. 
Chamberlin, 376 ; Origin of Augite-andesite, R. A. Daly, 
■576 ; Distribution, Origin, and Relationships of ."Mkaline 
Rocks, Dr. H. I. Jenson, 376; Occurrence of a Basalt 
in the Volcanic Cone of Tritriva in Central Madagascar, 
A. Boudariat and Dr. Johnston-Lavis, 376 ; Ordovician 
Rhvolites of Nant Ffrancon, Carnarvonshire, C. B. 
Travis, 376; the " Kalksilekatfelse " near Mahrisch- 
Schbnberg in the Sudetic, F. Kretschmer, 377 ; Eruptive 
Rocks of the Bohemian Eisengebirge, Dr. Hinterlechner 
and C. von John, 377 ; Analyse der Silikat- und 
Karbonatgesteine, W. F. Hillebrand, 425 ; the Analysis of 
Silicate and Carbonate Rocks, W. F. Hillebrand, 
425 



Index 



V Nature, 

\_Novcinler 24, igii 



Petsch (Prof. Dr. Robert), Lessings Briefwechsel mit 
Mendelssohn und Nicolai iiber das Trauerspiel, 294 

Pettit (A.), Forms of Endogenous Multiplication of 
Hacmogregariiia sebai, 131 ; an Epidemic Disease in 
Trout, 228 

Pflanzengarten, der, seine Anlage und seine Verwerkung, 
Prof. F. Pfuhl, 326 

Pfuhl (Prof. F.), der Pflanzengarten, seine Anlage und seine 
Verwerkung', 326 

Pharmacy: the British Pharmaceutical Conference, 156; 
Pharmaceutical Research, F. Ranscm, 156; Standardisa- 
tion of Disinfectants, Prof. Sims Woodhead and Dr. C. 
Ponder, 156; Prof. R. T. Hewlett, 156; the Rideal- 
W'alker Test, C. T. Kingzett and R. C. Woodcock, 156; 
-Modification of Mendel^eff's Classification of the 
Elements, J. F. Tocher, 156; Water Analysis, J. E. 
Purvis, 156 ; International Congress of Pharmacy, 354 ; 
.Analytical Methods, 354 : Sale of Proprietary Disin- 
fectants, 354 ; Biochemical Method of E.xaminalion of 
\egetable Glucosides Hydrolysed by Emulsion, Prof. 
Bourquelot, 354 ,• Chemical Method of Obtaining the 
True Glucoside Arbutin, Prof. Herissey, 355 ; Establish- 
ment of the Constitution of the Aloins, Mr. Legei , 355 , 

rhilippi (E.), die Grundproben der Deutschen Siidpolar 
E.xpedition, 1901-3, 167 

Plii-Ilips (Charles E. S.), Electrical and other Properties 
of .Sand, Discourse at Royal Institution, 255 

Philology : the New School of Japan, Founded for the 
Purpose of Making the Use of the Newly Invented 
Letters, F. Victor Dickins, 7 ; Death and Obituary 
Notice of Dr. John Peile, 467; a Correction, the Writer 
of the Article, 496 

Philosophies, Prof. Ronald Ross, F.R.S., C.B., 493 

Philosophy : Gustav Freytags Kultur- und Geschichts- 
psychologie, Dr. Georg Schridde, 294 ; Lessings Brief- 
wechsel mit Mendelssohn und Nicolai iiber das 
Trauerspiel, Prof. Dr. Robert Petsch, 294; Hegels 
Asthetik im Verhaltnis zu Schiller, A. Lewkowitz, 294 ; 
Uber Christian Wolff's Ontologie, Hans Pichler, 294; 
Zwei V'ortrjige zur Naturpliilosophie, Hans Driesch, 294 ; 
an Inconsistent Preliminary Objection against Posi- 
tivism, Prof. Robert Ardigo, 461 

Photography : Marine Biological Photography, Francis 
Ward, 10; Photographs of Aurora;, Carl Stormer, 86; 
the Ultra-rapid Kinematograph, Prof. C. V. Boys, 
F.R.S., 112; the .Accurate Measurement of Photographs, 
Prof. E. C. Pickering, 1S4 ; the Fifth International 
Congress of Photography, 215 ; Photo-surveying in 
Canada, E. Deville, 215; on the Photographic Emulsion, 
Prof. Wilder D. Bancroft, 215; Theory of Development, 
J. Desalme, 215 ; Measuring the True Opacity or Obstruc- 
tive Power of Photographic Plates, F. F. Renwick, 215; 
How to take Photographs with Infra-red and Ultra-violet 
Lights, Prof. R. W. Wood, 215; \'arious Gelatine- 
hardening Agents, A. and L. Lumiere and A. Seyewetz, 
216; the Telegraphy of Photographs, Wireless and by 
Wire, T. Thorne Baker, 220 ; the Telegraphic Transmis- 
sion of Photographs, T. Thorne Baker, 460 ; the Royal 
Photographic Society's E.\hibition, 273 ; Photomicro- 
graphs of Botanical Studies, 296 ; the Photographic 
-Annual, 1910-1, 296; Chemistry for Photographers, 
Chas. F. Townsend, 327 

'Physics : Variation of Young's Modulus under an Electric 
Current, Dr. H. W'alker, 30; Continuous and Stable 
Isothermal Change of State, Prof. W. Peddle, 30; Death 
of Prof. T. H. Core, 47 ; Evaporation from a Solid 
Sphere, H. W. Morse, 51 ; Gas-calculator Designed by 
Dr. R. C. Farmer, 51 ; Determination of the Ratio of 
Mass to Weight, L. Southerns, 62 ; Appearance of Certain 
Dielectric Anomalies by Changing the State of the 
Insulating Medium, Louis Malcl^s, 64 ; Exclusive Pres- 
ence in the Gases Evolved from some Hydrogenated 
Flames of Ions altogether -Analogous to those Produced 
by Riintgen Rays, lilaurice de Broglie, 64 ; Traits de 
Physique. O. D. Chwolson, 65 ; Instruments optiques 
d'Oljsirvation et de Mcsure, Jules Raibaud, 68 ; Elemental 
Weight .Accurately a Function of the Volution of Best 
■Space-symmetry Ratios, H. Newman Howard, 71, 239; 
Determination of Vertical Motion of Air, during Balloon 
Ascents, 84 ; Novel Technical Thermometer, Messrs. 
Townson and -Mercer, 84; Colour of the Sea, J. V. 



Buchanan, F.R.S., 87; Static Method for Determining 
the Vapour Pressures of Solids and Liquids, and the 
\'apour Pressures of Mercury, Prof. Alex. Smith and 
A. W. C. Menzies, 97 ; the Ascent of Sap, Leclerc Du 
Sablon, 98 ; Sap-rising Forces in Living Wood, E. 
Reinders, 181 ; Light and Sound, W. S. Franklin and 
Barry Macnutt, E. Edser, 103 ; Coefficients of Com- 
pressibility and of Dilation with Temperature of Certain 
Pure Metals and .Alloys, Prof. S. Lussana, 118; the 
Pressure of Light against the Source, the Recoil from 
Light, Bakerian Lecture at Royal Society, Prof. J. H. 
Poynting, F.R.S., and Dr. Guy Barlow, 139 ; Wonders 
of Physical Science, E. E. Fournier, 168 ; Aqueous Solu- 
tions of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate Form a Good Filter 
for Stopping Heat Rays, R. A. Houstoun and J. Logic, 
182 ; Ultra-microscopic Method of Measuring the Electric 
Charges Carried by Small Particles, Dr. F. Ohrenhaft, 
182 ; Physical Society, 195 ; the Convection of Heat from 
a Body Cooled by a Stream of Fluid, Dr. .A. Russell, 
195; Hysteresis Loops and Lissajous's Figures, and on 
the Energy Wasted in a Hysteresis Loop, Prof. S. P. 
Thompson, 195 ; Cryoscopic Determination of the 
Osmotic Pressures in some Plant Organs, W. R. G. 
Atkins, 211 ; Duddell Oscillographs, 212 ; Vibration of a 
Tuning Fork, Gabriel Sizes and G. Massol, 228 ; the 
Temperature Coefficients of the Ferromagnetic Metals, 
Dr. J. R. -Ashworth, 238; the Daily Alovement of the 
Top of the Eiffel Tower, R. Bourgeois, 261 ; Diurnal 
Variation of Level at Kimberley, Dr. J. R. Sutton, 262 ; 
Electric and Magnetic Double Refraction, P. Langevin, 
262 ; Effect of the Electric Discharge on Water Vapour, 
E. Jacot, 262 ; Temperature of " Invar " Wire, B. F. E. 
Keeling, 272 ; the Law of Variation of the Coefficient of 
Specific Magnetisation of the Elements of Heating, 
Kotaro Honda, 324 ; Spectrograph with a Prism having 
Spherical Faces so Designed that the Image of the Slit 
is in Focus on the Photographic Plate, M. C. F^ry, 343 : 
New Form of Calorimeter, 343 ; the Law of Definite 
Proportions, C. E., 364; Comparison of the Different 
Methods of Measuring the Dielectric Constant, Paul 
Floquet, 390 ; Thermal Expansion of Metals, Dr. E. 
Griineisen, 403 ; \'ery Viscid Fluid to make Dumb-bell 
by the Union of the Drops of Two Bubbles, C. G. Thorp, 
436 ; Prof. C. V. Boys, 436 ; Measurements of the Exact 
Volume of the Kilogram of Water, M. Darboux, 456 ; 
Geschichtstafein der Physik, Prof. Felix .Auerbach, 457 ; 
Death of Maurice L^vy, 4C8 ; Obituary Notice of, 502 ; 
.Absolute Manometer for the Measurement of Gas Pres- 
sures not Greater than a Few Thousandths of a Milli- 
metre of Mercury, Dr. M. Knudsen, 471 ; Constitution of 
Matter, Prof. Jean Becquerel, 506 ; Method for Prevent- 
ing the Tarnishing of Silver-on-glass Parabolic Mirrors, 
T. Thorp, 521 ; Velocity of Negative Ions in Hydrogen 
at Atmospheric Pressure, A. M. Tyndall, 531 ; Law of 
Resistance to Crushing of Cylindrical Bodies as a 
Function of their Dimensions, F. Robin, 555 ; Application 
of the Principle of .Archimides to the Exact Determina- 
tion of Gaseous Densities, -A. Jacquerod and M. Turpaian, 
556 ; see also British Association 

Physiographical Introduction to Geography, a. Prof. A. J. 
Herbertson, 426 

Physiology : Structure, Development, and Morphological 
Interpretation of the Pineal organs and adjacent parts 
of the Brain in the Tuatara Sphenadon punctatus), 
Prof. A. Dendy, 61 ; Comparative Toxicity of Theo- 
bromine and Caffeine as Measured by their Direct Effects 
upon the Contractility of Isolated Muscle, V. H. Veley 
and Prof. .A. D. Waller, 62 ; Development of the Germ 
Cells in the Mammalian Ovary, Dr. A. Louise M'llroy, 
97 ; Handbuch der vergleichenden Physiologic, 102 ; Die 
Saugetierontogenese in ihrer Bedeutung fur die Phylo- 
genie der Wirbeltiere, Prof. A. A. W. Hubrecht, 134; 
the Relative Size of the Heart in different Groups of 
-Animals, Miss F. Buchanan, 148; Colour Vision at the 
Ends of the Spectrum, Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh, O.M., 
F.R.S., 204; Tests for Colour Vision, 208; Commander 
D. Wilson-Barker, 363 ; Colour-Blindness and Colour- 
Perception, Dr. F. W. Edridffo-Green, 263 ; Colour-vision. 
R. M. Deelcy, 267 ; Tests for Colour-Blindness, Dr. F. W. 
Edridge-Green, 49-; : the Reviewer, 405 ; Siijht Tests in 
the Alercantile .Marine, 537 ; Death and Obituary Notice 



Nature^ 
November 34,-191 



o] 



Index 



li William James, 268 ; Death of Dr. Robert Amory, 340 ; 
I'hysiologische Studien im Hochgebirge : Versuche iiber 
den repiratorischen Stoffwechsel im Hocligebirge, R. F. 
Kuchs and T. Deimler, Leonard Hill, F.R.S., 369; Ob- 
servations on Animal Calorimetry made on Mt. Blanc, 
H. Guillemard and G. Regnier, 456; Death of Dr. 
K. \V. D. Fraser, 468 ; Death of Dr. Sydney Ringer, 
F.R.S., 502; Obituary Notice of, 540; Plant Physiology, 
Anatomy, and Morphology of the Leaves and Inflores- 
cences of Wehvitschia mirabilis, M. G. Sykes, 62 ; see also 
British Association. 
Picard (Prof. Emile), " Savants du Jour," Ernest Lebon, 

119 
Pichler (Hans), Uber Christian Wolff's Ontologie, 294 
Pickering (Prof. E. C), Harvard College Observatory, 86 ; 

the Accurate Measurement of Photographs, 184 
Pickering (Prof.), Metcalf's Comet, igiob, 344 
Pickford (A. G.j, Elementary Projective Geometry, 136 
Piery (M.), Special Susceptibility of Children of Tuber- 
culous Parents, 508 
Pigott (Sir Digby, C.B.), Tommy's .-Adventures in Nature- 
land, 100 
Pilgrim (G. E.), New Genera and Species of Mammals 

from the Indian Siwaliks, 542 
Pinsent (Mrs.), Heredity at the Church Congress, 431 
Pisa, the Leaning Tower of. Prof. A. Batelli, 146; Edward 

G. Brown, 297; Arthur T. Bolton, 297 
Piutti (Prof. A.), Absorption of Helium in Salts and 

Minerals, 543 
Planetology : the Evolution of Worlds, Prof. Percival 

Lowell, William E. Rolston, 99 
Planets : New Canals and Lakes on Mars, JL Jonckheere, 
20; Subjective Phenomena on Mars, M. Antoniadi, 120; 
Mars in 1909 as seen at the Lowell Observatory, Prof. 
Percival Lowell, 172 ; Water Vapour on Mars, Prof. 
Campbell, 317; Prof. Frank W. Very, 495; a Suggested 
Volcanic Origin of Martian Features, Dr. Wilhelm 
Krebs, 344 ; Observations of Mercury, G. and J. 
Fournier, 213; M. Jarry-Desloges, 213; Occultations of ij 
Gemini by the Planet Venus, MM. Baldet, Qu^nisset, and 
Antoniadi, 196; the Recent Occultation of j| Geminorum 
by Venus, MM. Baldet, Qu^nisset, and Antoniadi, 317; 
a Suspected New Planet, Prof. J. Comas Sola, 344 ; an 
Oblique Belt of Jupiter, Scriven Bolton, 362 ; Observa- 
tions of Neptune's Satellite, Prof. Barnard, 472 ; New 
Ephemerides for Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, Dr. 
Downing, 472 ; a Bright Projection on Saturn, M. Mag- 
fiini. 507 
Pl.mt Cell, the, its Modifications and Vital Processes, 

H. A. Haig, 36 
Plant Physiology : -Anatomy and Morphology of the I,eaves 
and Inflorescences of Welwiischia mirahilis, M. G. 
.Sykes, 62 
Planta (F. S.), Filipino Racial Types at Taytay, 340 
Plants, Ancient, being a Simple Account of the Past Vege- 
tation of the Earth and the Recent Important Discoveries 
made in this Realm of Nature-Study, Dr. Marie C. 
Slopes, 523 
Plants, Fungous Diseases of. Prof. B. M. Duggar, Prof. 

F. S. Salmon, 233 
Piatt (.Arthur), Erasmus Darwin on Flying Machines, 397 
Pocklington (Dr. H. C, F.R.S.), Fermat's Theorem, 531 
Pocock (R. I.), the Origin of the " Blotched " Domestic 

Tabby Cat, 298; an Interesting Donkey Hybrid, 329 
Pocock (W. J.), Collection of Human Bones Found on the 
Site of an jAugustinian Friary near the Corn Market, 
Cambridge, 16 
Podmore (Frank), the Newer Spiritualism, 4S9 
Polarwelt, die, und ihre Nachbarlander, O. Nordenskjijld, 

236 
Political Economy : Death of Prof. F. von Neumann, 245 
Pomeroy (L. R.), Electrification of Trunk Lines, 155 
Ponder (Dr. C), Standardisation of Disinfectants, 156 
Poole (Margaret), Development of Afhysia punctata, 504 
Pope (Prof. William J., F.R.S.), the Chemical Significance 

of Crvstal Structure, Lecture at Royal Institution, 187 
Porter (Prof. Alfred W.), Electrical Discharge Figures, 72 
Positivism, an Inconsistent Preliminary Objection against. 

Prof. Robert Ardigo, 461 
Potter (Prof.), Destructive Action of Fungi and Bacteria, 
181 



Potter (Prof. M. C), Bacteria in their Relation to Plant 

Pathology, 18 
Potter (W. B.), Development of Apparatus for Higher 

Voltage Direct-current, 155 
Pougnet (M.), Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon Plants 

containing Coumarin, and Some Plants the Smell of 

which is Due to the Hydrolysis of Glucosides, 421 
Poultry : How to Keep Hens for Profit, C. S. Valentine, 

138; Inheritance of Characteristics in Domestic Fowl, 

C. B. Davenport, 253 
Pound (V. E.), Results of Experiments on the Secondary 

Radiation from Carbon at Low Temperatures when 

Bombarded by the a-Rays from Polonium, 516 
Poynting (Prof. J. H., F.R.S.), the Pressure of Light 

against the Source, the Recoil from Light, Bakerian 

Lecture at Royal Society, 139 
Precession and the Solar Motion, Prof. Boss, 249 
Prehistoric Man, Joseph McCabe, 39 
Prehistoric Rhodesia, Richard N. Hall, 32 
Presenti (Cesare), II Cemento Armato e la sua appllcacione 

practica, 358 
Price (Dr. T. Slater), Nature of Intermetallic Compounds, 

83 
Priestley (Mr.), Effect of Overhead Electrical Discharges 

on Plant Growth, 219 
Primrose (H. S.), Metallography as an .Md to the Brass 

Founder, 421 
Pring (Mr.), Examination of the .Atmosphere at Various 

Altitudes for Oxides of Nitrogen and Ozone, 1 19 
Proceedings of the Imperial Malaria Conference held at 

Simla in October, 1909, 240 
Prominences, Two Remarkable, Dr. F. Slocum, S44 
Protozoology : Anaplasma niarginale, a New Genus -and 

Species of the Protozoa, Dr. .-A. Theiler, 132 ; Develop- 
ment of Piroplasma parvnm (Protozoa) in the Various 

Organs of Cattle, Dr. R. Gonder, 132 
Psychiatry : a Te.\t-book of Mental Diseases, Prof. Eugenio 

Tanzi, 458 
Psychism, M. Hume, 103 
Psychology : Spirit and Matter before the Bar of Modern 

Science, Dr. Isaac W. Heysinger, 36 ; Ueber den Willen- 

sakt und das Temperament, Prof. Narziss Ach, 199 ; 

Death and Obituary Notice of William James, 268; Do 

Kittens Kill Mice Instinctively? R. M. Yerkes and D. 

Bloomfield", 436 ; the Newer Spiritualism, Frank Podmore, 

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S., 489 
Psychotherapy, Prof. Hugo Miinsterberg, 458 
Pteridosperm, an Irish, Prof. T. Johnson, 531 
Puisseux (M.), the Genesis of Var'ous Lunar Features, 120 
Punic Lamp, Nature of the Wick of, Eugfene Collin, 132 
Purvis (J. E.), Water Analysis, 156 
Putter (Prof. .August), die Ernahrung der Wassertiere und 

der Stoffhaushalt der Oewasser, 5 
Pwdre Ser, F. M. Bui-ton, 40; W. B. Grove and B. Millard 

GriflSths, 73 ; C. Fitzhugh Talman, 73 ; Prof. Frank 

Schlesinger, 105 ; Geo. H. Pethybridge, 139 ; Prof. T. 

McKenny Hughes, F.R.S., 174, 462 
Pycnogons, Antarctic, Dr. \V. T. Caiman, 104 
Pycraft (W. P.), a History of Birds, 367 ; an Undescribed 

Feather-Element, 436 



Quelch (J. J.), the Giant Moth-borer, 17 

Qu^nisset (F.), Occultation of tj Gemini by the Planet 

Venus, ig6 ; the Recent Occultation of t; Geminorum by 

Venus, 317; Metcalf's Comet, 507 



Radiation and Absorption, Prof. Humphreys, 52 
Radiography : Death of Harry AV. Cox, 47 ; Scattering of 
Homogeneous /3-rays, and the Number of Electrons in 
the Atom, J. A. Crowther, 61 ; Atomic AVeight of the 
Radium Emanation, A. Debierne, 63 ; Density of the 
Radium Emanation, Sir AA'illiam Ramsay and Robert 
AA'hytlaw Gray, 98 ; Radium Treatment, Drs. Dominici 
and AVickham, 153 ; Change of Colour of Sapphires and 
other Precious Stones by the Action of Radium, Mr. 
Ambrecht, 179 : the Ratio between Uranium and Radium 
in Minerals, Alex. S. Russell, 23S ; the Energy of the 
Radium Rays, AViiliam Duane, 262 : Isolation of Pure 
Radium, Madame Curie and M. Debierne, 313 ; Metallic 



Index 



t Nature, 

Notetnder-z^, igK 



Radium, Madame P. Curie and A. Debierne, 356 ; the 
;3-rays of Radium at its Minimum Activity, L^on 
Koiowat, 356 ; an Attempt to Determine tlie Supposed 
Cliange in Weight Accompanying tlie Radio-active Dis- 
integration of Radium, Dr. Bertram D. Steele, 428; 
Radium Standards and Nomenclature, Prof. E. Ruther- 
ford, K.R.S., 430; Isolation of .Metallic Radium, Mme. 
Curie, 478; X-ray Spectra, Prof. C. G. Barkla and J. 
Nicol, 130 ; Rontgen-ray Diagnosis, Dr. H. Orton and 
Dr. .A. C. Jordan, 153 ; Use of X-ray in tlie Diagnosis 
of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Dr. C. L. Minor, 436 ; .Ab- 
sorption and Adsorption with Reference to the Radio- 
active Emanations, Dr. R. W. Boyle, 152 ; Radiology 
and Medical Electricity, Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., 153 ; 
the Radio-balance, Prof. H. L. Callender, 195 ; the 
Nomenclature of Radio-activity, Norman R. Campbell. 
203 ; Properties of the o-particles Sent Out by Radio- 
active Substances, Dr. H. Geiger, 213; Radio-active Pro- 
jections, Louis Wertenstein, 261-2 ; Tables of Constants 
of lonisation and of Radio-activity, Prof. T. H. Laby, 316 ; 
•Arrangement for Registering Photographically the 
Number of a-particles Emitted bj' a Radio-active Sub- 
stance, \V. Duane, 316; Nature of the 7-rays, Prof. 
Bragg, 478 ; Homogeneous Radiation, Prof. Barkla, 47S ; 
Magnetic Deflection of ;8-rays, Dr. Hahn, 478 
Radiology and Electricity, the International Congress of, 

478 
Radium : the Ratio between Uranium and Radium in 
Minerals, Alex. S. Russell, 238; Frederick Soddy, 
F.R..S., 2q6 ; Radium Standards and Nomenclature, Prof. 
E. Rutherford, F.R.S., 436; see also Radiography 
Radl fDr. Em.), Geschichte der Biologischen Theorem, 
263 

Raibaud (Jules), Instruments optiques d'Observation et de 
Mesure, 68 

Rainfall, British, 1909, Dr. Hugh Robert Mill, 523 

Rainfall of Rhodesia and Australia, 187 

Ramsay (Sir William, K.C.B., F.R.S.), Density of the 
Radium Emanation, 98; Development of the Leblanc 
Process for the Manufacture of Soda, 213; Molecular 
Weight of Radium Emanation, 517 

Ranc (Albert), Action of the Ultra-violet Rays upon Certain 
Carbohydrates, 164 

Rangachari (K.), the Castes and Tribes of Southern India, 
36.5 

Rankin (.Mr.), Binary .Systems of Alumina with Silica, 
Lime, and Magnesia, 375 

Ransom (F.), Pharmaceutical Research, 156 

Ransome (F. L.), the Geology and Ore Deposits of Gold- 
field, Nevada, 76; Ore Deposits of the Cceur d'.Al^nc 
District, Idaho, 122 

Rassam (Hormuzd), Death of, 400 

Raw (Dr. Nathan), Analysis of 232 Fatal Cases of Tuber- 
culosis, 508 

Rawso.i (C), a Manual of Dyeing, 295 

Ray (Prof. Praphulla Chandra), a History of Hindu 
Chemistry from the Earliest Times to the Middle of the 
Sixteenth Century, a.d., with Sanskrit Texts, &c., 68 

Ray (S. H.), the Melanesians of British New Guinea, Dr. 
C. G. Seligmann, 499 

Raybaud (P.), les Aeroplanes, considerations th^oriques, 
229 

Rayleigh (Rt. Hon. Lord, CM., F.R.S.), on Colour Vision 
at the Ends of the Spectrum, 204 

Raymond (Prof. Fulgence), Death of, 435 

Ready (Oliver G.), Life and Sport on the Norfolk Broads 
in the Golden Days, 466 

Recklinghausen (Friedrich von). Death of, 339 

Recklinghausen (Max de). New Researches on the Sterilisa- 
tion of Large Quantities of Water by the Ultra-violet 
Ra.vs, 556 

Reed (F. R. Cowp'er), Devonian Faunas of the Northern 
Shan States, 159 ; Cambrian Fossils from the Bhabeh 
Rocks of .Spiti, 342 

Reed (J. Howard), Geography of British Cotton-growing, 
552. 

Regnier (G.), Observations on Animal Calorimetry made 
on Mt. Blanc, 456 

■Reid (G. Archdall), the Laws of Heredity, i 

Reid (Harry F.), the California Earthquake of April 18, 
1906, Vol. ii., the Mechanics of the Earthquake, 165 

Ri^inders (E.), .Sap-raising Forces in Living Wood, 181 



Rciss (G. E.), Unemployed Laboratory Assistants, 462 

Reissner (Prof. H.), die Seitensteuer der Flugmaschinen, 229 

Remnants of the Past, 89 

Renshaw (Graham), Animal Romances, 100 

Renwick (F. F.), Measuring the True Opacity or Obstruc- 
tive Power of Photographic Plates, 215 

Reptiles and .Amphibians of Cheshire, the, T. A. Coward 
and C. Oldham, 175 

Respiration : Physiologische Studien im Hochgebirge : Ver- 
suche iiber den respiratorischen StofTwechsel in Hoch- 
gebirge, R. F. Fuchs and T. Deimler, Leonard Hill, 
F.R.S., 369 

Reusch (Prof.), Glacial Erosion, 441, 442 

Revere (Guilo), le Prove del Material! da Construzione e le 
Construzione in Cemento .Armato, 358 

Reviews and Our Bookshelf. 

The Laws of Heredilv, G. Archdall Reid, Sir W. T. 

Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., i 
Die Ernahrung der Wassertiere und der StolThaushalt der 

Gewasser, Prof. August-Putter, 5 
Smallpo.x and Vacciiation in British India, Major S. P. 

James, 5 
The Foundations of Alternate Current Theory, Dr. C. V. 

Diysdale, Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 6 
The New School of Japan, Founded for the Purpose of 
Making the Use of the Newly Invented Letters, F. 
Victor Dickins, 7 
Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa in the Department of 
Geologv, British Museum (Natural History), Prof. J. W. 
GregoVy, F.R.S., 8 
Probl^mes et E.xercices de Math^matiques g^nirales, Prof. 

E. Fabry, 8 
Fossil Vertebrates in the American Museum of Natural 

History, 12 
Tolemism and Exogamy : a Treatise on Certain Early 
Forms of Superstition and Society, Prof. J. G. Frazer, 
A. E. Crawley, 31 
Prehistoric Rhodesia, Richard N. Hall, 32 
Beitrage zur Nafurgeschichte Ostasiens, Japanische 
.Alcyonaceen, Prof. W. Kiikenthal, Die Familien der 
Primnoiden, Muriceiden, und Acanthogorgiiden, Prof. 
W. Kiikenthal, H. Gorzawsky ; Die I'^amilien der 
Plexauriden Chrysogorgiiden und Melitodiden, Prof. 
W. Kiikenthal; .Athecatn und Plumularidae, E. Stechow; 
Japanische Antipatharien, E. Silberfetd ; Japanische 
Medusen, O. Maas ; Japanische .Actinien, Dr. .A. Wassi- 
lieff ; Japanische Ctenophoren, Dr. Fanny Moser ; Uber 
japanische Seewalzen, E. Augustin, 34 
Orationes et Epistolie Cantabrigienses, Dr. John Edwin 

Sandys, Dr. R. Y. Tyrrell, 35 
Spirit and Matter before the Bar of Modern Science, Dr. 

Isaac W. Heysinger, 36 
The Plant Cell, its Modifications and Vital Processes, 

H. A. Haig, 36 
Science from an Easv Chair, Sir Ray Lankesler, K.C.B., 

F.R.S., 37 
.Alpine Flowers and Gardens, Painted and Described, G. 

Flemwell, 37 
Summer Flowers of the High Alps, Somerville Hast- 
ings, 37 
.A Manual of Practical Fanning, John McLennan, 38 
Leitfaden der Mineralogie, Prof. Julius Ruska, 38 
.A Synopsis of the Orthoptera of Western Europe, Dr. 

Malcolm Burr, 39 
Prehistoric Man, Joseph McCabe, 39 
Metallografia applicata ai Prodotti Siderurgici, L'mberto 

Sa\oia, 39 
Lo Zinco, Prof. R. Musu-Boy, 39 

With a Prehistoric People, the Akikuyu of British East 
.Africa, W. Scoresby Routledge and Katherine Routledge, 
Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 41 
Die Tempcratur Verhaltnisse in der freien Almosphare 
fEngebnisse der internationalen unbemannter Ballon- 
aufstiege]. Dr. .Arthur W'agner, E. Gold, 42 
On the Nature, Uses, and Manufacture of Ferro-silicon, 
with Special Reference to possible danger arising from 
its Transport and Storage, Dr. S. M. Copeman, F.R.S., 
S. R. Bennett, Dr. H. Vvilson Hake, Prof. A. McWilliam, 
53 



Index 



Traite de Physique, O. D. Chivolson, 65 
Handbook of Flower Pollination, Dr. P. Knuth, 66 
Leitfaden zum elektrotechnischen Praktikum, Dr. G. Brion, 

Prof. Gisbert Kapp, 67 
A History of Hindu Chemistry from the Earliest Times to 

the Middle of the Sixteenth Centurv A.D., with Sanskrit 

Texts, Prof. Pr.nphulla Chandia Ray, 68 
Instruments optiques d'Observation et de Mesure, Jules 

Raibaud, 68 
Methods used in the Examination of Milk and Dairy Pro- 
ducts, Dr. Chr. Uarthel, 69 
Norwegian and other Fish Tales, Bradnock Hall, 6g 
The Yakutat Bay Region, .=\laska : Physiography and 

Glacial Geology, Ralph S. Tarr ; Areal Geology, R. S. 

Tarr, Bert S. Butler, 76 
The Geology and Ore Deposits of Goldfield, Nevada, F. \^. 

Rarsome, 76 
Landslides in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including 

a Consideration of their Causes and their Classification, 

E. Howe, 76 
Peaks and Glaciers of Nun Kun : a Record of Pioneer Ex- 
ploration and Mountaineering in the Punjab Himalaya, 

Fannv Bullock Workman, Dr. \V. H. Workman, Sir 

T. H. Holland, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., 78 
The Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History 

Society, Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 80 
The Es'dlution of Worlds, Prof. Percival Lowell, William E. 

Rolston, 99 
The Nature-study Idea, L. H. Bailey, 100 
Man and Nature on Tidal Waters, Arthur H. Patterson, 100 
Tommy's Adventures in Natureland, Sir Digby Pigott, 

C.B., 100 
Animal Romances, Graham Renshaw, 100 
Technical Methods of Chemical Analysis, Prof. George 

Lunge, loi 
Pala^ontographical Society, 101 
Handbuch der vergleichenden Physiologie, 102 
Light and Sound, W. S. Franklin and Barry Macnutt, E. 

Edser, 103 
Kraft : das ist animalische, mechanische, soziale Energien 

und deren Bedeutung fiir die .Machtenfaltung der Staaten, 

Prof. Dr. E. Reyer, 103 
Soziale Machte : als Erganzung der Arbeit iiber "Kraft," 

Prof. Dr. E. Reyer, 103 
Notes on the Electric Smelting of Iron and Steel, Dr. W. V . 

Snieeth, 103 
Psychism, M. Hume, 103 
Mitteilungen aus den Deutschen Schutzgebieten, &c.. Sir 

H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 106 
The Manganese-ore Deposits of India, H. Leigh Fermor, 

12S 
Studies on the Structures and Affinities of Cretaceous 

Plants, Dr. Marie C. Slopes and Prof. K. Fiijii, 129 
Antiquities of the Ouachita Valley, Clarence B. Moore, Dr. 

A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 129 
The Christian Topography of Cosnias Indicopleustes, 133 
Die Saugetierontogenese in ihrer Bedeutung fiir die Phylo- 

genie der Wirbeltiere, Prof. .A. .A. W. Hubrecht, 134 
Die Vegetationsverhaltnisse der Balkanliinder (Mosische 

Lander), Prof. Lugo .Adamovic, 133 
Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus, Prof. 

A. E. H. Love, F.R.S., 136 
Plane Trigonometry, Prof. H. S. Carslaw, 136 
Elementary Projective Geometry, \. G. Pickford, 136 
A First Course in Analytical Geometry, Plane and Solid, 

C. N. Schmall, 136 
Schlich's Manual of' Forestry. Sir Wni. Schlich, K.C.I.E., 

F.R.S., 137 
General Biology, Prof. James G. Needham, 137 
Catalogue of British llynienoptera of the Family Chalci- 

dida^, Claude Morley, 138 
How to Keep Hens for Profit, C. S. Valentine, 138 
The Prince and his Ants (Ciondoleno), Luigi Bertelli, 13S 
The Thames, G. E. Mitton, 13S 
Windsor Castle, Edward Thoiiias, 13S 
A Manual of Geometry, W. D. Eggar, 138 
Shakespeareland, Walter Jerrold, "13S 
The South Devon and Dorset Coast, Sidney Heath, 138 
Nova tripanosomiaze huinana, C. Chagas, Prof. E. A. 

Minchin, 142 
Elementaire Theorie der Getijeden — Getij-Constanten in den 



Indische Archipel, Dr. J. P. van der Stok, Sir G. H. 

Bryan, F.R.S., 144 
Botany of To-day, G. F. Scott Elliot, 146 
The Book of Nature Study, 146 
.\ Text-book of Botany for .Students, with Directions for 

Practical Work, Amy F. M. Johnson, 146 
Comptes rendus de la premiere Conference Internationale 

agrog^ologique. Dr. E. J. Russell, 157 
Koninklijk Nederlandsch Meteorologisch Institut, Oceano- 

graphische en Meteorologische Waarnemingen bij Kaap 

Guardafui, 159 
Regenwaarnemingen in Nederlandsch-Indie, Dertigste 

Jaargang, 1908, 159 
The California Earthquake of April 18, 1906, Harry F. 

Reid, Prof. John Milne, F.R.S., 165 
Coal iar and .Ammonia, Prof. George Lunge, 166 
The Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid and Alkali, with the 

Collateral Branches, Prof. George Lunge, 166 
Deutsche SiJdpolar-Expedilion, igox-3, die Grundproben der 

Deutschen Siidpolar-Expedition, 1901-3, E. Philippi, 167 
Wonders of Physical Science, E. E. Fournier, 16S 
Tillers of the Ground, Dr. Marion I. Newbigin, 168 
Threads in the Web of Life, Margaret R. Thomson and 

Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, 168 
Life-history and Habits of the Salmon, Sea-trout, Trout, 

and other Fresh-water Fish, P. D. Malloch, 168 
Theories of Parallelism, an Historical Critique, W. B. 

Frankland, 169 
Forest Flora of the Bombay Presidency and Sind, W. A. 

Talbot, 170 
Chimica Generate e Applicata all' Industria, Prof. Ettore 

Molinau, 170 
Guide to the Crustacea, Arachnida, Onychophora, and 

Myriopoda Exhibited in the Department of Zoology, 

British Museum (Natural History), 171 
Popular Astronomy, Prof. Simon Newcomb, 171 
Naturwissenschaftliches Unterrichtswerk fiir hoherc 

Madchenschulen, Dr. K. Smalian and K. Bermau, 171 
Health, Progress and Administration in the West Indies, 

Sir Rubert W. Boyce, F.R.S., 174 
The Vertebrate Fauna of Cheshire and Liverpool Bay, the 

Mammals and Birds of Cheshire, T. A. Coward and C. 

Oldham, the Dee as a Wildfowl Resort, John A. Dockray, 

the Reptiles and Amphibians of Cheshire, T. A. Coward 

and C. Oldham, the Fishes of Cheshire and Liverpool 

Bay, James Johnstone, 175 
.Across Yunnan, Archibald Little, 177 
On the Meteorological Evidence for Supposed Change of 

Climate in India, Dr. Gilbert T. Walker, F.R.S., Dr. 

William J. S. Lockyer, 178 
The Year-book of the Khedivial Agricultural Society, Cairo, 

184 
The Design and Construction of Internal Combustion 

Engines, Hugo Giildner, 197 
Lehre von den Erzlagerstatten, Dr. R. Beck, 198 
The Manufacture of Cane Sugar, Llewellyn Jones and F. I. 

Scard, 199 
Leber den VVillensakt und das Temperament : eine experi- 

mentelle Untersuchung, Prof. Narziss Ach, 199 
Leitfossilien : ein Hilfsbuch zum Bestimmen von Versteiner- 

ungen bei geologischen Arbeiten in der Sammlung und 

im Felde, Prof Georg Giirich, 200 
Metallographie : ein ausfiihrliches Lehr- und Handbuch der 

Konstitution, und die physikalischen, chemischen, und 

technischen Eigenschaften der Metalle und metallischen 

Legierungen, Ur. W. Guertler, 200 
Manual of Physical Geography, Dr. F. V. Emerson, 201 
A Laboratory Manual of Physical Geography, Prof. R. S. 

Tarr and O. D. von Engeln, 201 
The House-fly, Musca domestica, Linnaeus : a Study of its 

Structure, Development, Bionomics, and Economy, Dr. 

C. Gordon Hewitt, 202 
The Science of Happiness, Dr. H. S. Williams, 202 
Rinaldo's Polygeneric Theory : a Treatise on the Beginning 

and End of Life, Joel Rinaldo, 202 
Letters from High Latitudes, being Some Account of a 

Voyage in 1856 in the Schooner-yacht Foam to Iceland, 

Jan Maven, and Spitzbergen, Lord Dufferin, 202 
National Antarctic Expedition, 1901-4, Zoology and Botany, 

205 
British Antarctic E.xpedition, 1907-9, under the Command 



Index 



of Sir E. H. Shackleton, C.V.O., Reports on the 

Scientific Investigations, Biology, 205 
Expedition Antarctique Beige, R(?sultats du Voyage du S.V. 

lielgica en 1897-8-9, sous le Commandement de A. de 

Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports scientifiques, Botanique — 

Diatonii5s, H. van Heurck ; Geologic — Petrographische 

LIntersuchung der Gestcinproben, A. Pelilcan ; Quelques 

Plantes Fossiles des Terres Magellaniques, Prof. A. 

Gilkinet ; Oceanographie — les Glaces — Glace de Mer et 

Banquises, H. Arctowski ; Zoologie — Schizopoda and 

Cumacea, H. J. Hansen, 205 
The Constants of Nature, a Recalculation of Atomic 

Weights, Frank Wigglesworth Clark, 207 
Determinations of Atomic Weights, Theodore W. Richards 

and Hobart Hurd Willard, 207 
The Harvard Determinations of Atomic Weights between 

1870 and 1910, Theodore W. Richards, 207 
Methods Used in Precise Chemical Investigations, Theodore 

W. Richards, 207 
The Orders of Mammals, W. K. Gregory, 216 
The Art of Aviation, R. W. A. Brewer, Prof. G. H. Bryan, 

F.R.S., 229 
How to Build an Aeroplane, R. Petit, Prof. G. H. Bryan, 

F.R.S., 229 
How to Build a 20-foot Biplane Glider, A. P. Morgan, 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Les Aeroplanes, considerations theoriques, P. Raybaud, 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Ballons et Aeroplanes, G. Besanc;on, Prof. G. F. Bryan, 

F.R.S., 229 
L'.\viation, Prof. Paul Painleve and Prof. Emiie Borel, 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Navigation in der Luft, Prof. A. Marcuse, Prof. G. H. 

Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Stabilite des Aeroplanes, surface metacentrique, Prof. M. 

Brillouin, Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Die Seitensteuer der Flugmaschinen, Prof. H. Reissner, 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
]\'. Congr^s international d'Aeronautique, 1909, Prof. 

G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Bibliography of Aeronautics, Paul Brockelt, Prof. G. H. 

Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Petite Encyclopedic aeronautique, L. Ventou-Duclaux, 

Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
The Encyclopaedia of Sports and Games, Prof. G. H. 

Bryan, F.R.S., 229 
Fungous Diseases of Plants, Prof. B. M. Duggar, Prof. 

E. S. Salmon, 233 
Lehrbuch der Zoologie, Prof. R. Hertwig, 234 
Scientific Papers, Sir George Howard Darwin, K.C.B., 

F.R.S., 235 
Die Polarwelt und ihre Nachbarlander, O. Nordenskjold, 

236 
Our Teeth, R. Denison Pedley and Frank Harrison, 237 
The Funeral Papyrus of loniya, Edouard Naville, 237 
Helmholtz, eine Zeitschrift fiir die exakten Wissenschaften 

mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung ihrer Anwendungen, 

237 
List of Documents in Spanish Archives relating to the 
History of the United States, which have been Printed, of 
which Transcripts are Preserved in American Libraries, 
J. A. Robertson, 238 
Lightning and the Churches, Alfred Hands, 23S 
The British Isles in Pictures, H. Clive Barnard, 238 
A History of the Birds of Kent, Norman F. Ticehurst, 241 
On and Off Duty in Annam, Gabrielle M. Vassal, J. 

Thomson, 243 
Documents scientifiques de la Mission Tilho, Sir H. H. 

Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 244 
Roval Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory at 
Batavia, Report on Cloud-observations at Batavia Made 
during the International Cloud-year 1896—7 and Subse- 
quent Years, Dr. S. Figee, E. Gold, 249 
Velocit;\ e Direzione delle Correnti Aeree alle diverse 
Altitudini Determinate a Mezzo dei Palloni-Sonde e 
Piloti, Dr. G. Pericic, E. Gold, 249 
The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, the Kwakiut! of Van- 
couver Island, Franz Boas ; Chukchee Mythology, 
Waldemar Bogoras, the Yukaghir and the Yukaghirized 
Tungus, Waldemar Jochelson, Dr. A. C. Haddon, F.R.S., 
250 



Inheritance of Characteristics in Domestic Fowl, C. B. 

Davenport, 253 
The Journal of the South-eastern Agricultural College, 

Wye, 253 
Colour-blindness and Colour-perception, Dr. F. W. Edridge- 

Green, 263 
Geschichte der biologischen Theorien, Dr. Em. RAdI, 263 
Broad Lines in Science Teaching, 264 
Greek and Roman Methods of Painting : Some Comments 

on the Statements Made by Pliny and Vitruvius about 

Wall and Panel Painting, Dr. A. P. Laurie, 265 
A Monograph of the Foraminifera of the North Pacific 

Ocean, J. A. Cushman, 265 
A First Year's Course of Inorganic Chemistry, G. F. 

Hood, 266 
A Manual of Elementary Practical Chemistry for Use 

in the Laboratory, P. W. Oscroft and R. P. Shea, 260 
Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, Maps, and Drawings 

in the British Museum (Natural History), 266 
The Calendar of Gardening Operations, 266 
The Ore Deposits of South Africa, J. P. Johnston, 293 
The Geology of Ore Deposits, H. H. Thomas, D. A. 

MacAlister, 293 
Meteorology, Practical and Applied, Sir John Moore, 293 
Gustav Freytag's Kultur- und Geschichtspsychologie, Dr. 

Georg Schridde, 294 
Lessing's Briefwechsel mit Mendelssohn und Nicolai iiber 

das Trauerspiel, Prof. Dr. Robert Petsch, 294 
Hegel's Asthetik im Verhaltnis zu Schiller, A. Lewkowitz, 

294 
Ifber Christian Wolff's Ontologie, Hans Pichler, 294 
Zwei Vortrage zur Naturphilosophie, Hans Driesch, 294 
A Manual of Dyeing, Prof. E. Knecht, C. Rawson, Dr. 

R. Loewenthal, 295 
La Metallographie Microscopique, Louis Revillon, A. 

McWilliam, 295 
Die Kraftmaschinen, C. Schiitze, 295 
Photomicrographs of Botanical Studies, 296 
Illustrated Guide to the Museum of the Royal College of 

Surgeons, England, Prof. Arthur Keith, 296 
The Photographic Annual, 1910-11, 296 
Resultate der Wisscnschaftlichen Untersuchungen des 

Balaton, Untersuchungen iiber die Schwerkraft, R. v. 

Sterneck ; die Niveauflache des Balatonsees und die 

Veranderungen der Schwerkraft auf diesem. Baron L. 

Eiitvos ; Erdmagnetische Messungen in Sommer 1901, 

L. Steiner ; das Eis Balatonsees, E. V. Cholnoky ; die 

Tropischen Nympha;en des Hevizsees bei Keszthely, A. 

Lovassy ; Kirchcn und Burgen in der Umgebung des 

Balaton im Mittelalter, R. Bekefi, 299 
Library of Congress, a List of Geographical Atlases in 

the Library of Congress, with Bibliographical Notes, 

325 
Lead and Zinc Pigments, Dr. C. D. HoIIey, Dr. A. P. 

Laurie, 325 
Tables for the Reduction of Meteorological Observations, 

Dr. G. C. Simpson, E. Gold, 326 
Sweet Peas, H. J. Wright, 326 
Pansies, Violas, and Violets, Wm. Cuthbertson, J. P.. R. 

Hooper Pearson, 326 
Die Hiede, W. Wagner, 326 
Niedere Pflanzen, Dr. R. Timm, 326 
Das Holz, H. Kottmeier and F. Uhlmann, 326 
Der Pflanzengarten, seine Anlage und seine Verwerkung, 

Prof. F. Pfuhl, 326 
The Black Bear, William H. Wright, 327 
Chemistry for Photographers, Chas. F. Townsend, 327 
Dio Aufzucht und Kultur der Parasitisclien Samenpflanzen, 

Prof. E. Heinricher, 327 
Medical Education in the United States and Canada, 

Abraham Flexner, 332 
Die Antike Tierwelt, Otto Keller, 357 
A Concise Treatise on Reinforced Concrete, C. F. Marsh, 

358 
Concrete-steel Construction, Prof. Emil Morsch, 35S 
II Cemento Armato e la sua Applicazione practica, Cesare 
I Presenti, 358 

I Le prove dei Materiali da Costruzione e le Costruzioni in 
' Cemento Armato, Guilio Revere, 358 
I Practical Chemistry, Dr. James Bruce and Harry Harper, 
I 360 






Sovimbcr 24 



Index 



Qualitative Analysis, E. J. Lewis, 360 

Outlines of Organic Chemistry, Dr. F. J. Moore, 360 

The Calculations of General Chemistry, with Definitions, 

Explanations, and Problems, Prof. William ]. Hale, 360 
A. B.C. Eive Figure Logarithms and Tables for Chemists, 

including Electrochemical Equivalents, Analytical 

Factors, Gas Reduction Tables, and other Tables useful 

in Chemical Laboratories, C. J. Woodward, 360 
A History of the Mineral W'aters and .Medicinal Springs 

of Essex, Miller Christy and Miss May Thresh, 3(51 
Edible and Poisonous Fungi, 361 
Guide to Mr. Worthington Smith's Drawings of Field 

and Cultivated Mushrooms, and Poisonous or Worthless 

Fungi often Mistaken for Mushrooms, Exhibited in the 

Department of Botany, British Museum (Natural 

History), 361 
l-Vactures and Separated Epiphyses, \. J. Walton, Frank 

Romer, 361 
The Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Edgar Thurston 

and K. Rangachari, 365 
.\ History of Birds, W. P. Pycraft, 367 
Innsbrucker Fohnstudien, IV., Weitere Beitrage zur 

Dynamik der Fohns, Dr. H. v. Ficker, 368 
Physiologische Studien im Hochgebirge : Versuche iiber 

den Repiratorischen Stoffwechsel ini Hochgebirge, R. F. 

Fuchs and T. Deimler, Leonard Hill, F.R.S., 369 
A History of Botany, 1860-igoo, being a Continuation of 

Sachs "History of Botany, 1530-1860," Prof. J. 

Reynolds Green, F.R.S., 391 
Fuel'and Refractory Materials, Prof. A. H. Sexton, Prof. 

\. McWilliam, 392 
.■\ Handbook of Practical Parasitology, Prof. Max Braun 

and Dr. M. Liihe, 393 
.\stronomv, a Handy Manual for Students and Others, 

Prof. F'. W. Dyson, F.R.S., 393 
Chats about Astronomy, H. P. Hollis, 393 
Bulletin Trimestrie : Conseil Permanent International pour 

I'Exploration de la Mer, Resum^ des Observations sur 

le Plankton des Mers e.xplorees par le Conseil pendant 

les Annies, 394 
The Decapod Natantia of the Coasts of Ireland, Stanley 

M. Kemp, 394 
Report of a Survey of the Trawling Grounds on the Coasts 

of Counties Down, Louth, Meath, and Dublin, E. W. L. 

Holt, 394 
Science in Modern Life, Engineering, J. \\ . French, 

395 
\ egetationsbilder, Trockensteppen der Kalahari, F. Seiner ; 

von den Juan Fernandez Inseln, Carl Skottberg ; dip 

Schwabische .'Xlp, Otto Feucht ; .^us Bosnien und drr 

Herzegovina, L. .-Vdamovic ; die Flora von Irland, Prof. 

T. Johnson, 395 
Light Visible and Invisible, Silvanus P. Thompson, 

F.R.S., 395 
K Home-work Atlas of Maps in Black and W hite, 395 
Causal Geology, Prof. E. H. L. Schwartz, Prof. Grcnville 

A. J. Cole, 397 
Manganese-ore Deposits of the Sandur State, A. Chose, 

406 
Life-histories of Northern Animals : an .Account of the 

Mammals of Manitoba, Ernest Thompson Seton, 423 
The Care of Trees in Lawn, Street, and Park, Bernard E. 

Fernow, 423 
Beet Sugar Making and its Chemical Control, V. Nikaido, 

424 
Analyse der Silikat- und Karbonatgesteine, W. F. Hilde- 

brand, 425 
The .Analysis of Silicate and Carbonate Rocks, W. F. 

Hildebrand, 425 
Distant Lands, H. J. Mackinder, 426 
\ First Book of Physical Geography, W. M. Carey, 426 
A Physiographical Introduction to Geography, Prof. .A. J. 

Herbertson, 426 
Geology, Prof. J. W. Gregory, 426 
An Economic Atlas. J. G. Bartholomew, 426 
Devonshire, F. .A. Knight and Louie M. Dutton, 426 
Dorset, A. L. Salmon, 426 
Derbyshire, H. H. .Arnold-Bemrose, 426 
A Systematic Geography of .Asia, G. W. Webb, 426 
Catdlogo Sistemdtico y Descriptive de las Aves de la 

Repiiblica Argentina, Roberto Dabbene, 427 



Land and Fresh-water Mollusca of India, Lieut. -Col. 

H. H. Godwin-.Austen, 427 
Jack's Insects, Edward Selous, 427 
Corals and .Atolls, F. Wood-Jones, 432 
Transactions of the Astronomical Observatory of Yale 

University, Parallax Investigations on Thirty-live 

Selected Stars, by Frederic L. Chase Mason, F. Smith, 

and William L. Elkin, 433 
Contributions to the Ethnology and Anthropogeography of 

the Polar Eskimos, Dr. H. P. Steensby, 443 
Geschichtstafeln der Physik, Prof. Felix .Auerbach, 457 
.A Text-book of Mental Diseases, Prof. Eugenio Tanzi, 

458 
Psychotherapy, Prof. Hugo Miinsterberg, 45S 
Physical and Commercial Geography, Profs. H. E. 

Gregory, A. G. Keller, and .A. L. Bishop, 459 
Extinct Monsters and Creatures of other Days : a Popular 

.Account of some of the Larger Forms of .Ancient Animal 

Life, Rev. H. N. Hutchinson, 459 
The Carnation Year Book, 19 10, 460 
Gardening Difficulties Solved, 460 
Leitfaden fiir Gartnerische Pflanzenzuchtung, M. Lobner, 

460 
Wild Flowers and How to Identify Them, H. Friend, 460 
The Telegraphic Transmission of Photographs, T. Thorne 

Baker, 460 
Liste des Observatoires Magn^tiques et des Observatoires 

Seismologiques, E. Merlin and O. Somville, 460 
.An Inconsistent Preliminary Objection against Positivism, 

Prof. Robert .Ardigo, 461 
.Analytical Chemistry, Prof, F. P. Treadwell, 461 
Students' Life and Work in the University of Cambridge, 

Prof. Karl Breul, 461 
Science in Modern Life, Botany, J. M. F. Drummond, 

Zoology, Prof. J. R. .Ainsworth Davis, Science and the 

Sea Fisheries, Dr. J. Travis Jenkins, 464 
.A Bush Calendar, Amy E. Mack, 464 
Nature Studies by Night and Day, F. C. Snell, 464 
Insect Wonderland, Constance M. Foot, 464 
The Landscape Beautiful, F. A. Waugh, 464 
Bees for Profit and Pleasure, H. Geary, 464 
The Geology and -Archaeology of Orangia, J. P. Johnson, 

465 
Grouse and. Grouse Moors, George Malcolm and Aymer 

Maxwell, 466 
Life and Sport on the Norfolk Broads in the Golden Days, 

Oliver G. Ready, 466 
The Newer Spiritualism, Frank Podmore, Sir Oliver 

Lodge, F.R.S., 489 
Fossil Plants : a Text-book for Students of Botanv and 

Geology, Prof. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., 490 
Oiuvres Completes de Christiaan Huygens, 491 
First Steps in Coal Mining, Alexander Forbes, 492 
.A History of British Mammals, G. E. H. Barrett- 
Hamilton, 493 
Bacteriology for Nurses, Isabel Mclsaac, 493 
The Inherent Law of Life : a New Theory of Life and 

Disease, Dr. Franz Kleinschrod, 493 
Philosophies, Prof. Ronald Ross, F.R.S., C.B., 493 
The Melanesians of British New Guinea, Dr. C. G. Selig- 

mann, S. H. Ray, 490 
United States Geological Survey : Contributions to 

Economic Geology, 1907, Part ii., Coal and Lignite, 

M. R. Campbell, 511 
The Ketchikan and Wrangell Mining Districts, Alaska, 

F. E. Wright and C. W.'Wright, 511 
.Mineral Resources of the Kotsina-Chitina Region, .Alaska,. 

F. H. Moffit and A. G. Maddren, 511 
Mineral Resources of Alaska, A. H. Brooks, 511 
Contributions to Economic Geology, 190S, Part i., Metals 

and Non-Metals except Fuels, C. W. Hayes and W. 

Lindgren, 511 
Papers "on the Conservation of Mineral Resources, 51 1 
Ancient Plants : being a Simple -Account of the Past 

Vegetation of the Earth and of the Recent Important 

Discoveries made in this Realm of Nature Study, Dr. 

Marie C. Slopes, 523 
British Rainfall, iqoo, Dr. Hugh Robert Mill, 523 
Catalogue of the Indian Decapod Crustacea in the Collec- 
tion of the Indian Museum, Lieut. -Col. -A. Alcock, 

F.R.S., 524 



Index 



r Nature, 
\_Novctnbey 24, 1911 



Our Search for a Wilderness, Mary Blair Beebe and C. 

William Beebe, 525 
Leitfaden der Graphischen Chemie, Dr. R. Kremann, 525 
The Amateur Astronomer, Gideon Riegler, W. E. Rolslon, 

526 
A Guide for Medicine and Surgery Compiled for Nurses, 

Sydney Welkam, 526 
The Death-dealing Insects and their Story, C. Conyers 

Morrell, 526 
Abhandlungen Jean Rey's iiber die Ursache der Gewichts- 

zunahme von Zinn und Blei bein Verkalken, Ernst 

Ichenhauser and Max Speter, 527 
Elementary Regional Geography, Great Britain and 

Ireland, J. B. Reynolds, 527 
Cambridge County Geographies, Nottinghamshire, Dr. 

H. H. Swinnerton, 527 
Lanarkshire, Frederick Mort, 527 
Cambridge Pocket Diary for the .Academical Year 1910-11, 

527 
Concealing Coloration in the .\nimal Kingdom, Gerald H. 

Thayer, 532 
Handbook to the Ethnographical Collections, 536 
Tierbau und Tierleben in Ihren Zusammenhaug Betrachtet, 

Prof. R. Hesse and Prof. Franz Doflein, 538 



Revillon (Louis), la M^tallographie Microscopique, 29^ 
Rey's (Jean), .-Xbh.indlungen iiber die Ursache der Gewichts- 

zunahme von Zinn und Blei beim Verkalken, Ernst 

Ichenhauser and Max Speter, 527 
Reyer (Prof. Dr. E.), Kraft : das ist animalische mech- 

anische, soziale Energien und deren Bedeutung fiir die 

Machtenfaltung der Staaten, 103 ; Soziale Machte ; als 

Erg.'inzung der Arbeit iiber " Kraft," 103 
Reynolds (J. B.), Elementary Regional Geography, Great 

Britain and Ireland, 527 
Rhodesia and Australia, Rainfall of, 187 
Rhodesia, Prehistoric, Richard N. Hall, 32 
Ricard (J. H.), Pine Forests of the Landes, 84 
Ricco (Prof.), Observations of Comet igion, 472 ; Recent 

Results in Solar Physics, 507 
Rice (Dr. Hamilton), Journey .-icross South America from 

Bogota to Manaos, 352 
Richards (Prof. J. W.), Iron Ores Supplies, 441 
Richards (Theodore W.), Determination of Atomic Weights, 

207 ; the Harvard Determination of .Atomic Weights 

between 1870 and i()io, 207; Methods used in Precise 

Chemical Investigation, 207 
Richter (Dr. Max O.), Discovery of the Site of the Famous 

Cyprian Temple of Aphrodite-.Astarte, 149 
Riegler (Gideon), the Amateur .Astronomer, 526 
Righi (Prof.), Comets and Electrons, .^07 
Rinaldo (Joel), Rinaldo's Polygeneric Theory : a Treatise 

on the Beginning and End of Life, 202 
Ringer (Dr. Sydney, F.R.S.), Death of, 502; Obituary 

Notice of, 540 
Ripon (Bishop of). Heredity at the Church Congress, 431 
Ripper (Prof.), New Method of Testing the Cutting Quality 

of Files, 5:^3 ; the Testing of Lathe Tool Steels, "553 
Ristenpart (Dr.), Halley's Comet, 86 
Ritchey (Dr.), Photographs of NebuL-e, 1S3 
Rivers (Dr. W. H. R.), the Position of the Father's Sister 

in Oceania, 48 
Roads: the .Maintenance and .Administration of Roads, 160; 

Systems of Road Adminislration, L. W. Page, 162 
Roberts (Madame Dorothea Isaac), the Spiraf Nebula M51 

(Canum Venaticorum), 214 
Robertson (J. A.), List of Documents in Spanish Archives 

relating to the History of the United States which havi- 

been printed, or of which Transcripts are preserved in 

American Libraries, 238 
Robin (F.), Law of Resistance to Crushing of Cylindrical 

Bodies as a Function of their Dimensions, 555 
Rodd (Mr.), Crystallographic Examination of Twenty-nine 

Derivatives of the p-halogenbenzenesulphonic Acids, 403 
Rogers (Dr. .A. W.), Note on " Verneuk Pan," 262 
Rolls (the Hon. Charles Stewart), Death and Obituary 

Notice of. Dr. William J. S. Lockyer, 46 
Rolston (William F,.), the Evolution of Worlds, Prof. 

Percival Lowell, 99 ; the .Amateur .Astronomer, Gideon 

Riegler, 526 



Roman Methods of Paititing, Greek and, Some Comments 
on the Statements made by Pliny and Vitruvius about 
Wall and Panel Painting, Dr. .A. P. Laurie, 265 

Romer (Frank), Fractures and Separated Epiphyses, .A. J. 
Walton, 361 

Ronca (James F.), " Mock Suns," 345 

Rosenhain (Dr.), Cryslallme Structure of Iron at High 
Temperatures, 519 

Ross (A. D.), New Method of Differentiating betw'een 
overlapping orders in Mapping Grating Spectra, 30; 
Magnetism of the Copper-manganese-tin .AIlovs under 
Varying Thermal Treatment, 97; Magnetic Alloys formed 
from Non-Magnetic -Materials, 421 

Ross (Dr. E. D.), Polyglot List of Birds in Turki, Manchu, 
and Chinese, 18O 

Ross (Prof. Ronald, F.R.S., C.B.), Philosophies, 493 

Rossi (Dr. Ferruccio), Cutaneous Innervation of the Lumbo- 
sacral Region in the Dog, 315 

Rotch (Prof. A. L.), Relation of the Wind to Aerial Navi- 
gation, 151 

Rothpletz (Prof. A.), Cause of the C.alifornian Earthquake 
of 1906, 342 ; Pre-Cambrian F^auna, 442 

Roubaud (E.), a Bombex preying on the Glossina of 
Dahomey, 292 

Rouch^ (Engine), Death of, 339 

Routledge (W. Scoresby and Katherine), With a Prehistoric 
People, the .AkikOyu of British East Africa, 41 

Royal Anthropological Institute, 30 

Royal College of Physicians, Harveian Oration at, Sonv 
.Aspects of Heredity in Relation to Mind, Dr. H. B. 
Donkin, 541 

Royal College of Surgeons, Hunterian Lectures at : the 
.Anatomy and Relationship of the Negro and Negroid 
Races, Prof. .Arthur Keith, 54 ; Illustrated Guide to the 
Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, England, 
Prof. Arthur Keith, '296 

Royal Commission on Welsh Monuments, the. Rev. John 
Griflith, 404 

Royal Institution : Modern Submarine Telegraphy, Sidney 
G. Brown at, 2-\ ; the Chemical Significance of Crystal 
Structure, Prof. William J. Pope, F.R.S., 187; Electrical 
and other Properties of Sand, Charles E. S. Phillips, 
2:51; ; lonisalion of Gases and Chemical Change, Dr. H. 
Brereton Baker, F.R.S., 388 

Royal Magnetical and Meteorological Observatory at 
Batavia : Report on Cloud-Observations at Batavia, made 
during the International Cloud-year, 1896-1897, and Sub- 
sequent Years, Dr. S. Figee, E. Gold, 249 

Royal Microscopical Society, 29 

Royal Photographic Society's Exhibition, the, 273 

Royal Sanitary Institute, 353 

Royal Scottish Geographical Society's Medal .Awards, 302 

Royal Society, 60 ; Bakerian Lecture at, . the Pressure of 
Light against the .Source, the Recoil from Light, Prof. 
J. H. Poynting, F\R.S., and Dr. Guy Barlow, 139 

Royal Society, Edinburgh, 30, 97, 227 

Royal Society of Medicine : Thermal Effects produced by 
High-frequency Currents, Dr. Franz Nagelschmidt, 542 

Royal Society of -Sciences, Goltingen, 390, 556 

Royal Society of South -Africa, Cape Tow-n, 98, 132, 262, 
422 

Royal Statistical Society : the Tabulation of \ ital Statistics, 
Dr. T. H. C. Stevenson at, 130 

Rubber, Recent Investigations on the Cultivation of, 510 

Runciman (W.), Position of University Education in Great 
Britain, 91 

Ruska (Prof. Julius), Leitfaden der Mineralogie, 38 

Russ (Dr. S.), Recoil of Radium B from Radium -A, 

Russell (Dr. -A.), the Convection of Heat from a Body 
Cooled by a Stream of Fluid, 195 

Russell (Alex. S.), the Ratio between Uranium and Radium 
in Minerals, 238 

Russell (Dr. E. J.), the First International -Agrogeological 
Conference, 157 

Russell (Dr. H.NorrisI, the Distances of Red Stars, ',74 

Russell (R.), Death of, 14 

Rutherford (Prof. E., F.R.S.), Radium Standards and 
Nomenclature, 430 

Rutot (.A.), Existence in Belgian Caverns of Layers con- 
taining Remains of .Arctic Rodents, 315 



Nm'cmber 21,^ 191' 



Index 



SabatiL-r (r;uil). Catalytic I'lx-paration of Alkyl-Aryl Ethers, 
igb ; Catalytic Preparation of the Phenolic Oxides and 
the Diphenylcnic Oxides, 292 

SagarL-t (Jule'sJ, the C.nomon in Ancient Astronomy, 120 

St. John (C), Practical Spectroscopy, 159 

St. John (C. E.), Calcium Vapour in the Sun, 249 

Salaman (Dr. R. N.), Male Sterility in Potatoes, 29 

Salmon (.\. L.), Dorset, 426 

Salmon (Prof. E. S.), the Sclerotinia Disease of the Goose- 
berry, 219; Fungous Diseases of Plants, Prof. B. M. 
Dugger, 233 

Salmon, Sea-trout, Trout, and other Fresh-water Fish, 
Life-history and Habits of the, P. D. Malloch, 16S 

Salomon (Prof.), Glacial Erosion, 442 

Sambon (Dr. Louis), Recent Investigations on Pellagra, 538 

Sand (Dr. H. J. S.), Demonstration of Vacuum-tight Seals 
between Iron and Glass, 514 

Sand, Electrical and other Properties of, Charles E. S. 
Phillips at Royal Institution, 255 

Sandys (Dr. John Edwin), Orationes et Epistola; Canta- 
brigienses (1876-1909), 35 

Sanitation : Growth of Sanitary Science, Sir John Cockburn, 
313; Royal Sanitary Institute, 353; Control of Foods, 
354: Sewage Disposal, 354 

Sankey (Captain), the Ignition of Gases by Adiabatic Com- 
pression, 553 

Saotonie (K.), Halley's Comet, 322 

Sapir (!•■.), the Takelma Language, 16 

Saturn, a Bright Projection on, M. Maggini, 507 

Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, New Ephemerides for, Dr. 
Downing, 472 

Saugetierontogenese in ihrer Bedeutung fiir die Phylogenie 
der \\'irbeltiere. Prof. A. A. W. Hubrecht, 134 

Saunders (A. M. Carr), Development of Aphysia punctata, 

504 

Savoia (Umberto), Metallografia applicata ai Prodotii 
Siderurgici, 39 

Sawyer (E. F.), the Perseid Shower, 439 

Sc.'rd (F. I.), ihc .Manufacture of Cane Sugar, igg 

Schaumasse (M.), Observations of the Metcalf Comet, 292 

Schiaparclli (Prof. G. W), Death of, 14; Obituary Notice 
of, 44 

Schlesinger (Prof. Frank), Pwdre Ser, 105 

Srhlich (Sir Wm., K.C.I.E., F.R.S.), Schlich's Manual of 
Forestry, 137 

Schmall (C. N.l, a First Course in Analytical Geometry, 
Plane and Solid, with Numerous Examples, 136 

Schmidt (Jobs.), I.cploccpltahis liyoproroides and L. 
Ilioriaiiits, 9 

Schmidt (Dr. W.), a New Instrument, the Variograph, for 
Measuring Short Waves in Atmospheric Pressures, 516 

Schmitter (Capt. F.), Customs and Folk-lore of the Natives 
of the Upper Yukon, -Alaska, 81 

Scholcs (J. W.), Separating Power of a Telescope, 266 

Schonland (Dr.), Description of Hauiorthia tntncata, 
Schonl., 158: Experiments to Find Out whether the 
.\erial Parts of Plants .\bsorb Moisture from the .Air, 15S 

School Children, Medical Inspection of, 57 

School Hygiene, the Third International Congress of, at 
Paris, .August 2-7, 1910, 320 

Schoop (.M. U.), New Process for Producing Protective 
.Metallic Coatings, 21S 

Schridde (Dr. Georg), Gustav Freytags Kuliur- und 
Geschichtspsychologie, 294 

Schrotter (Dr. Hermann von). Action of Sunhght and High 
-Altitudes, 509 

Schuster (Prof. .Arthur, F.R.S.), the International Union 
for Cooperation in Solar Research, 463 

Schuster (Dr. E.), the Oxford Anthropomctrical Labora- 
tory, 550 

Schiitze (C), die Kraftmaschinen, 295 

Schutzgebieten, Mitteilungen aus den Deutschen, Sir H. H. 
Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 106 

Schuyten (Prof.), Inattention, 320 

Schwartz (Prof.), Machine for Testing Rubber by Means of 
its Mechanical Hysteresis, •554 

Schwarz (Prof. E. H.), Causal Geology, 397 

Science : Science from an Easy Chair, Sir Rav Lankester, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., 37'; Science at the Japan-British Exhibi- 
tion, 125 ; Science in South -Africa. 15S ; Science in 
Bengal, 1.S5 ; Helmholtz, rine Zeitschrift fiir die exakten 



W'issenschaften mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung ihrer 
-Anwendung, 237 ; Death of Dr. Louis Olivier, 245 ; 
Obituary Notice of, 269; Broad Lines in Science Teach- 
ing, 2b4 ; Science in Modern Life, vol. vi.. Engineering, 
J. W. French, 395; Forthcoming Books of Science, 475; 
the International Scientilic Congress at Buenos -Aires, 
Prof. C. D. Perrine, 509 

Scott (H. H.), Discovery of a Skeleton of Diprotodon in 
the Smithton District, 469 

Scott (William Earl Dodge), Death of, 340 

Scutigera, the Habits and Distribution of, in India, A. D. 
Imms, 429 

Sea, Colour of the, J. Y. Buchanan, F.R.S., 87 

Seaman (Dr. W. H.), Death of, 14 

Sederholm (Dr.), Pre-Cambrian Fauna, 442 ; N'arious Sub- 
divisions of the Pre-Cambrian Rocks, 443 

Seeliger (Prof.), Halley's Comet, 19 

Seely (Colonel), Sleeping Sickness, 16 

Seiner (F.), Trockensteppen der Kalahari, 395 

Seismology: an Earthquake Model, Dr. J. W. Evans, 29; 
the California Earthquake of -April 18, 1906, vol. ii., the 
Mechanics of the Earthquake, Harry F. Reid, Prof. John 
-Milne, F.R.S., 165; Cause of the Californian Earthquake 
of 1906, Prof. A. Rothpletz, 342 ; The Galitzin Seismo- 
graph, 219; the Jamaica Earthquake, Sir D. Morris, 
K.C.M.G., 230; Liste des Observatoires Magn^tiques et 
des Observatoires Si'ismologiques, E. Merlin and O. 
Somville, 460 ; see also Earthquakes 

Seligmann (Dr. C. G.), the Melanesians of British New 
Guinea, 499 

Sellors (Mr.), Measures of Double Stars, 507 

Selous (Edward), Jack's Insects, 427 

Semmelhack (Dr. W.), Rainfall of Northern Spain and 
Portugal, 377 

Senderens (J. B.), Catalytic Reactions in the Wet Way 
Based on the Use of -Aluminium Sulphate, 196 ; Prepara- 
tion of Acrolein, 356 

Separating Power of' a Telescope, J. W. Scholes, 266; T. 
Lewis, 266 

Seret (Louis), Colonial Empire of the Pha^nicians, 211 

Serotherapy : Properties of the Serum of Convalescents and 
Animals Cured of E.xanthematic Typhus, Charles NicoUe 
and E. Conseil, 456 

Seton (Ernest Thom.pson), Life-histories of Northern 
Mammals, an -Account of the Mammals of Manitoba, 423 

Seward (Prof- A. C, F.R.S.), Fossil Plants, a Text-book 
for Students of Botany and Geology, 490 

Sewell (C. J. T.), the Propagation of Sound in a Fog, 62 

Sexton (Prof. A. H.), Fuel and Refractory Materials, 392 

Sevcwetz (A.), Various Gelatine-hardening Agents, 216; 
-Xction of Quinones and their Sulphonic Derivatives^ on 
the Photographic Images Formed by Silver Salts, 48S 

Shackleton (Sir E. H., C.V.O.), British Antarctic Expedi- 
tion, 1907-9, under the Command of, Reports on 
Scientific Investigations, vol. i.. Biology, 205 

Shakespeareland, Walter Jerrold, 13S 

Shaw (Dr.), Existence of a Positive Gradient of Potential 
during Fine Weather and a Negative Gradient during 
Wet Weather, 51 ^ 

Shea (R. P.), a Manual of Elementary Practical Chemistry 
for Use in the Laboratory, 266 

Shearer (Cresswell), Anatomy of Histriohdella homari, 150 

Sheffield, British Association '.Meeting at. no, 174, 274, 300, 
33-i ; S. R. Milner, 174; sec British -Association 

Shepherd (Co!. C. E.), Relative Sizes of the Otoliths in 
Various Species and Groups of Bony Fishes, 270 

Shepherd (Mr.). Binary Systems of .Alumina w^ith Silica, 
Lime, and Magnesia, 375 

Sheoherd (T-), Prehistoric Boat Discovered at Brigg m 
1886, 542 

Sheppard (Mr.), Neolithic Implements from Bridhngton, 246 

Shepnard (T.). the Humbcr during the Human Period, 552 

Shuttleworth (Dr. G. E.), Heredity at the Church Congress, 
431 

Siderurgici, Metallografia applicata ai Proditti, Umberto 
Savoia, 30 . . _ , 

Siebenthal' (Mr.), the L.irnmie Basm m South-eastern 
Wyoming, 121 

Siegicrschmidt (Dr. R.), Clim.ile of the Lower Gumea Coast 
and Hinterland, 377 

Sight Tests in the Merr.inlile Marine, 537 



xl 



Index 



[-.-.■;«"' 



ntlicr li,^ igio 



bilbc'ifeld (E.), Japanische Antipatharien, 34 

Silicate and Carbonave Rocks, the Analysis of, W. F. 
Hillebrand, 425 

Silikal- und Karuonatgcsleiiie, Analyse der, \V. F. Hille- 
brand, 425 

Simpson iDr. G. C), Tables for the Reduction of Meteor- 
ological Observations, 326 

Simpson (Thomas), the Bicentenary of, Edgar C. Smith, 

Siriiis, Observations of the Companion of, Prof. Barnard, 

439 
Siz./s (Gabriel), N'ibration of a Timing l^ork, 228 
Sjogren (Prof.), Iron Ores Supplies, 441 
Skoitberg (Carl), Von den Juan Fernandez Inseln, 395 
Sloane (T. G.), New Species of Carabidae, 196; Revisional 

N'otes on Carabidre (Coleoptera), 422 
Slocuni (Dr. F.), Halley's Comet, 322 ; Two Remarkable 

Prominences, 344 
Smalian (Dr. K.j, Naturwissenchaftlichcs Unterrichtswerk 

fCir hiihere Madchenschulen, 171 
Smallpo.K and Vaccination in British India, Major S. P. 

James, 5 
Smeeth (Dr. W. F.), Notes on the Electric Smelting of Iron 

and Steel, 103 
Smith (Prof. Alex), Static Method for Determining the 

\'apour Pressures of Solids and Liquids, and the Vapour 

Pressures of Mercury, 97 
Smith {\. C. M.), Elastic Breakdown of Non-ferrous Metals, 

89 
Smith (Edgar C), the Bicentenary of Thomas Simpson, 254 
Smith (Geoffrey), Parasitic Castration in a Cockerell, 150; 

.Se.\ and Immunity, 549 
Smith (Prof. G. Ell'iot, F.R.S.), the Archaeological Survey 

of Nubia, 406; Early Burial Customs in Egypt, 461, 529 
Smith (Dr. Graham), " Grouse Disease," 48 
Smith (Mason F.), Parallax Investigations on Thirty-five 

Selected Stars, 433 
Smith (Michie), hurther Observations of Halley's Comet, 

374 
Smitnclls (Prof. .\.), Provident Use of Coal, 519 
Smythe-Paliner (Dr. A.), Luck of the Horse-shoe, 180 
Snell (F. C), Nature Studies by Night and Day, 464 
Snow (E. C.), Determination of the Chief Correlations 

br-tween Collaterals in the Case of a Simple Mendclian 

Population Mating at Random, 61 
Soddy (Frederick, 1<".R.S.), the Ratio between Uranium 

and Radium in Minerals, 296 
Soils, Effect of Heat on, C. Harold Wright, 530 
Sokoloff (Prof. A. P.), Death of, 46 
Sola (Prof. Jose Comas), Halley's Comet, 19; Discovery of 

a Sinall Planet, presumably New, 196 ; a Suspected fs'ew 

Planet, 344; \'elocities and .Accelerations of the Ejecta 

from Halley's Comet, 404 
Solar Eclipse, May g, 1910, the Total, Dr. William J. S. 

Lockyer, 113 
Solar Eclipse of .April 28, 1911, the Total, Dr. Pio 

Emanuelli, 172 
Solar .Motion, Precession and the. Prof. Boss, 249 
Solar Physics, Recent Results in. Prof. Ricco, 507 
Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington, 404 
Solar Research, International Union for Cooperation in, 

22 ; Prof. Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., 463 
Solar and Terrestrial Phenomena, the Relations between, 

.\bbe Th. Moreux, 545 
Sollas (Prof.), Pre-Cambrian Fauna, 442 
Sommerville (Dr. D. M. Y.), the Early History of Non- 
Euclidean Geometry, 172; Need of' a Non'-Euclidean 

Bibliography, 514 
Soni\i!le (O.), Liste des Observatoires Magndtiques et des 

Observatoires Sdismologiques, 460 
Sound, Light and, W. S. Franklin and Barry Macnutt, 

E. Edser, 103 
Southerns (L.), Determination of th.- R.iiio of .Mass to 

Weiffht, 62 
Southwell (T.), Capture of a large Female Saw-fish {Pristis 

ctispidata) on the Ceylon Pearl-banks, 49 
Sowrrljy (.\. de C), E.xploration in Chin.-i, 304 
Social.- .M;ichle: als Erganzung der .Arbeit tiber "Kraft," 

Prof. Dr. E. Reyer, 103 
Spanish .\rchives, List of Documents in, relating to the 

History of the I'nited States which have been printed, or 



of which Transcripts are preserved in -American 
Libraries, J. .A. Robertson, 238 

Spectroscopy, Practical, -Albert Eagle, 159; C. St. John, 
i5o 

Spectrum .Analysis : New Method of Differentiating b tween 
overlapping orders in Mapping Grating .Spectra, A. D. 
Ross, 30 ; Displacement of Spectral Lines at the Sun's 
Limb, .A. Perot, 86 ; -Absorption Spectrum of 0.\ygen 
and a New Law of Spectra, Dr. T. Moir, 98 ; X-ray 
Spectra, Prof. C. G. Barkla and J. Nicol, 139 ; on 
Colour \'ision at the Ends of the .Spectrum, Rt. Hon. 
Lord Rayleigh, O.M., F.R.S., 204; the Spectrum of 
Cyanogen, Comte de ijramont and M. Drecq, 344; Spec- 
trum and Radial \'elocity of Persei, Dr. Ludendorff, 
307 ; the Colours and Spectrum c' Water, T. W. Back- 
house, 530 ; Relative Duration of the Lines of the Spec- 
trum emitted by Magnesium in the Electric Spark, G. A. 
Hemsalech, 356 

.Spencer (Baldwin), Remains of .Subfossil Emeus and 
-Marsupials from King Island, Bass Strait, 1S6; Existing 
Species of Wombats, 1S6 

Speter (.Max), -\bhandlungen Jean Rey's, iiber die Ursache 
der Gewichtszunahme von Zinn und Blei beim Verkalken, 

527 

Spirit and Matter before the Bar of Modern Science, Dr. 

Isaac W. Heysinger, 36 
Spiritualism, the Newer, Frank Podmore, Sir Oliver 
Lodge, F.R.S., 489 

Spitaler, Comet 1S90 VTL, Search-ephemerides for, F. 
Hopfer, 317 

Sports and Gaines, the Encvclopa:dia of. Prof. G. H. Brvan, 
F.R.S., 229 

Stafford (Dr. J.}, Early Developmental History of the 
Canadian Oyster, 17 

Stagnant Glaciers, G. W. Laniplugh, F.R.S., 297 

Stanton (Dr. T. E.), Experiments on -Air Resistance, 13 

Stars : a \'ariable Star as a Time Constant, Prof. Barnard, 
52 ; the Determination of Stellar Radial Velocities, Prof. 
Frost, 86; Prof. R. W. Wood, 86; Measures of Double 
Stars, Prof. Burnham, 132; Dr. Lau, 317; Mr. Sellers, 
307 ; the Study of Double .Stars for Amateurs, G. F. 
Chambers, 273 ; Parallax of Fourth-type Stars, Prof. 
Kapteyn, 273 ; the Maximum of Mira in 1909, Prof. 
Nijland, 273 ; Mr. Ichinohe, 273 ; Results from Micro- 
metric Observations of Eros, 1900, Mr. Hinks, 184; 
Occultation of v (iemini by the Planet Venus, MM. 
Baldet, Oudnisset and .Antoniadi, 196 ; the Recent Oc- 
cultation of rjGeminorum by Venus, M.M. Baldet, Ou(5nis- 
set, and Antoniadi, 317; Researches on the Colours of 
Stars, Osten Bergstrand, 344 ; the Distances of Red Stars, 
Dr. H. Norris Russell, 374 ; Transactions of the Astro- 
nomical Observatorv of Yale University, Parallax Investi- 
gations on Thirty-five Selected Stars, by Frederick L. 
Chase, Mason F. Smith, and William L. Elkin, 433 ; 
Coloured Stars between the Pole and 60° N. Declination, 
Herr Kriiger, 439; Observations of the Companion of 
Sirius, Prof. Barnard, 439; the Mean ParrJIax of Tenth- 
magnitude Stars, Dr. H. E. Lau, 439 ; Announcement of 
a Nova, Mrs. Fleming, 472 ; Spectrum and Radial 
\'elocity of ij> Persei, Dr. Ludendorff, 307 

.Static Charge in Bicycle Frame, Robert S. Ball, juii., 9 

Statistics : Centre of Gravity of Annual Statistics, .A. Slar- 
shall, 104; the Tabulation of Vital Statistics, Dr. 
T. H. C. Stevenson at Royal Statistical Society, 130 ; 
Relation between the Reduction in Area of Wheat in 
England and the Increased A'ield, Mr. Vigor, 182 

Stead (J. E., F.R.S., F.I.C., F.C.S.), Opening -Address in 
Si.ction B at the Meeting of the British -Association at 
Sheffield, 302; a Fourth Recalescence in Steel, 518; 
Closing and Welding of Blow-holes in Steel Ingots, 518 

Steavenson (W. H.), the Perseid Meteoric Shower, 248 

.Slechow (E.), .\thecala und Plumularidx, 34 

.Steel, Notes on the Electric Smelting of Iron and, Dr. 
W. F. Smeeth, 103 

Steele (Dr. Bertram D.), an .Attempt to Determine the 
Supposed Change in Weight accompanying the Radio- 
active Disintegration of Radium, 42S 

Steensby (Dr. H. P.), Contributions to the Ethnology and 
.Anthropogeography of the Polar Eskimos, 443 

Stein (Father), Halley's Comet, 183 

Steiner (L.), Result.ate der Wissenschaftlichen Untersuch- 



Nature, "I 

XiK'cmber 24, 1910J 



Index 



xli 



ungen des Balaton, Erdmagnetische Messungen in 
Sommer 1901, 299 

Steinmann (Prof.)> Pre-Cambrian Fauna, 442 

Stenquist (D.), Earth-current Observations in Stockholm 
during the Transit of Halley's Comet on May 19, g 

Sterilisation of Liquids by Light of very Short Wave- 
length, the. Prof. Theodore Lyman, 71 

Sterneck (R. v.), Resultate der Wissenschaftlichen Untcr- 
suchungen des Balaton, Untersuchungen iiber die 
Schwerkraft, 299 

Stevens (J. D.), Tooth Gearing, 155 

Stevenson (Dr. T. H. C), the Tabulation of ^ Vital 
Statistics, Paper at Royal Statistical Society, 130 

Stewart {R. .M.), a .Modified Method for Nadir Observa- 
tions, 439 

Stiefclhagen (Dr. Heinz), .Account of the Genus Scrophu- 
laria, 543 

Stirling-.Maxwell (Sir John), Results of Trials m Inverness- 
shire with Belgian System of Tree Planting on Turfs, 

Stockholm, the Geological Congress at, 440 

Stokes (A. H.) Death of, 468 

StoUey (.Prof. E.), Glacial Erosion, 442 

Stopes (Dr. Marie C), Studies on the Structure and 
Affinities of Cretaceous Plants, 129 ; .Ancient Plants : 
being a Simple .Account of the Past Vegetation of the 
Earth and the Recent Important Discoveries made in 
this Realm of Nature Study, 523 

Storage Cells, Treatment of. Dr. Bertram B. Boltwood, 

174 

Stormer (Carl), Photographs of Auroras, 86 

Story (G.), Insect Coloration, 550 

Stratton (F. J. M.), .Accident in Heredity, 63 

Strickland (C), Development of Trypanosoma Ic^visi in 
the Rat Flea (Ceratophylbis fasciatiis), 63 

Stupart (Mr.), Vertical Temperature Gradients in Canada 
in the Winter Months, 516 

Submarine Telegraphy, Modern, Sidney G. Brown at Royal 
Institution, 23 

Sugar, the Manufacture of Cane, Llewellyn Jones and 
F. I. Scard, 199 

Sulphuric .Acid and .Alkali, the Manufacture of, with the 
Collateral Branches, Prof. George Lunge, 166 

Sumner (Francis B.), the Biological Laboratories at Woods 
Hole, 527 

Sun : the Next Total Eclipse of the. Dr. William J. S. 
I.ockyer, 75 ; Displacement of Spectral Lines at the 
Sun's Limb, .A. Perot, 86; Calcium Vapour in the Sun, 
C. E. St. John, 249 ; the Sun's Velocity through Space, 
Profs. Frost and Kapteyn, 272 

Sun-spots, the Rotation of, P. Kempf, 152 

Sun-spots of 1909, the, Dr. E. Guerrieri, 317 

Surgery : Operative Treatment of Simple Fractures, 
.Arbuthnot Lane, 153 ; Illustrated Guide to the Museum of 
the Royal College of Surgeons, England, Prof. .Arthur 
Keith, 296 ; Death of John Langton, 340 ; Fractures and 
Separated Epiphyses, .A. J. Walton, Frank Romer, 361 ; 
a Guide for Medicine and Surgery, Compiled for Nurses, 
Sydney Welham, 526 ; Collection of Books and Manu- 
scripts from Lhasa, Lieut. -Colonel L. A. Waddell, 542 

Sutton (Dr. J. R.), Diurnal Variation of Level at 
Kimbe'ley, 262 

Swann (W. F. G.), Magnetic Field Produced by the Motion 
of a Charged Condenser through Space, 516 

Sweet Peas, H. J. Wright, 326 

Swellengrebel (Dr. N. H.), Development of Trypanosoma 
le-juisi in the Rat Flea {Ceratophyllus fasciatiis), 63 

Swinnerton (Dr. H. H.), Nottinghamshire, 527 

Sykes (M. G.), .Anatomy and Morphology of the Leaves 
and Inflorescences of Wehvitchia mirahilis, 62 

Sykes (Mark L.), Insect Coloration, 550 

Sykora (Herr), Halley's Comet, 322 ; Simultaneous Photo- 
graphic Observations of a Remarkable Meteor, 544 

Sylven (Dr. N.), Selection of Seed, 56 

Sylviculture : the Care of Trees in Lawn, Street, and 
Park, Bernard E. Fernow, 423 



Tabulation of Vital Statistics, the. Dr. T. H. C. Stevenson 

at Royal Statistical .Society, 130 
Talbot (A. N.), Tests made on Timber Beams, 152 



Talbot (W. .A.), Forest Flora of the Bombay Presidency 
and Sind, 170 

Talman (C. Fitzhugh), Pwdre Ser, 73 

Tanret (C.), Relations between Callose and Fungose, 22S 

Tanzi (Prof. Eugenic), a Text-book of Mental Diseases, 
458 

Tarr (Prof. Ralph S.), the A'akutat Bay Region, Alaska, 
76 ; Areal Geology, 76 ; a Laboratory Manual of Physical 
Geography, 201 ; .Advance of Glaciers in Alaska as a 
Result of Earthquake Shaking, 442 

Tassilly (E.), .Abiotic .Action of Ultra-violet Rays of 
Chemical Origin, 164 

Technical Institutions, the Association of, go 

Technical Methods of Chemical -Analysis, Prof. George 
Lunge, loi 

Teeth, Our, R. Denison Pedley and Frank Harrison, 237 

Telegraphy : Modern Submarine Telegraphy, Sidney G. 
Brown at Royal Institution, 23 ; the Telegraphy of 
Photographs, Wireless and by Wire, T. Thorne Baker, 
220 ; the Telegraphic Transmission of Photographs, 
T. Thorne Baker, 460; New Direct Wire Connecting 
Montreal with the Bamfield Creek Cable Station Com- 
pleted, 246 ; Energy Relations of Certain Detectors used 
in Wireless Telegraphy, Dr. W. H. Eccles, 195 ; Mr. 
Marconi obtains Wireless Messages a Distance of 3500 
.Miles, 400; Wireless Telegraphic Messages Transmitted 
between Clifden (Galway) and Buenos .Aires, Mr. 
Marconi, 435 

Telephony : Novel Type of Submarine Telephone Cable 
from Dover to Cape Grisnez, 81 

Telescope, Separating Power of a, J. W. Scholes, 266; 
T. Lewis, 266 

Temperatur Verhaltnisse in der freien Atmosphare, die, 
[Ergebnisse der internationalen unbemannter Ballon- 
aufstiege]. Dr. Arthur Wagner, E. Gold, 42 

Terrestrial Phenomena, the Relations between Solar .and, 
-Abbe Th. Moreux, 345 

Textiles, Fire Tests with, 364 ; Leonard Parrv, 429 

Thames, the, G. E. Mitton, 138 

Thayer (Gerald H.), Coloration in the .Animal Kinijdom, 532 

Theiler (Dr. A.), Anaplastna marginale, a New Genus and 
Species of the Protozoa, 132 

Theobald (F. V.), New Genera and Species of Culicidoe, 
407 

Therapeutics : Use of Thermo-electric Baths without .Altera- 
tion of Normal Tissue, M. Doyen, gS ; Treatment of 
Different Trypanosomiases by .Arsenic and .Antimony 
Emetic, .A. Laveran, 436 ; Death of Dr. Sidney Ringer, 
502 ; Obituary Notice of, 540 ; Thermal Effects produced 
by High-frequency Currents, Dr. Franz Nagelschmidt at 
Roval Society of Medicine, 542 

Thiele (Theobald Nicolai), Death and Obituary Notice of, 

503 
Thiselton-Dver (Sir W. T., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.), the Laws 

of Heredity, G. Archdall Reid, i 
Thomas (Prof. Cyrus), Death of, 47 
Thomas (Edward), Windsor Castle, 138 
Thomas (H. H.), the Geology of Ore Deposits, 293 
Thomas (N. W.), Processes of Prehistoric Potterv-mnking, 

116 
Thomas (Dr. W. H.), Special Screening against Mosquitoes, 

48 
Thompson (F. D.), the Thyroid Body and R.-Uited Struc- 
tures, 181 
Thompson (H. S.), Botanising in County Kerry, 543 
Thompson (Prof. S. P., F.R.S.), Hysteresis Loops and 
Lissajous's Figures, and on the Energy Wasted in a 
Hysteresis Loop, ig^ ; Light Visible and Invisible, 393 
Thomson (J.), On and Off Duty in Annam, Gabrielie "M. 

A'assal, 243 
Thomson (Prof. J. .Arthur), Alcyonarians Collected by Mr. 
J. Murray of Sir E. Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, 
2g ; Threads in the Web of Life, 168 
Thomson (Sir J. J., F.R.S.), Radiology and Medical Elec- 
tricity, 153 ; on Positive Rays, 513 ; Existence of a Posi- 
tive Gradient of Potential during Fine Weather and a 
Negative Gradient during Wet Weather, 515; Combus- 
tion, 517 
Thomson (Margaret R.), Threads in the Web of Life, 16S 
Thomson (R.), the Jequi^ Manicoba Rubber Tree, 56 
Thornycroft (Sir John), Hydroplane Miranda IV., 183 



xlii 



Index 



Thorp (C. G.), \'ery X'iscid Fluid to make Dumb-bell by 
the Union of the Drops of Two Bubbles, 436 

Thorp (T.), Method for Preventing the Tarnishing of Silver- 
on-Glass Parabolic Mirrors, 521 

Thorpe (Dr. J. F.), Synthesis of Camphoric Acid, 51 ; Rela- 
tive Instability of the Trimethylene Ring, 519; Elimina- 
tion of a Carbethoxyl Group during the Closing of the 
Five-membered Ring, 519 

Threads in the AVeb of Life, Margaret R. Thomson and 
Prof. J. Arthur Thomson, 168 

Thresh (May), a History of the Mineral Waters and Medi- 
cinal Springs of the County of Essex, 361 

Thurston (Edgar), the Castes and Tribes of Southern 
India, 365 

Tiani (A.), Action of Ultra-violet Rays on Gelatine, 131 

Ticehurst (Norman F.), a History of the Birds of Kent, 241 

Tidal Researches, Dr. J. P. van der Stok, Sir G. H. 
Darwin, F.R.S., 144 

Ti'Tbau und Tierleben in ihrem Zusammenhang betrachtet. 
Prof. R. Hesse and Prof. Franz Doflein, i ; Der Tier- 
korper als selbstandigen organismus. Prof. Richard Hesse, 
53S 

Tilho, Documents scientifiques de la Mission (1906-9), Sir 
H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 244 

Tillers of the Ground, Dr. Marion I. Newbigin, 168 

Tillvard (R. J.), the Genus Synthemis (Neuroptera : 
Odonata), 196 

Timber Beams, Tests made on, A. N. Talbot, 152 

Time Constant, A Variable Star as a, Prof. Barnard, 52 

Timni (Dr. R.), Niedere Pflanzen, 326 

Tims (Dr. H. W. Marett), Anatomical Adaptations in Seals 
to Aquatic Life, 550 

Tinctorial Chemistry, Ancient and Modern, Prof. Walter M. 
Gardner, 56 

Tocher (J. F.), Modification of Mendel^eff's Classification of 
the Elements, 156 

Toda (Mr.), Photographs of Morehouse's Comet, 19 

Todd (Prof. David), Halley Meteors, 439 

Todd (Dr. John L.), Recent Advances in our Knowledge of 
Tropical Diseases, 181 

Tommy's .'\dventures in Natureland, Sir Digby Pigott, 
C.B., 100 

Tomory (Dr. D. M.), Modern Methods of Water Purifica- 
tion, 437 

Topography, the Christian, of Cosmas Indicopleustes, 133 

Toiemism and Exogamy : a Treatise on Certain Early 
Forms of Superstition and Society, Prof. J. G. Frazer, 
.-\. E. Crawley, 31 

Town-pl.inning, A. E. Crawley, 408 

Townsend (Chas. F.), Chemistry for Photographers, 327 

Townson and Mercer (Messrs.), Novel Technical Thermo- 
meter, 84 

Toxicology: Death of Dr. Frederick .A. Genth, jun., -^70 

Trail (Prof. James W. H., M.A., M.D., F.R.S.), Opening 
.\ddress in Section K at the Meeting of the British .Asso- 
ciation at Sheffield, 452 

Transvaal, Ve,terinary Research in the, 321 

Travis (C. B.), Ordovican Rhyolites of Nant Ffrancon, Car- 
narvonshire, 376 

Treadwell (Prof. F. P.), Analytical Chemistry, 461 

Trees, the Care of, in Lawn, Street, and Parit, Bernard E. 
Fernow, 423 

Trees and Timbers, 546 

Tremearne (Capt. k. J. N.), Notes on the Origin of the 
Hausas, 58 ; Origin of the Fulah or Filani Race, 82 ; 
Processes of Prehistoric Pottery-making, 116 

Treub (Dr. Melchior), Death and Obituary Notice of, 539 

Trigonometry, Plane, Prof H. S. Carslaw, 136 

Trophoblast and the Early Development of Mammals, 134 

Trotter (A. P.), Curve Tracing and Curve Analysis, 40 

Troup (R. S.), Fissibility of some Indian Woods, 547; Pro- 
spects of the Match Industry in the Indian Empire, 547 

True (H.), Experimental Ocular Actioti of the Dust on 
Tarred Roads, 456 

Tsuiji (Y.), Daily Variation of Wind and the Displacement 
of the Air at Nagasaki, 471 

Tuberculosis : The Tuberculosis Conferenca and Exhibition, 
22 ; Absence of Tubercle Bacilli from old Tuberculous 
Lesions, Dr. Cobbett, 63 ; the Crusade against Consump- 
tion, 374; the Ninth International Conference on Tuber- 
culosis, ^07; Influence of Predisposition and Hereditv, 
Prof. L.indouzy, 50S ; Special Susceptibility of Children 



of Tuberculous Parents, Prof. Calmette, 508 ; M. Fiery, 
508 ; Analysis of 232 Fatal Cases of Tuberculosis, Dr. 
Nathan Raw, 508; Importance of Predisposition, Dr. C. 
Theodore Williams, 308 ; Action of Sunlight and High 
-Altitudes, Dr. Hermann von .Schrotter, 509 

Turner (Prof. T.), Shrinkage of .Antimony-lead .Mloys and 
of the Aluminium-zinc -Alloys during and after Solidifica- 
tion, 421 ; Influence of Silicon on the Properties of Pure 
Cast Iron, 440 ; Theory of Hardening Carbon Steels, 440 

Turner (Sir William), .Morphology of the Manus in 
Platanista gangctica, 97 

Turner (W. E. S.), Molecular -Association in Water, 519; 
.Affinities of the Halogen Elements, 519; Molecular Com- 
plexity of Nitrosoamines, 520 

Turpaian (M.), Application of the Principle of Archimides 
to the Exact Determination of Gaseous Densities, 556 

Tyndall (A. M.), Velocity of Negative Ions in Hydroger^ 
at Atmospheric Pressure, 531 

Tyrrell (Dr. R. Y.), Orationes et Epistolae Cantabrigienses 
(1876-1909), Dr. John Edwin Sandys, 35 



Uganda-Congo Boundary, the, Edward Heawood, 531 ; 
the Writer of the Article, 531 

Uganda-Congo Frontier, Lake Edward, Ruwenzori, and 
the, 267 

Uhlmann (F.), das Holz, 326 

Unemployed Laboratory .Assistants, G. E. Reiss, 462 

United States, Recent Work of Geological Surveys, IV., 
the, 121 

United States Naval Observatoi'y, the, 152 

United States and Canada, Medical Education in the, 
■Abraham Flexner, 332 

Universities : University and Educational Intelligence, 28, 
60, 96, 130, 1C3, 194, 226, 261, 291, 323, 355, 389, 
420, 455, 487, 521, SS4 ; the Position of University 
Education in Great Britain, 91 ; the Reform of O.xford 
University, 331 ; Students' Life and Work in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, Prof. Karl Breul, 461 ; Death of 
J. W". Clark, 468; Obituary Notice of. Dr. Sidney F. 
Harmer, F.R.S., 501 ; the Centenary of Berlin Uni- 
versity, 480, 496 

Uranium and Radium in Minerals, the Ratio between, 
Alex. S. Russell, 238; Frederick Soddy, F.R.S., 296 

Uranus, and Neptune, New Ephemerides for Saturn, Dr. 
Downing, 472 

Usher (F. L.), Relative .Atomic Weights of Xitroijpn and 
Sulphur, 62 



Vaccination, Smallpox and, in British India, Major S. P. 

James, 5 
Valentine (C. S.), How to Keep Hens for Profit, 138 
Vassal (Gabrielle M.), On and Off Duty in .Annam, 243 
Vaughan (H. H.), Pooling System, 155 
\'egetationsbilder, Trockensteppen der Kalahari, F. Seiner ; 

von den Juan Fernandez Inseln, Carl Skottberg ; die 

schwiibische Alp, Otto Feucht ; aus Bosnien und der 

Herzegovinia, L. Adamovic ; die Flora von Irland, Prof. 

T. Johnson, 395 
VegetationsverhJiltnisse der Balkanlander (Mosische 

Lander), die. Prof. Lujo Adamovic, 135 
Veley (V. H.), Comparative Toxicity of Theobromine and 

CafTeine as Measured by their Direct Effects upon the 

Contractibility of Isolated Muscle, 62 
Velocity of Negative Ions in Hydrogen at .Atmospheric 

Pressure, A. M. Tyndall, 531 
Ventou-Duclaux (L.), Petite Encyclop^die a^ronaulique, 

229 
Venus, the Recent Occultation of »• Geminorum by, MM. 

Baldet, Qu^nisset, and .Antoniadi, 317 
Vergleichenden Physiologic, Handbuch der, 102 
Very (Prof. Frank W.), Water Vapour on Mars, 495 
Veterinary Research in the Transvaal, 321 
Vickers (H. M.), the Origin of the " Blotched " Domestic 

Tabby Cat, 298, 331 
Vigor (Mr.), Relation between the Reduction in .Area of 

Wheat in England and the Increased Yield, 182 
Voisenet (E.), New Researches on Bitter Wines and the 

Acrylic Fermentation of Glycerol, 324 
Volcanoes ; New Crater in Eruption near Dormant Geyser 

of Waimangu, 115 



:..o] 



Index 



xliii 



Vuill<:inin CfaulJ. a Natural Preventative to the Oak-tree 
Disease, 555 

Waddell (.Lieut. -Colonel L. A.), Collection of Books and 

Manuscripts from Lhasa, 542 
Wagner (Dr. Arthur), die Temperatur Verhiiltnisse in der 

freien Atmosphare [Ergebnisse der internationalen un- 

bemannter Ballonaufstiege], 42 
Wagner (\V.), die Hiede, 326 
Wahnschaffe (Prof.;, Glacial Erosion, 441, 442 
Walcott (Prof. C. D.), Eyes of Trilobites, 371 
Walden (P.), Electrolytic Conductivity of Non-aqueous 

Solutions at Low Temperatures, 84 
Walker (Dr.j, Glandular Structures Supposed to Form 

Part of the Postate Gland in Rats and Guinea-pigs, 82 
Walker (Dr. Gilbert T., F. R.S.J, Meteorological Conditions 

prevaiUng before the South-west Monsoon of 1910, 118; 

on the Meteorological Evidence for Supposed Changes of 

Climate in India, 178 
Walker (Dr. H.), \'arialion of Young's Modulus under 

an Electric Current, 30 
Waller (Prof. A. D.), .Method for the Quantitative Estima- 
tion of Hydrocyanic .Acid in Vegetable and Animal 

Tissues, 60 ; Comparative To.Kicity of Theobromine and 

Caffeine as Measured by their Direct Effects upon the 

Contractility of Isolated Muscle, 62 
Walther (Prof.), Pre-Cambrian Fauna, 442 
Walton (.4. J.), Fractures and Separated lipiphyses, 361 
Wanderer (Dr. K.), Local Races of the Musk-ox, 211 
Ward (Francis), Marine Biological Photography, 10 
Waring (G. A.), Pioneer Work in Southern Oregon, 122 
Warner (Miss), the Perseid Meteoric Shower, 248 
Washington (Mr.), Molecule Corresponding to Soda- 

anorthite in a Felspar from Linosa, 375 
Wassertiere, die Ernahrung der, und der Stoffhaushalt der 

Gewasser, Prof. August Piitter, 5 
Wassilieff (Dr. A.), Japanische Actinien, 34 
Water : Results of the Chemical and Bacteriological 

Examination of London Waters, Dr. Houston, 212 ; 

Metropolitan Water Examinations, Dr. Houston, 246 ; 

the Colours and Spectrum of Water, T. W. Backhouse, 

530 
Water Vapour on Mars, Prof. Campbell, 317; Prof. Frank 

W. Very, 495 
Watson (.Arnold T.), the Formation and Arrangement of 

tlie Opercular Chaetae of Sabellaria, 549 
Watson (H. E.), Molecular Weights of Helium, Neon, 

Ivrypton, and Xenon, iS 
Watson (Dr. Malcolm), Prevention of Malaria, 340 
Waugh (F. A.), the Landscape Beautiful, 464 
Webb (Edmund J.), Fireball of September 2, 363 
Webb (G. W.), a Systematic Geography of Asia, 426 
Webster (Dr. -A. G.), Complete .Apparatus for the Measure- 
ment of Sound, 515 
Webster (Mr.), the Clover Root-borer, 18 
Weckworth (E.), Occurrences of Antimony Ores through- 
out Peru, 217 
Weed (Mr.), Chimaeroid Fishes, 547 
Weeds, Distribution of, 547 
Weiss (Prof. F. E.). Observations on the Garden 

Tropseolum, 157 
Weisweiller (G.), Researches on the Constitution of 

Vicianose, 164 
Welch (Miss E. G.), Graptolitic Zones from the Salopian 

Beds of the Caulty District, Sedburgh, 520 
Welham (Sydney), a Guide for Medicine and Surgery, 

Compiled for Nurses, 526 
Welsh Monuments, Royal Commission on. Rev. John 

Grififitb, 404 
Wertenstein (Louis), Rrdio-active Projections, 261-2 
West Indies, Health Progress and Administration in the, 

Sir Hubert W. Boyce, F.R.S., 174 
Westinghouse (G.), Extended Distribution of Electricity for 

Industrial Purposes, 155 
Westphal's Comet, 1S52 IV., Search-ephemerides for, A. 

Hnatek, 545 
Whatney (Miss G. R.), Graptolitic Zones from the Salopian 

Beds of the Caulty District, Sedburgh, 520 
Whetham (W. C. D.-), Heredity at the Church Congress, 

431 



White (F. M.), Handling Locomotives at Terminals, 155 

White (Mr.), Synthetic Study of Diopside and its Relations 
to Calcium and Magnesium Metasilicates, 375 

Whitford (H. N.), Dipterocarp Trees in the Philippine 
Forests, 56 

Whitlock (F. L.), Playing-grounds and Nests of the Yellow- 
spotted Bower-bird {Clilamydodera guttata), 186 

Wibeck (E.), Beech Forests in Sweden, 56 

Wickham (Dr.), Radium Treatment, 153 

Wiedemann (Prof. E.), Arabian Astronomical Instruments, 

472 
Wild Plants on Waste Land in London, 184 
Wilde (Dr. Henry), Origin of Cometary Bodies and 

Saturn's Rings, 522 
Wilderness, Our Search for a, Mary Blair Beebe and C. 

William Beebe, 525 
WiUard (Hobart Hurd), Determination of Atomic Weights, 

207 
Willensakt und das Temperament, Ueber den. Prof. Narziss 

.Ach, 199 
Williams (C. H. Greville, F.R.S.), Death and Obituary 

Notice of, 14 
Williams (Dr. C. Theodore), Importance of Predisposition, 

508 
W iUiams (F. N.), Prodromus Florae Britannicae, 342 
Williams (Dr. H. S.), the Science of Happiness, 202 
Williams (Dr. Stenhouse), Effect of an Increased Percentage 

of Oxygen on the Vitality and Growth of Bacteria, 181 
Wilmore (Dr. A.), Relations of Uralite and other Secondary 

Amphiboles to their Parent Minerals, 372 
Wilson (Prof. E., and W. H.), a New Method of Producing 

High-tension Electrical Discharges, 554 
Wilson (Prof. James), Lord Morton's Quagga Hybrid and 

Origin of Dun Horses, 328, 494 
Wilson (William), New Globe-map of the World, 552 
Wilson (Mr.), Rediscovery of Brooks's Periodical Comet 

(1SS9 V), igiod, 438 
Wilson-Barker (Commander D.), Tests for Colour-vision, 

Wiltshireite, a New Mineral, Prof. W. J. Lewis, F.R.S., 
203 

Wimperis (H. E.), Use of an Accelerometer in the Measure^ 
ment of Road Resistance and Horse-power, 553 

Windsor Castle, Edward Thomas, 138 

Winkler (Dr. Wilhelm), Death of, 47 

Wirbeltiere, die Sau^ctierontogenese in ihrer Bedeutung 
fijr die Phylogenie der. Prof. A. A. W. Hubrecht, 134 

Wireless Telegraphy : Energy Relations of Certain De 
lectors Used in Wireless Telegraphy, Dr. W. H. Eccles 
195 ; Wireless Messages a Distance of 3500 Miles, Mr 
Marconi, 400; Wireless Telegraphic Messages Trans 
mitted between Clifden (Galway) and Buenos Aires, Mr, 
Marconi, 435 

Wolf (Dr. Max), Halley's Comet, 19; Observations of 
Comets, 213 

Wolff's (Christian) Ontologie, uber, Hans Pichler, 294 

\^■olk (Daffy), Aluminium Nitride, its Preparation and 
Fusion, 164 , r, • ■ 

Wood (H. B.), Original Source and Spread of Bubonic 
Plague, 149 

W'ood (H. E.), Snowfall in the Transvaal, 543 

Wood (Prof. R. W.), Experimental Study of Fulgurites, 
70; the Determination of Stellar Radial Velocities, 86; 
How to Take Photographs with Infra-red and Ultra- 
violet Lights, 215; the Thomas Young Oration at the 
Optical Society, 443 

Wood-Jones (Dr. F.), Coral and Atolls, 432 ; the Cocos- 
Keeling Atoll, 528 

Woodcock (R. C), the Rideal-Walker Test, 156 , , . 

Woodford (C. M.), Stone-headed Axe from Rennell Island. 

Woodhead (Prof. Sims), Results of Sterilisation Experi- 
ments on Cambridge Water, 63 ; Standardisation of 
Disinfectants, 156 . 

Woods Hole, the Biological Laboratories at, trancis B. 
Sumner, 527 , .,,. j 

Woodward (C. J.), A.B.C. Five Figure Logarithms and 
Tables for Chemists, including Electrochemical Equiva- 
lents, Analytical Factors, Gas Reduction Tables, and 
other Tables Useful in Chemical Laboratories, 360 



htdex 



{..... 



VVoolsey (J. S., jun.), New Type of Resin Collector, 402 

Workman (Fanny Bullock, and Dr. W. H.), Peaks and 
Glaciers of Nun Kun, a Record of Pioneer-exploration 
and Mountaineering in the Punjab Himalaya, 78 

Worlds, the Evolution of, Prof. Percival Lowell, William 
E. Ivolston, 99 

Worms, the Habits of. Rev. Hilderic Friend, 397 

Wright (C. Harold), Effect of Heat on Soils, 530 

Wright (C. W.), the Ketchiwan and Wrangell Mining 
Districts, Alaska, 511 

Wright (F. E.), Measurement of Extinction Angles in Thin 
Section, 37^ ; Synthetic Study of Diopside and its Rela- 
tions to Calcium and Magnesium Metasilicates, 375 ; 
New Views on Quartz, 375 ; Binary Systems of Alumina 
with Silica, Lime, and .Magnesia, 375 ; Molecule corre- 
sponding to Soda-anorthite in a Felspar from Linosa, 
375 ; the Ketchiwan and Wrangell Mining Districts, 
Alaska, 511 

Wright (H. J.), Sweet Peas, 326 

Wright (William H.), the Black Bear, 327 

Wroczynski (.A.), .\ction of Pressure and Temperature upon 
Cyanogen, 164 

Wye, Kent, the Journal of the South-eastern Agricultural 
College, 253 

X-Ray Spectra, Prof. C. G. Barkla and J. Nicol, 139 

Yale University, Transactions of the Astronomical Observa- 
tory of. Parallax Investigations on Thirty-five Selected 
Stars by Frederick L. Chase, Mason F. Smith, and 
William L. Elkin, 433 

Yamamoto (K.), Determination of the Effects of Atmo- 
spheres of Various Vapours on the Volt-ampere 
" Characteristic Curves " of the Carbon Copper Arc, 248 

Yerkes (R. M.), Do Kittens Kill Mice Instinctively? 436 

Young, the Thomas, Oration at the Optical Society, Prof. 
R. W. Wood, 443 

Yunnan, Across, .'Archibald Little, 177 

Zinc Pigments, Lead and. Dr. C. D. Holley, Dr. A. P. 
Laurie, 325 

Zinco, Lo, Prof. R. Musu-Boy, 39 

Zona (Prof. T.), Death of, 46 

Zoology : Medicinal Lizards, D. Hooper, 30 ; Beitrage zur 1 
Naturgeschichte Ostasiens, Japanische Alcyonaceen, i 
Prof. W. Kiikenthal, die Familien der Primnoiden, 
Muriceiden, und Acanthogorgiiden, Prof. W. I\ukenthal 
and H. Gorzawsky, die Familien der Plexauriden 
Chrysogorgiiden und Melitodiden, Prof. W. Kiikenthal, 
Athecata und Plumularidae, E. Stechow, Japanische Anti- 
patharien, E. Silberfeld, Japanische Medusen, O. Maas, 
Japanische Actinien, Dr. A. Wassilieff, Japanische 
Ctenophoren, Dr. Fanny Moser, Uber japanische 
Seewalzen, E. Augustin, 34; Capture of a Large Female 
Saw-fish {Pristis cuspidata) on the Ceylon Pearl-banks, 
T. Southwell, JO ; ."Mleged Partiality of Cobras for 
Music, H. O. Barnard, 49 ; Antarctic Pycnogons, Dr. 



W. T. Caiman, 104; Guide to the Crustacea, Arachnida, 
Onychophora and Myriopoda exhibited in the Depart- 
ment of Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), 
171 ; the Vertebrate Fauna of Cheshire and Liverpool 
Bay, vol. i., the Mammals and Birds of Cheshire, T. A. 
Coward and C. Oldham, vol. ii., the Dee as a Wildfowl 
Resort, John A. Dockray, the Reptiles and Amphibians 
of Cheshire, T. A. Coward and C. Oldham, the Fishes 
of Cheshire and Liverpool Bay, James Johnstone, 175 ; 
Remains of Subfossil Emeus and Marsupials from King 
Island, Bass Strait, Baldwin Spencer and J. A. Kershaw, 
186 ; Existing Species of Wombats, Baldwin Spencer 
and J. A. Kershaw, 186 ; a Monograph of Sea Snakes, 
186 ; Expedition Antarctique Beige, Resultats du Voyage 
du S.Y. Belgica en 1897-S-9, sous le Commandement de 
A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Rapports scientifiques, 
Zoologie — Schizopoda and Cumacea, H. J. Hansen, 
205 ; Local Races of the Musk-ox, Dr. K. Wanderer, 
211 ; the Orders of Mammals, W. K. Gregory, 
216: Lehrbuch der Zoologie, Prof. R. Hertwig, 234; 
British Marine Zoology, Prof. E. W. MacBride, F.R.S., 
252, 330, 396, 462: Prof. W. A. Herdman, F.R.S., 329. 
396, 462; Dr. Wm. J. Dakin, 396; Teeth of Very 
Young White Whales (Delphinapterus leucas), Dr. 
Einar Lonnberg, 270 ; the Origin of the Domestic 
■"Blotched" Tabby Cat, H. M. Vickers, 298, 331; 
R. I. Pocock, 29S : Insectivorous Mammal Solen- 
odon paradoxus of San Domingo, Glover M. Allen, 
315 ; the International Zoological Congress at Graz 
(August 15-20, 1910), 318; Affinities of the Mammalia 
as Deduced by the Study of the Skull, Prof. Gaupp, 319; 
Occurrence of Hermaphroditism in Lamellibranchs, Prof. 
Pelseneer, 319; Colour-physiology, Dr. Paul Kammerer. 
319; Power of Regulation in Echinoderm Eggs, Prof. 
Conklin, 319; Distribution of Species of Partula, Prof. 
Crampton, 319; Lord Morton's Quagga Hybrid and 
Origin of Dun Horses, Prof. James Wilson, 328, 494; 
Prof. J. C. Ewart, F.R.S., 328, 494; an Interesting 
Donkey Hybrid, R. I. Pocock, 329 ; the Spotted Kudu, 
R. Lydekker, F.R.S., 396; Zoological Work in India, 
406 ; Variation in Indian Rats, Dr. R. E. Lloyd, 407 ; 
Life-histories of Northern Mammals : an Account of the 
Mammals of Manitoba, Ernest Thompson Seton, 423 ; 
the Habits and Distribution of Scutigera in India, A. D, 
Imms, 429 ; Coral and Atolls, F. Wood-Jones, 432 ; the 
Cocos-Keeling Atoll, Dr. F. Wood-Jones, 528 ; The Re- 
viewer, 529 ; European Hedgehog, E. Hollis, 437 ; Science 
in Modern Life, Zoology, Dr. J. .Ainsworth Davis, 464; 
List of the Zoological Gaadens of the World in Septem- 
ber, 46S ; .Structure, Development, and Significance of 
the Parietal Eye of Saurians, Dr. M. Nowikoff, 469 ; a 
History of British Mammals, G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton, 
493 ; Death of John Willis Clark, 468 ; Obituary Notice 
of, Dr. Sidney F. Harmer, F.R.S., 501 ; Nomenclature 
in Zoology, 503 ; Tierbau und Tierleben in ihrem 
Zusammenhang betrachtet. Prof. R. Hesse and Prof. 
Franz Doflein, i, Der Tierkorper als selbstandiger organ- 
ismus. Prof. Richard Hesse, 538 ; the Zoological Region 
of South Africa, J. Hewitt, 542 




A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. 

" To the solid ground 
iKi- Of Nature trusts Die mind which bitilds for aye." — Wordsworth. 



THURSDAY, JULY 7, 1910. 

THE LAWS OF HEREDITY. 
The Laws of Heredity. By G. Archdall Reid. With 
a diagrammatic representation by Prof. H. H. 
Turner. Pp. xi + 548. (London : Methuen and Co., 
Ltd., 1910.) Price 21s. net. 

DR. ARCHDALL REID confesses that he is an 
"extreme Darwinian." It is interesting that 
ho has reached this position from the study of the 
human species. He finds that this "vast field of re- 
search has been left practical!^' untilled by students of 
heredity." He is not, properly speaking, a naturalist ; 
in fact, he has rather a poor opinion of naturalistic 
work, and especially, I am sorry to say, of botanical. 
This is the more remarkable as Darwin himself loved 
■ to exalt plants," and largely drew upon their study 
for his theory. The author is, however, a physician 
who, unlike most of his calling, is not satisfied with 
being empirical. He finds himself "able to watch, 
under conditions ensuring great accuracy, the 
tremendous and crucial experiments made by nature." 
With many of his results we are already familiar 
from his previous writings. They are beginning to 
obtain general acceptance; in proportion as they do 
so, they must profoundly change our mode of dealing 
with social problems of the utmost importance. 

The object of the present work is apparently to set 
out the results of his investigations in a systematic 
form, and to show that they can be exhibited as 
deductions from widely accepted principles. The 
method has undoubtedly the advantage that it has 
enabled him to look at the whole subject from a new 
point of view, and to bring a very acute criticism to 
bear upon a good many questions on which opinion 
at the moment is much divided. 

As Mill long ago pointed out, all science tends to 
become deductive, and biology cannot be excluded. 
But the progress which any particular science can 
make in this direction altogether depends on the 
certainty which attaches to the assumptions or pro- 
positions with which we start. And where the 
phenomena, as in the case of biology, are complicated 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



and obscure, the dil'ticulty must always arise as to 
whether the proposition we start from is really ex- 
I haustive of the fact. The validity of the conclusion 
cannot exceed that of the premises. Lord Kelvin's 
attempt to determine the age of the earth is an 
example. The conditions of the problem have proved 
to be insufficient, and I suppose no physicist would 
now refuse an evolutionist a blank cheque as to time. 
Darwin himself linked together a number of 
separate inductions into a more comprehensive one 
from which he then argued deductively. Dr. Archdall 
Reid has continued the process, and in the first ten 
chapters of his book has attempted a synthesis of 
existing evolutionary theory. It is to be noted that 
when this is done the order of exposition is rarely that 
in which discovery was made. This is well known, 
for example, to be the case with the text-book treat- 
ment of the Newtonian theory. The process is, how- 
ever, valuable, as it not merely brings to light a clear 
chain of causation, but by vigorously testing the 
strength of each link, often reveals unsuspected weak- 
ness, and may even suggest new discovery. 

The author accepts and starts from Weismann's 
theory of the continuity of the germ-plasm. From 
this he makes the fundamental deduction that "indi- 
viduals, for example, men, are nothing more than 
dwellings which the germ-plasm builds about its 
germinal descendants." Thence it follows "that the 
child inherits nothing from his parent." What it 
does inherit is nothing more than what was "inborn " 
in the germ-plasm from which it started. The germ- 
plasm, under the stimulus of nutrition, reproduces 
itself, and also produces the enveloping soma. But 
the latter also requires the stimulus of use (" injury " 
may be regarded as use with a minus sign), as well 
as that of nutrition : a limb will not reach full 
development unless used, and mental powers will re- 
main dormant unless exercised. But the characters 
so developed are "rooted, as it were, in the germ- 
plasm." They flow from it: the question which has 
long divided biologists is whether modification of 
those characters produced by the stimulus of use can 
flow back and be transmitted to a succeeding genera- 
tion. Darwin latterly apparently thought they could. 

R 



NATURE 



[July 7, 19 10 



Herbert Spencer built upon their doing so his ethical 
system. " Most biologists reject the Lamarckian 
doctrine," on the ground that it is against the weight 
of evidence. That is my own position. But the 
author himself admits that there is some evidence in 
its favour, yet unhesitatingly also rejects it on deduc- 
tive grounds. The argument is rather subtle ; but it 
amounts to this : a character which develops under 
the stimulus of use cannot develop under the stimulus 
of nutriment alone. If it did so it would be "a 
miracle." But I am not sure that this is not an 
assumption. In a unicellular organism the soma and 
germ-plasm are identical, and as we rise in the scale 
of plants the separation of the germ-plasm is far from 
being as complete as it is in animals. In many 
plants, as in the well-known case of Begonia, a 
somatic cell will reproduce the whole individual, germ- 
plasm and all. I am not prepared to assert that the 
new germ-plasm is free from derived somatic influ- 
ence. On the other hand, I know of no reason to 
think that it is not. 

The Lamarckian doctrine being dismissed, natural 
selection is examined. Like Prof. Karl Pearson, Dr. 
Archdall Reid infers this immediately from "selective 
mortality " in mankind. He points out that this 
cannot be proved in the case of "wild plants and 
animals," but "presumably" it occurs. I doubt if 
disease is a dominant selective factor in nature, though 
no doubt it has been occasionally operative, and on a 
large scale. He puts the theory on too narrow a 
basis, and ignores the struggle for existence. What 
plants have to fight for is room to perfect their seeds 
and space for them to germinate. 

This is not the only short cut to the root of the 
matter. " The plain fact that living beings are able 
to exist is a proof of adaptation." It does not appear 
to me to be self-evident, though Paley would probably 
have agreed. Anyhow, it is rather like trying to enter 
Darwinism by the back-door instead of toiling up the 
steps. I collect a somewhat better argument. Man 
is "manifestly a bundle of adaptations." "The growth 
of modern physiology implies merely an increased 
power of interpreting human traits in terms of their 
utilities." " Presumably adaptation is not less per- 
fect in plants and lower animals than in man." Yet, 
as Rolleston used to tell us at Oxford, that sort of 
statement would not convict a poacher. Fortunately, 
evolutionists have a better case for the court. 

Next we come to variation, which affords the 
material for natural selection to work upon, and some 
important conclusions are arrived at. Excluding any 
possible influence of the soma, and I agree, variation 
must be resident in the germ-plasm. " Reasoning by 
analogy," it is inferred that this is itself "established 
and maintained by natural selection." This involves 
the paradox that it preceded that which produced it. 
"Its origins are lost in obscurity." No doubt; but if 
I may try my own hand at deduction, I would suggest 
that primitive variation was a necessary consequence 
of molecular instability, and as I regard natural selec- 
tion as a sort of physical principle like "least action " 
or gravitation, it would begin to operate at once. 

The most fundamental point in the whole argument 
is the relation of the germ-plasm to the environment. 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



Here two classes of facts have to be faced; first, the 
undoubted one, on which I have often insisted, that a 
few years' cultivation of a wild species breaks down 
its stabilitv; and, secondlv, such cases as the supposed 
degeneration of European dogs in India. I can only 
accept variation at present as an unresolved pheno- 
menon. I have never contended that the environment 
could act as more than a stimulus to it, and I have 
no doubt that it does. Someone ' has used a 
better expression in saying that it pulls the 
trigger. To suppose that it has any directive 
action lands one at once in Lamarckism. The 
degeneration question is much more serious. To 
attempt to get over it by saying that "evolution is 
never perfect " and that " exceptions occur " is not 
" facing the music." Now this story of the degenera- 
tion of domestic animals and plants is an obsession 
in India. I have had occasion to test it in the case 
of the latter, and satisfied myself that it was due to 
mongrelising ; and, as to Clayton's beans, I completely 
exploded a similar case in Arabis some years ago in 
these pages. My own conclusion is that variation is 
inherent and spontaneous in the germ-plasm; and the 
" germinal power of resisting enforced change " is an 
undoubted fact which manifests itself in "specific 
stability." 

The varying germ-plasm inherits and transmits 
variations. Thus we are led to the thorny question 
of recapitulation. Sedgwick agrees that it is "a de- 
duction from the theory of evolution," but that it "is 
still without satisfactory proof." On the other hand, 
in the same volume, W. B. Scott finds that in brachio- 
pods, "in the more advanced genera, the develop- 
mental stages clearly indicate the ancestral genera of 
the series." The botanist is constantly running up 
against recapitulative structures. When he finds a 
trace of a prothallus in a flowering plant and a sper- 
matozoid in the pollen-tube of Salisburia, it is difficult 
to avoid the conclusion of Bower that land-plants had 
aquatic ancestors. We must, however, agree with 
Prof. SoUas that "nature no doubt is a strict adherent 
to logic, but she betrays a singular want of method in 
recording the steps of her argument." 

Dr. Archdall Reid thinks, and no doubt rightly, that 
" the main reason against a full acceptance of the 
Darwinian doctrine" is "the retrogression of useless 
parts and organs." His solution of this difficult problem 
is one of the most novel and interesting things in his 
book, and will probably be subjected to most criticism. 
Thirty-two yearlings, costing 51,520 guineas, only pro- 
duced two winners. From this and similar cases he 
draws the inference that retrogression preponderates 
over progression. He accounts for it by supposing 
that there has been a selection of germ-plasms which 
"tended on the whole to vary retrogressively." But 
retrogression in turn " is checked only by selection." 
The difficulty at once arises to reconcile this view with 
the biometric result which he admits, that " variation 
tends to occur about equally about the specific mean." 
Incidentally it may be noted that he identifies retro- 
gression with reversion. 

The various solutions of the problem which have 
been attempted are discussed.' There is a risk that the 
terminology used may cover a petitio principii. Given 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



an organism, how is it to be adapted to a different 
environment? The adjustment may be effected by 
further complication or by simplification. It may be 
noted that in regard to the latter there is a close 
parallel in the evolution of machinery. Whole trains 
of mechanism are continually being swept away with 
an increase of efi'iciency. Compare, for example, a 
turbine with a marine engine. Here structural retro- 
gression has made for functional progression. We 
owe it to Lankester for pointing out that "degenera- 
tion " is really simplification leading to closer adapta- 
tion. Progress in biology is not ethical, but position 
in the phyletic scale. The last of the Plantagenets is 
said to have kept a turnpike ; but he may have been 
not the less authentic. 

The instability of prize-bred domesticated races re- 
quires careful scrutiny. The late Duke of Devonshire 
pointed out to Lankester that racehorses are bred for 
speed and not for "points." The conclusion that I 
draw from Sir Walter Gilbey's facts is that breeders 
have not yet succeeded in fixing this particular quality. 
But short-horns, which are bred for points, have 
reached a high degree of stability ; if they had not no 
one would give a thousand guineas for a bull. The 
purchase of a possible racehorse is confessedly a 
gamble. For my own part, I am content with Lan- 
kester 's view that nature " with remorseless thorough- 
ness " can throw overboard hereditary tendencies, if 
it is advantageous to do so ; and this is really the 
same thing as Dr. Archdall Reid's selection of retro- 
gfressive germ-plasms, except that he throws on 
natural selection the burden of defeating its own aim. 

Apart from speculation, we have in Gallon's law of 
regression to mediocrity an empirical result which is 
perfectly general inasmuch as it deals impartially with 
excess and defect. It produces "a sensible stability of 
type and variation from generation to generation." 
It has always appeared to me the most important 
positive addition to the Darwinian theory, and it has 
seemed possible that it would open the door to a 
mechanical explanation of retrogression, or, as I 
prefer to say, of simplifi,cation ; and this is apparently 
in .Archdall Reid's mind, as he remarks that "regres- 
sion is but the first phase of retrogression," though 
he has not followed it out further. Regression is 
independent, apparently, of natural selection, while 
retrogression is not. 

This leads to another point which is often over- 
loolted. The mere " maintenance of a structure " is 
dependent on the continued action of natural selec- 
tion. As Poulton insists, it is by its operation that 
"all functional parts of an organism are kept up to a 
high standard." It may be a private heresy of my 
own, but I can attach no more meaning to the 
"cessation" and "reversal" of selection than if those 
terms were applied to gravitation. 

The chapter on Mendel's laws is altogether admir- 
able. It is probably the most luminous account of 
them which has been published. " There can be no 
doubt of the actual occurrence of the Mendelian 
phenomena. We must, endeavour, therefore, to esti- 
mate the part played by them in nature." Now where 
species or stable varieties are crossed we get 
simple blending, as in the Mulatto. "Mendelian 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



reproduction is one of the rarest things in nature." 
" Mendelian traits . . . are common only when arti- 
ficial varieties . . . are crossed by man." It would be 
impossible with any justice to attempt to summarise 
the argument. The majorit)' of Mendelian traits "are 
concerned with reproduction." The illuminating con- 
clusion, in which, however, the author finds himself 
anticipated by T. H. Morgan, is reached that they are 
analogous to sexual characters which are alternative, 
i.e. are latent or patent in the opposite sex. If this 
explanation holds good, and it has the obvious merit 
of including phenomena not obviously connected at 
first sight, it effectually disposes of "segregation"; 
and "unit-characters" necessarily follow. Hut their 
existence had already become precarious, for Prof. 
Karl Pearson kindly informs me that he has entirely 
failed to discover any which, to put it briefly, can be 
described as having unitary properties. It is pointed 
out that the inheritance of mutations is alternative, 
and the inference is drawn that characters which blend 
in crossing cannot have arisen as mutations. 

Lastly, we come to the " Function of Sex." This is 
found to be an adaptation " to blend parental char- 
acters." Further, it is concluded that "blending, with 
its swamping effects . . . eliminates useless char- 
acters and variations." This at once explains retro- 
gression, and at bottom on this head there is probably 
not much difference between Lankester and the 
author. Mutations are alternative and Mendelian ; 
fluctuations are blended; whence Galton's law of re- 
gression and stability at once follows. "The average 
experience of the whole race . . . becomes the deter- 
mining factor in evolution." 

Two incidental points deserve notice. Partheno- 
genesis " occurs as a rule amongst simple forms." 
But it is found to occur much more frequently than 
was supposed amongst flowering plants ; the dandelion 
is an example. Still, it may be presumed that sexual 
reproduction and cross-fertilisation occasionally occur. 
Fertility, both on biometric and general grounds, is 
thought to be a transmissible adaptation. Karl Pear- 
son has, however, arrived at the important conclusion 
that there is "little or no demonstrable inheritance of 
fertility." Further, he is " forced to the conclusion 
that the smallness of the hereditary factor in fertility is 
an essential feature of Darwinian evolution." It is 
interesting to note that in this case deductive reason- 
ing has led to diametrically opposite conclusions. 

This disposes of the first part of the book. I do 
not know that I have come across anything more sug- 
gestive on the subject since the "Origin" itself. It 
may be added that Prof. Turner has thrown the main 
argument into a quasi-mathematical shape in the 
appendix. The latter and larger portion of the book 
is difficult to review in any reasonable space. It is a 
striking commentary on the contention of de Vries 
that organic evolution has nothing to say on social 
problems. It ranges over a wide field, including even 
a short svstem of philosophy, and will probably be 
found the more interesting because the least technical, 
and might well have been published separately. 

Disease and immunity are admirably discussed. 
Races become tolerant through selection working on 
germinal variation. Protoplasm learns to neutralise 



NATURE 



[July 7, 19 10 



toxins. Twenty years ago I ventured with bated 
breath to hint the possibility of its education. The 
result is that the microbe and not the sword is the 
ultimate "empire-builder"; and subject-races will 
either absorb or expel their conquerers. The argu- 
ment is extended to alcohol and narcotics. All races who 
win their freedom from vicious indulgence must first 
be slaves to it. Insusceptibility to its charm, though 
not precisely parallel to disease-immunity, is, like it, a 
product of germinal variation. Meanwhile, selection 
slowlv eliminates those who do not possess it. If it is 
true that the English are the most drunken of existing 
races, and that "about one death in seven" amongst 
them is due to alcohol, it has its work cut out for it. 
Still, it is at work; and any attempt to interfere with 
it by the total suppression of alcohol would simply 
result in the production of a more susceptible race. 

Fortunately, though susceptibility is germinal, in- 
dulgence is an acquired habit. It follows that the 
children of drunkards will not necessarily follow in 
their parents' steps, and Karl Pearson confirms this 
from biometric data. The same reasoning applies to 
slum-dwellers. Here also the injury is somatic and 
not germinal, and would disappear if the conditions 
were improved ; it is not transmitted, but reproduced 
in the offspring, which the experience of Dr. 
Barnardo's Homes shows is still capable of healthy 
development. Slums are continually recruited from 
outside; it is probable, therefore, that little, if any, 
germinal mischief has been produced. But it can be 
shown on Dr. Archdall Reid's own principles that, 
given time, an adapted and degenerate race would 
develop, which would be parasitic on the communily. 
and probably prolific. 

The chapters on mind I must leave to the psych- 
ologist. Lankester is followed in seeing in ' the rela- 
tively enormous size of the brain in man and the 
corresponding increase in its activity and capacity," 
the fundamental distinction between man and other 
animals. " Educability is nothing more than a power of 
growing mentally under the stimulus of experience." 
This is inherited, while the resulting mental acquire- 
ments are not. The real test of education is the 
quality of thinking produced. I cannot, however, 
follow the author in his condemnation of Karl Pear- 
son's Huxley lecture, the conclusions of which I 
believe to be, not merely perfectly sound, but of the 
deepest importance. Dr. Archdall Reid tells us that 
"ability is inborn"; Karl Pearson says it is "bred." 
I fail to see the distinction. Feeble-mindedness is 
found to consist in "incapacity to learn " and to be a 
"reversion to a pre-human mental state." Being ger- 
minal, it is inherited, and the community is justified 
in restraining its marked fertility. 

Here I must conclude my review of a very remark- 
able book ; the more remarkable as it is the work of 
a man somewhat aloof from the scientific world, and 
written as the recreation of a strenuous professional 
life. The author invites criticism, and I have not 
stinted it. He will doubtless get plenty more. 

Perhaps Dr. Archdall Reid's more vulnerable point 

is the superior certitude which he (and Dr. Donkin) 

claim for deduction over observation and experiment 

(which is onlv observation of facts not immediately 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



patent!. It is true that when we come across an 
apparenth- irreconcilable fact, its improbability depends 
on the certitude of the law with which it conflicts. It 
mav be due to experimental error in its widest sense; 
but it may be the germ of a new discovery. Newton 
laid aside his theory for a time because he could not 
reconcile it with the moon's motion. But Greenwich 
did not abandon it when it was found that the path 
of Halley's comet was not an ellipse. Certitude is 
built up by accumulated verification. Even mathe- 
matics, which are purely deductive, cannot wholly dis- 
pense with it. It was long thought that the conver- 
sion of linear into circular motion was impossible until 
Peaucellier effected it. And even so distinguished a 
mathematician as Sylvester once told me that he had 
published a number of theorems which, when tested 
arithmetically, proved to be untrue. Experiment 
cannot always wait on dedwetion. Rontgen's great 
discovery was an accident. ■ A discrepancy in the 
weight of nitrogen revealed argon. It would possibly 
have been a long time before physicists found out for 
themselves Brownian motion and osmotic pressure 
unless botanists had done it for them. Darwin found 
by experiment that cross-fertilisation was advan- 
tageous to plants, and it is difficult to see how the fact 
could have been arrived at in any other way. 

Huxley must have projected a prophetic eye into 
the future when he wrote : — 

"The great danger which besets all men of large 
speculative faculty, is the temptation to deal with the 
accepted facts in natural science, as if they were not 
only correct but exhaustive ; as if they might be dealt 
with deductively, in the same wav as propositions in 
Euclid mav be dealt with. In reality every such state- 
ment, however true it may be, is true only relatively 
to the means of observation and the point of view of 
those who have examined it. So far it may be de- 
pended upon. But whether it will bear every specu- 
lative conclusion that may be logically deduced from 
it, is quite another question." 

The warning is not unneeded in many directions. 
It is, I think, particularly needed in regard to Dr. 
Archdall Reid's impatience with biometry and 
taxonomy, or rather, I should say, imperfect acquaint- 
ance with their aim and methods. He appears to 
jthmk that biometric method begins and ends with 
mere enumeration. But such a research as that of 
Karl Pearson on the distribution of stars in space 
would show him that it goes a good deal farther. 
As Karl Pearson tells us, biology "has now developed 
theories of such complexity, that without the aid of 
the highest mathematical analysis it is wholly unable 
to state whether its theories are accurate or not." For 
my part, when a distinguished mathematician is will- 
ing to devote his splendid gifts to the task, my atti- 
tude is not querulous, but one of profound gratitude. 

And taxonomy is even less a ground for impatience. 
For, as Linnseus saw, its real aim Is to embrace all 
organisms in a natural classification. The principle ot 
descent is implicit in this, and it was therefore 
towards it that all taxonomists were unconsciously 
working. Far from being hostile, it was amongst 
the systematists— Hooker, Asa Gray, Bentham, Bates, 
and Wallace— that Darwin found his most ardent 
champions. W- T. Thiselion-Dyek. 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



THE METAB<UJSM OF MARINE ANIMALS. 
Die Eniiihruiig dcr W'asscrticrc und dcr Stoffliauslialt 
der Ccwasscr. By Prof. August Putter. Pp. iv + 
168. (Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1909.) Price 5 marks 
(unbound). 

TWO \ears ago Prof. Putter published three papers 
dealing with the metabolism of marine animals. 
The thesis advanced as the result of these investiga- 
tions m.iy be briefly summarised as follows : — the 
nutrition of a very great number of marine animals 
belonging to all phyla is not effected in the manner 
characteristic of the mammal, that is, by the ingestion 
of solid organised food, and by the subsequent diges- 
tion and absorption of this matter bv special organs. 
but by the direct absorption of carbon and nitrogen 
compounds which are contained in solution in the sea. 
The notion that many animals were really saprozoic 
in their habits was not really a new one; most in- 
ternal parasites, whether provided or not with an 
alimentary canal, obviously e.xhibit such a mode of 
nutrition ; but the hypothesis that animals living in 
the open feed otherwise than by the ingestion of solid 
organised food, or by the utilisation of photosynthetic 
products elaborated by the activity of commensal 
alga?, was a new one, and has provoked much discus- 
sion. Putter's methods have been criticised by Henze 
and Lohmann, and the paper now under review 
amplifies the author's former work, and to some extent 
meets the criticisms advanced. 

The proof of the thesis is developed along three 
main lines. The author has studied the intensitv of 
metabolism in a number of forms, and has found 
that this is proportional to the unit of surface, and 
not to the unit of mass. Therefore the relativelv 
minute organisms which are found among the plank- 
ton, or even those larger animals which are provided 
with a large absorptive surface in the shape of gills, 
ctenidia, respiratory plumes, &c., and internal diverti- 
cula, are able to utilise the exceedingly dilute solution 
of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds contained 
in sea water. The intensity of metabolism is measured 
by the o.xygen consumption and the carbonic acid 
output, and, generally speaking, the rate of exchange 
is, roughly, constant in animals of the same general 
type of organisation, when it is regarded as a function 
of the unit of surface. The divergencies from this 
approximately constant rate are to be regarded as 
dependent on the deviations from the usual mode of 
metabolism characteristic of the animal group con- 
sidered. 

The second line of proof depends on the existence 
of compounds of carbon other than carbonates, and 
compounds of nitrogen other than ammonia, nitrates, 
and nitrites, in solution in sea water. From the 
author's point of view the sea is an immense store- 
house of dissolved food-stuff, which is utilised bv most 
marine animals. In his first papers. Putter estimated 
that the water of Naples Bay contained some 65 
milligrams of organic carbon (volatile and higher 
fatty acids, and carbohydrates) per litre. Shortly 
afterwards Henze showed that the amount was greatly 
over-estimated, and that the proportion of such sub- 
stances present was so small that it lay within the 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



limits of error of the experimental methods employed 
by Piitter. Raben, however, showed that the water 
from the North Sea and Baltic did actually contain 
. measurable quantities of organic carbon varying from 
about 3 to 37 milligrams per litre. If these results 
should be confirmed, they would back up Putter's 
hypothesis, since the solution would then be sufficiently 
concentrated to act as a food medium.. 

The third line of proof is much stronger, but it 
depends on the author's estimates of the rate of 
e.xchange of oxygen and carbonic acid in the animals 
studied. Taking the case of plankton-feeding 
creatures, he shows that it is, in most cases, impos- 
sible that a sufficient amount of food can be obtained 
from the plankton to account for the rate of meta- 
bolic exchange. A sponge (Suberites), for instance, 
of some 60 grams weight required about 0*92 mgrm. 
of carbon per hour. Now taking a certain density 
of the plankton, this postulated that the sponge would 
have to pass some 242 litres of water through its canal 
system in order to get the necessary food-stuff from 
the plankton. It is quite impossible, of course, that 
the animal can filter this volume of fluid in the time. 
It has been shown by Lohmann that Putter under- 
estimated the density of the plankton, and by Henze 
that he over-estimated the concentration of the sea 
water in carbon compounds. But when the revised 
values are substituted, the argument is not materially 
affected. A further instance of the same nature is 
that of the copepod Calanus. If this animal feeds 
exclusively on plankton diatoms it must ingest some 
16,000 medium-sized Coscinodisci, or about ten 
millions of Thalassiosira;, in order to account for its 
metabolic exchange. Such figures appear to preclude 
the possibility of an exclusive feeding on diatoms. 

It is, of course, quite probable that marine animals 
may feed in the same way as internal parasites, by 
absorption of dissolved food-stuff, and that this mode 
of nutrition may proceed simultaneously with that 
depending on the existence of an alimentary canal. 
If the metabolism of the lower invertebrates had been 
studied as carefully as that of the warm-blooded 
animal, this contention might have been accepted 
long ago. It is mainly by analogy with the latter 
that we ascribe respiratory functions to the structures 
called gills ; they might just as reasonably be re- 
garded as organs for absorption of food-stuff. How- 
ever this may be, it appears from the work now 
noticed that the conclusions are only very probable 
ones until the data representing the rate of exchange 
of oxygen and carbonic acid have been critically 
revised. The proof or disproof of the author's thesis 
will be effected by such revision. J. J. " 



SMALLPOX AND VACCINATION IN BRITISH 
INDIA. 

Smallpox and ]'accination in British India. By 
Major S. P. James. Pp. xi + 106. (Calcutta : 
Thacker, Spink and Co., 1909.) Price 75. 6d. 

AT a time when the study of tropical diseases is 
setting its indelible mark on the history of the 
progress of medicine, it is well to be reminded that 



NATURE 



[July 7, 19 10 



in the tropics we have diseases that can by no means 
be considered exclusively tropical. 

Major James's work deals with smallpox in India, 
that is, in a country, as the author bids us bear in 
mind, where the people 

" live amid surroundings which could not be more 
favourable to the spread of epidemic disease if 
they had been especially devised to that end." 

In a country "where sanitation is still in its in- 
fancy," where a continually growing proportion of the 
population lives in the towns and cities, where there 
is an enormous and continued extension of movement 
among the population and of communication within 
the country generally, where that typical " insani- 
tary " disease, cholera, has on the whole increased, 
and where, in spite of all this, smallpox has decreased. 
Those who have studied the decline or disappearance 
of smallpox in other countries know that there is one, 
and only one, factor which could explain such a 
phenomenon, viz. vaccination; and that vaccination is 
the cause of the decline in India the author shows 
in plain and easily understood language, and with 
the aid of simple statistics that require no alleged 
"jugglery" for their setting forth. 

Although there is a general belief that inoculation, 
the precursor of vaccination, was in use in India from 
time immemorial, yet the author adduces evidence 
that in modern times, where we have trustworthy in- 
formation, it was entirely unknown in certain 
provinces, but he does not suggest any explanation 
of this curious discrepancy. Where inoculation was 
practised it was apparently done with marked success, 
but the regulations attending if were strict. At a 
later period, when irregularities in the practice arose, 
it became one of considerable danger, and was gradu- 
ally superseded by the introduction of vaccination. 

In chapter iii. is given a short account of the origin 
of vaccination from the first introduction of human 
vaccine threads into India in 1902 down to the use 
of calf lymph at the present day. It is interesting to 
note the opposition to vaccination in Bengal, as a 
few years ago the writer experienced there perfectly 
irrational opposition to the making of linger-pricks 
for simple blood examinations. 

The following simple tables will suffice to give an 
idea of how smallpox had decreased from periods in 
which there was "less" vaccination to those in which 
there was "more," but to be fully appreciated the 
original data in Major James's book should be con- 
sulted. 



iBOB-lSSy 1888-IQ07 
Smalliiox d^ath- Smallpox death- 
rate per miUion rata per million 
o( populatijn of population 

537'2 240-5 

1 020 • I 5027 

1099-3 520-7 

1163-9 673-0 

1083-1 1S3-0 



Bombay 

Cenlrdl Provincei 

Punjab 

Madras 

Bcrar 

Biilish India as a whole 1032-3 466-0 

If these latter figures are compared with the chart 
of the total number of vaccinations performed in 
British India, it will be seen at once that the fall in 
smallpox mortality coincides with the rise of vaccina- 
tion. 

Another method which is independent of statistics 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



of population is to consider the proportion which 
smallpox deaths bear to the total deaths from all 
causes in two periods, one with "less" and the other 
with "more" vaccination. If an "epidemic" is now 
arbitrarily defined as one in which the deaths from 
smallpox form 5 or more per cent, of the deaths 
from all causes, we get the following data here put in 
tabular form : — 

1868-1887 i88S-ig07 

No. of epiden.ics No. of epidemics 

Cential Provinces 5 ° 

Punjab 7 ° 

Biitish India as a whole ... 9 o 

Another interesting observation is that prior to 1886 
the attack rate among natives was always greater than 
among the European troops, but that after this date 
the position was reversed. The explanation given by 
the author is that since 1885 vaccination and success- 
ful re-vaccination have been less carefully attended to 
among Europeans than among native troops, and 
figures are given showing that among Europeans in 
1906 there v.-ere more than 20,000 individuals without 
any marks or record of vaccination — a sufficiently lax 
condition of affairs— but the proof to be complete 
should have given the corresponding figures for the 
native troops. Another very interesting table is that 
showing the constantly greater incidence of smallpox 
among the wives of European soldiers than among 
the men, while as regards cholera and enteric fever 
Ihe reverse is the case. The difference is due, no 
doubt, as the author points out, to the almost total 
absence of successful re-vaccination among the 
women. To the table there should, we think, have 
been added the "strength" of the women. 

Other equally convincing tables are given, in- 
variably pointing to some factor (vaccination) in- 
fluencing the figures in the same direction ; the tables, 
moreover, have the merit of being simple, though, as 
the author points out, if subjected to analysis they 
would be even more convincing, if that were neces- 
sary. 

The laborious task the author set himself has been 
well done. We are not aware what steps are taken 
in India to explain the merits of vaccination to the 
people, but nothing could do so better than this book. 
01 a short digest of it if that be possible. 



THE ALTERNATE-CURRENT THEORY. 
The Foundations of Alternate Current Theory. By 
Dr. C. V. Drysdale. Pp. xi-l-300. (London : 
Edward Arnold, 1910.) Price Ss. 6d. net. 

IN English text-books on electrical engineering one 
finds occasionally an attempt to elucidate some 
property of an electric circuit by a mechanical mode!. 
A favourite analogy is a water-tank with pipe and 
.stop-cock. The head of water represents E.iM.F., the 
pipe takes the place of the conductor, the stop-cock 
that of the switch, and the flow of water represents 
the current. Also, a railway waggon with buffer- 
springs is often used to explain inductance and capa- 
city. These analogies are, however, only used as 
additional explanations of a theory built up inde- 
pendently of them. In the present book they are the 
tlieory itself, or rather the foundation on which the 
author builds up the theory of alternating-current 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



working. Hence it becomes a matter of the greatest 
importance that the mechanical properties of the par- 
ticular model chosen should not merely approximately, 
but with mathematical precision, represent the corre- 
sponding electrical properties of the circuit it is in- 
tended to represent. 

It becomes thus necessary to idealise the mechanical 
model by attributing to it properties which differ 
more or less from those it actually has in its natural 
condition. Take as an example the conceptions of 
electric current and ohmic resistance. According to 
the author's "foundations," these are respectively 
represented by speed (linear or angular) and friction. 
But what kind of friction ? The coefficient of friction 
as applicable to solid bodies will not do, for this 
implies the existence of pressure between the surfaces 
in contact, and there is nothing analogous to pressure 
in the electrical case. 

Thus one is driven to assume that ohmic resistance 
can only be represented by liquid friction of a par- 
ticular kind, namely, of a kind which will 
cause the frictional resisting force to in- 
crease exactly in proportion to the speed with 
which a body is moved through the liquid. The 
author takes a boat which is towed through the water, 
and assumes that the pull in the tow-rope is exactly 
pioportional to the speed. As an alternative to the 
tow-rope he assumes that the boat is fitted with a 
propeller which exerts the same thrust at all speeds, 
and he uses this model to illustrate the case of an 
inductive circuit. The mass of the boat corresponds 
to the inductance ; the frictional coefficient, that is, the 
resisting force per unit speed, corresponds to the 
ohmic resistance, and the speed to the electric current. 
The E.M.F. is represented by the thrust of the pro- 
peller. Under these conditions the speed of the boat 
will increase by a logarithmic curve, and approach 
asymptotically the final value where the thrust of the 
propeller is exactly balanced by the frictional resist- 
ance. Thus, having discarded our conception of the 
real nature of ships' resistance and propeller thrust 
and substituted an idealised model, the performance 
of this model is an exact representation of what goes 
on in an electric circuit, and the equation of the speed 
of the boat is identical with the equation of the cur- 
rent in the electric circuit. 

The author has not contented himself by merely 
imagining mechanical models, but has actually con- 
structed one so as to be able to demonstrate 
the properties of an electric circuit. The model con- 
sists of a square frame, one side being provided 
with rails for a car to travel along. To represent 
ohmic resistance, the car can be fitted with a paddle 
moving in a liquid. The mass of the car represents 
inductance, the force with which it is pulled along 
stands for E.M.F. , the speed for current, the displace- 
ment for quantity of electricity (coulombs), and if a 
capacity effect is to be shown an elastic string is 
attached to the car. In addition to this model, the 
author has others to show various electrical pheno- 
mena, all of them very ingenious and instructive, 
especially when he shows side by side curves of har- 
monic motions obtained by oscillograph attached to 
the electric circuit, on the one hand, and, on the other, 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



curves obtained by mechanical means from the corre- 
sponding models. 

The book is divided into four parts. In the first 
the fundamental principles are established by mechan- 
ical analogies ; then comes an exposition of harmonic 
motions ; whilst in the third part the properties of 
alternating-current circuits are studied in detail, in- 
cluding a chapter on the symbolic method. In the 
fourth part we find practical applications to trans- 
formers, motors, polyphase circuits, and high- 
frequency oscillations. At the end we find a number 
of problems given as exercises for students. These 
are well selected. Gisbert Kapp. 



OVK BOOK SHELF. 
Die New School of Japan, Founded for the Purpose 

of Making the Use of the Newly Invented Letters. 

Pp. x+58. (Tokyo: Dokuritsu Bungakki.) 
This singular production is an attempt, by means 
of a quaintly conceived dialogue between two 
Japanese script reformers, to enlist home and foreign 
support, especially financial support, towards the 
promulgation of yet another script for the purposes of 
the Japanese written language, by modifications of 
and additions to the roman alphabet of the West. 
But European scholars have already accomplished 
this, and the existing system of romanisation is 
sufficiently perfect for all practical purposes. That 
system uses the roman letters, as we use them, to 
transcribe the characters of the Japanese syllabary, 
each of which represents a vowel or an open syllable ; 
Ihus ka. ki, few, ko, ke represent simply and adequately 
corresponding simple kana (syllabic) characters. But 
ihe proposed system would use single alphabetic letters 
to represent the kana. Thus ka, ki, &c., are written 
n, V. u, k ; for ke a sort of reversed fe is used. The 
modifications of sound, voicing, doubling, and 
lengthening are denoted by ordinary devices and com- 
binations of these, and a few new letters are invented. 
Thus Kono hon wa, Okuma Shigeru to Yamada Eizo 
. . . (this book contains a talk between Okuma Sh. 
.-md Yamada Ei.) is printed, according to the new 
system, Pfe ex g Ttuf-Cat m Ofr-Tict (two or three 
new letters are represented here by their nearest usual 
ones). Eizo Yamada is the " originator " of the new 
system ; the preface, dated November, 1909, is signed 
by him and Muneyasu Oki, who is "business asso- 
ciate," and photographs of inventor and associate 
follow the preface. 

For our part we fail to see any advantage whatever 
in this proposal. Why the Japanese continue to put 
their thought on paper under a variety of forms that 
render mere decipherment an impossibility to all 
foreigners save a verv few who have time and 
patience, or are under some necessity to undertake a 
most repulsive study of several years' duration at 
least, the people of Japan alone can tell. Written 
Japanese, mainly on this account, is more difficult to 
acquire, even to read merely, than Chinese, yet with 
a very few changes the difficulty might be very 
greatly lessened without change of character, and 
with romanisation would largely disappear. In no 
long course of time, probably, the unintelligent use of 
the Chinese ideograph would diminish, the assimila- 
tion of written to colloquial speech would develop, 
and Japanese would present only the ordinary difficul- 
ties incident to a strange vocabulary, a syntax based 
upon impersonalitv and lack of inflections, and a mass 
of idioms necessarily differing widely in allusion and 
reference from those of Aryan languages. 

F. Victor Dickins. 



8 



NATURE 



[July 7, 1910 



The Cretaceous 



Catalogue of the Fossil Bryozoa in the Department 

of Geology, British Museum (Natural History). 

\ol. ii., the Cretaceous Bryozoa. By Prof. J. \V. 

Gregory, P'.R.S. Pp. xlviii + 346; 9 plates. 

(London : Printed by order of the Trustees, 1909.) 
Owing to the author's absence from England and 
his retirement from the staff of the Museum, a period 
of ten vears has elapsed between the date of publica- 
tion of 'the present volume and its predecessor. This 
unusual delav has, however, been by no means an 
unmixed disadvantage, since it has enabled Prof. 
Gregorv to incorporate information and to take ad- 
vantage of theories of classification which would not 
have been available had this volume appeared several 
vears earlier. It was originally intended to complete 
the subject in two volumes, but the wealth of material 
has rendered it necessary to allot a third volume— now 
in i3re|3aration bv Prof. Gregory's successor in the 
Museum, Mr. W. D. Lang— to the Chilostomata. 

In concluding his share of the work. Prof. Gregory 
gives a valuable general account of the Cretaceou 
brvozoan fauna and its relationships. '""'-- '"'-"'--—• 
is' the era in which the modern 
types of Bryozoa first attained to 
importance and replaced the older 
forms. The most characteristic 
group of the epoch is the Cyclosto- 
mata, which is now a waning type, 
and dates from the Jurassic. A 
second ordinal group, the Trepo- 
stomata, represents a Pateozoic 
type, which became decadent in the 
Upper Cretaceous, and finally dis- 
appeared in the Casnozoic. On the 
other hand, the Chilostomata, of 
which but two Jurassic species are 
known, attained an enormous 
development in the Upper Creta- 
ceous, and forms the dominant type 
in the seas of to-day. 

After a long review of the classi- 
fication of the Cyclostomata, Prof. 
Gregorv points out the value of the 
Brvozoa for zonal classification of the 
Chalk, remarking that recent inves- 
tigations have shown — in contra- 
distinction to older views — mariy of 
the species to have a very restricted 
vertical distribution. 

The work is a most valuable and 
trustworthy contribution to the 
natural historv of the Cretaceous Bryozoa, whicli_, in 
Great Britain', at any rate, have previously received 
comparatively little attention at the hands of palaeon- 
tologists. 

Problemes et Exercices de Mathimatiques ginirales. 
By Prof. E. Fabry. Pp. 420. (Paris : A. Hermann 
et Fils, 19 10.) Price 10 francs. 

This useful collection reminds us that mathematical 
examinations are not peculiar to Great Britain, and 
provides an interesting specimen of the kind of ques- 
tions set in France to candidates of about the same 
standing as English candidates for an ordinary science 
degree. It contains the enunciations of 739 problems, 
ranging from elementary algebra and calculus to solid 
geometry and differential equations, and also includ- 
ing about a hundred questions in statics and dynamics. 
Pages 81-420 contain the solutions, which, as might 
be expected, are clear and elegant. No book of this 
kind can supply the place of a competent teacher, but 
a student who has to work by himself will find Prof. 
Fabrv's work very helpful, and a good model in point 
of style. " M- 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 
[The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake 
to return, or to correspond with the 7vriters of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] 

Arthur's Round Table in Glamorgan. 

The historj' of the Gorsedd of the Bards is closely bound 
up with the history of Glamorgan. Early in the history 
ol the winning of the district by the .Anglo-Normans, one 
of the earls of Gloucester, as lord of Glamorgan, took the 
institution under his protection and patronage, and it 
became known as Gorsedd Tir larll, " Gorsedd of the 
liarl's Land," and the district, comprising the parishes of 
Llangynwyd, Bettws, and Margam, is still called after the 
title of the noble patron of the bards. From about the 
middle of the twelfth century, the history of the institu- 
tion, as well as the succession of presiding bards, is as 
clear as one might expect to find the history of a largely 
secret society to be. What history is recorded in bardic 
writings of the institution before that date represents it as 
.\rthur's Round Table, moved from place to place with 




the seat of government, from Caerleon-upon-Usk to 
Loughor, back to Cardiff, its wanderings having been con- 
fined within the boundaries of the diocese of Llandaff, 
until finally it found a resting-place in the Earl's Land. 
There is little reason to doubt the substantial truth of such 
records, and it is something to note that .Arthur's Round 
Table, by name, has been all along regarded as the living 
institution known as Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of 
Britain. 

There are bards still living who were received as members 
of the Gorsedd by bards who represented an unbroken 
tradition and succession in the Earl's Land at least from 
the twelfth century. One of these bards, "Morien," 
known also as " Gwyddon Tir larll," was present at the 
" re-awakening," in bardic parlance, of Arthur's Round 
Table on June 22, 1910, when a temple-observatory, which 
I had the honour of erecting at Maesteg, in the parish of 
Llangynwyd, the centre of the Earl's Land, was duly 
opened by the Arcbdruid of Wales, assisted by officers and 
members of the National Gorsedd, and other bards and 
friends of the bardic cause. 

In designing the wor'«, I endeavoured to combine the 
essential requirements of bardic tradition with all the 
ascertained principles of primitive architecture as shown 
in monuments of which the bardic Gorsedd is a repre- 
sentative. Everv detail was based either on tradition or 



In.v 



1910] 



NATURE 



actual practice as observed in monuments. As at Avebury 
and Stonehenge, the avenue was added to the circle. Each 
stone selected has a fairly straight side, which has been 
utilised as an independent alignment. The avenue, as well 
as the tallest stone, are approximately oriented to the 
sun's place on St. David's Day, March i. Three divisions 
of the year, and alignments to sunrise or sunset for every 
three weeks, are provided by the stones. The use of each 
stone will be found by keeping its straight side to the 
right. The diameter of the circle is 27 feet ; the length of 
the avenue 54 feet; the total length of the work is 81 feet. 
In all such measurements, the Gorsedd rule that all 
extensions should be in threes, or multiples of three, was 
observed. The width of the avenue represents the 
distance, as measured on the horizon and viewed from the 
centre stone, between Candlemas and the equino.x. True 
to ancient practice, the westward view of the avenue is 
" blocked " by a stone, which otherwise represents the 
fashion in Aberdeenshire circles, noticed by Sir Norman 
Lockyer, of placing a stone at right angles to the direc- 
tion required. John Griffith. 
Llangynwyd, Glam. 

Halley's Comet. 

I DO not know if the enclosed is of any general interest 

or not ; it is an attempt to photograph Halley's comet (as 

seen here) without any special apparatus. The tail was 

about 90° long on May 17, and probably 115° on May 18, 




Halle) 



taking the calculated position of the nucleus, which had 
not risen when dawn came. On May 20 (on the other 
side) the tail was only 15° or 20° long, but both twilight 
and moon interfered. It was 35° long on May 23. 

James Moir. 
.Mines Department, Johannesburg, June 10. 

Earth. current Obseivations in Stockholm duiing the 
Transit of Htlley's Comet on May 19. 

When Halley's comet was passing across the sun on 
May 19 we took, at the central telegraph station at Stock- 
holm, some observations of earth-currents, which were 
measured on two lines, Stockholm-Goteborg and Sundsvall- 
Stockholm. The measurements were performed from 
minute to minute from oh. 40m. to 3h. 45m. a.m. (mid- 
European time). The geographical coordinates for the 
three places mentioned are the following : — 



Sundsvall ... ip-bz 23 N. ... \=\^ 19 E. from Greenwich 
Stockholm ., 59 21 . . 18 < 

Gciieborg ... 57 42 ... 11 58 

The resistance of the line Stockholm-Goteborg was 2940 
ohms, and that of the line Sundsvall-Stockholm 2336 ohms. 
From the current-strengths measured in milliamperes we 
obtain the potential differences expressed in millivolts per 
km. by multiplication with r//, r indicating the ohm-resist- 
ance of the line and ; the distance in km. from end to 
end. For calculating the components of the potential 
difference E.-W. (V) and N.-S. (V) we have the formulje 

V = 773>-3-32>' 
\ ' = 0-8711 -I- 6bot', 

! and i' indicating the observed current-strengths on the 
Stockholm-Goteborg and the Sundsvall-Stockholm lines. The 
measured current-strengths proved considerably above the 
normal at this time of day, though by no means reaching 
to that of a magnetic storm. The two components, ex- 
pressed in millivolts per km. (every fifteenth minute), are 
as follows. The potential differences are considered posi- 
tive in the directions E.-W. and N.-S. : — 



45 .. 


• -55-6 ■ 


. - 6-3 . 


. 2 15 .. 


-16-5 . 


. +24-6 


I .. 


- 68 . 


. -1- 2-0 , 


. 30 .. 


-23-5 • 


. +127 


15 .. 


■ + 39 • 


. + 0-4 . 


. 45 .. 


-25-5 ■ 


. +167 


30 .. 


- 3-4 ■ 


■ - 95 • 


,30.. 


- 7-2 


• + ''3 


45 .. 


- 6-2 . 


. -r 4'2 ■ 


. 16 .. 


- 04 . 


• - 5-6 


20.. 


. - 80 . 


. +15-8 . 


. 30 .. 


- 8-8 . 


. •-10-2 








45 .. 


- 16-9 . 


. -f 29 



NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



The greatest disturbances occurred shortly before and 
after 2h. a.m. : V max.= -I-68.I, V max. = -|-56-6 millivolts 
per km. D. Stenquist. 

E. Petri. 



Leptocephalus hyoproroides and L. thorianus. 
In my paper " On the Occurrence of Leptocephali 
(Larval .Mur;tnoids) in the .Atlantic West of Europe " 
(Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Havtindersogelser, 
Serie Fiskeri, Bind iii.. No. 6, 1909, p. 12, PI. i.. Fig. 8, 
PI. ii., Figs. 1-7), I have described and figured a hitherto 
unknown Leptocephalus species under the name of Lepto- 
cephalus hyoproroides, n.sp. It had escaped my attention, 
however, that this name had already been employed by 
P. Stromman in " Leptocephalids in the University Zoo- 
logical Museum at Upsala," Upsala, 1896, p. 39, PI. iv.. 
Figs. 5-6, for another form similar in habit, but differ- 
ing quite definitely in several characters, e.g. the pigmenta- 
tion and position of the anus, from the form described by 
me. I would therefore propose that the name of the latter 
should be changed to Leptocephalus thorianus, n.sp. (after 
the Danish research steamer T/ior, on the cruises of which 
the species in question was discovered). 

JoHs. Schmidt. 

Static Charge in Bicycl? Frame 
While riding a bicycle recently I was overtaken by a 
thunderstorm, and took shelter beneath a convenient tree 
after propping the machine against a wall. When the 
rain had ceased, in the course of about fifteen minutes, I 
re-mounted, with my hands upon the handles in the usual 
manner. The handles are of composition, resembling 
vulcanite or a similar non-conducting material, the pedals 
are shod with rubber, and the leather saddle completes the 
insulation of the rider from the frame. Upon exchanging 
my grip of one of the handles for the bar, I felt the effects 
of a static charge which was sufficiently startling to 
endanger equilibrium for the moment. I do not suggest 
that the pneumatic tyre, which successfully insulates a 
vehicle from the earth, adds a new terror to locomotion, 
for even a timid rider in traffic would hardly be endangered, 
but it would be interesting to know if this phenomenon 
has been observed before, either on cycles or motor-cars. 
Robert S. Ball, jun. 
189 Gleneldon Road, Streatham, London, S.W., 
July 2. 



lO 



NATURE 



[July 7, iqio 



MARINE BIOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 

THOUGH year by year photography plays a 
greater part in the illustration of works on 
natural history, marine biology does not appear to 
have received its full share of attention from the 
scientific photographer. 

It can be claimed for photography that it is an 
accurate and rapid method of making marine biologi- 
cal records. The rapidity admits of the recording of 




—Young Thornback R.iy. 

delicate structures during life, thus avoiding the 
opacity and distortion that so soon follow death; but 
the main advantage lies in the fact that by means 
of photography the number of workers making 
records can be greatly increased. Expert biologists 
who have the time to make drawings of minute 
structures are distinctly limited in number, whereas 
the photographer with but a general biological know- 
ledge is able to make accurate and useful records 
of structures, possibly quite new to him, and 
many points of wliich he miglit miss were he 
to draw them. 

In order to derive the full advantages 
offered by photography, the worker must be 
prepared, in addition to illustrating minute 
structures, to deal with the habits, move- 
ments, characteristic postures, and general 
external appearance of any particular marim 
animal. Such records should preferably bi 
made in natural environments, but, failini; 
this, in special tanks. 

Prof. Reighard, in his contribution " Photo- 
graphy of Aquatic Animals in their Natural 
Environments," describes very fully sub- 
aquatic photography and photography with 
the camera above water. Subaquatic photo- 
graphy, however, has a very limited applica- 
tion, mainly in consequence of the want of 
light, and for obtaining details of external structure 
is not nearly so satisfactory as photography in special 
tanks. 

With the camera above water the main difficulty to 
be overcome is due to the photograph having to be 
taken llir<Hit;h two media, air and water, for the 
light reflected from the surface of the water, being 
t,'reater than that reflected from the object to be 
photographed, the desired image is obscured in the 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



general fogging of the photographic plate. When 
photographing a submerged object with the camera 
directed at an angle to the surface of the water, this 
reflection from the water can be avoided by holding 
a screen at a suitable angle immediately above the 
object. 

When taking a photograph directly aibove the 

object, the light must be cut off above the camera. 

The illustration of a young thornback ray was taken 

in 8 inches of water, with a golf umbrella held over 

the head of the operator. 

For tank work the most useful 
arrangement is a tank about 3 feet 
long, 2 feet high, and 6 to 8 inches 
from front to back, the bottom and 
sides being of wood, the front and 
back of j-inch plate-glass. Inlet and 
outlet pipes pierce the sides, and there 
must be arrangements for a constant 
supply of sa,ly|ar fresh water which 
can be sent tOTKfgh the tank at will. 
The specimen placed in the tank 
usually sulks at the bottom ; if, after 
a time, the water is suddenly turned 
on, the fish or other creature heads up 
to the stream, and a snapshot can be 
taken in a natural position. For the 
above work it is desirable to use a 
reflex camera with a rapid lens of not 
less than 8-inch focal length. 

For the photography of compara- 
tively small and microscopic marine 
objects a sp&cial apparatus is neces- 
sary. I use a portable apparatus with 
which it is possible to take a photo- 
graph of a specimen in a horizontal or 
vertical position, by transmitted or re- 
flected light, and by means of a mirror 
to see the object up to the last moment before expo- 
sure, so as to ensure a living specimen being photo- 
graphed in a suitable position. There is also a fixed 
stage upon which a specimen can be placed in a tank 
or cell, and a photograph taken of any desired magni- 
fication without moving the specimen. 

When photographing from life-size up to 25 mag- 
nifications I use lenses of 6-inch, 32-inch, and 35-mm. 
focal lengths, on a camera having an extension of 




Fir,. 2.— Whelk feeding on Crayfish. 

36 inches without a microscope. For higher mag- 
nifications I drop a microscope into the apparatus, 
and get any desired magnification up to 2600 with a 
I /12-inch oil immersion. 

The exceptional length of bellows extension is 
necessary in order to obtain a high degree of mag- 
nification from a lens of comparatively long focus, 
thus ensuring all parts of the specimen being in focus 
at the same time. 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



The advantages of such an apparatus at a biological 
station or on a research boat are obvious, for 
specimens taken from the trawl or tow-net can be 
placed in suitable tanks or cells by the biologist, and 





1 


p^g 


^ 




,ii«i 




HRm 


^^^^Bf. 


• ■'^^ 


^.^oadH 


^^■^ - ''*^=^^S^^B 




B 




|,v 



photographed, living, anaesthetised, or dead, by an 
assistant. Any number of useful records could thus be 
made from fresh specimens of any particular catch. 
For photographic purposes it is desirable to obtain 
perfect living specimens; but the photography of 



tage be employed when counting specimens in the 
analysis of a plankton catch, for the area under the 
field of the microscope can be thrown on to a sheet 
of paper and the specimens ticked off. 

When working with artificial light, the 
illuminant should be of sufficient power 
to ensure against the want of light 
being a hindering factor. I use a very 
useful little arc lamp made by Messrs. 
Leitz, when electric power is available; 
failing this, an o.\yhydrogen light, though 
good results can be obtained with an 
acetylene lamp. When using arc or lime- 
light it is necessary to have a cooling tank 
between the light and the specimen. 

With either arc or limelight, working 
with a Zeiss microplanar lens at F. 4'5 on 
a medium rapid plate, a full exposure can 
be obtained in one-tenth of a second up 
to twenty-five magnifications. 

Reference has been made already to 
photographs taken in natural environ- 
ments. As an illustration of the record- 
ing of the habits of marine animals is 
shown the photograph of the common 
dog-whelk (Buccinum) holding with its 
foot the abdomen of a dead crayfish. On 
ren^oving the crayfish it was found that 
the whelk had partially sawn through the 
shell by means of its radula. 

.\ characteristic movement is shown in 
the photograph of a pecten turning itself over. 

Recently I had the opportunity of taking numerous 
pecten photographs under the direction of Mr. W. J. 
Dakin, and by his kind permission I am able to show 
an instantaneous photograph of this mollusc, in the 



itf^: 










"7//£^Z'-^- 



Fig. 4. — Plaic: Larv: 



numerous imperfect specimens is also very valuable, 
for at any time a perfect drawing can be made from 
the material so collected. 
As an additional use, this apparatus can with advan- 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



act of turning itself over, after having been placed 
on the left valve. The other photographs taken 
showed the gradual opening of the pecten, until the 
valves werg separated as much again as in the photo- 



NATURE 



[July 7, 1910 



graph shown. The present illustration shows the 
sudden act of closure, by which the turning move- 
ment is brought about, almost completed. 

Of photographs taken with the special apparatus 
described, two illustrations are given ; the first that 
of n |)laice larva 13 mm. in length, and magnified 




Fig. 5. — A Mysid; 

five times; the second that of a crustacean, one of the 
Mysidacea, 2 mm. in length, magnified fifteen times. 
This photograph shows very distinctly the two stato- 
cvsts on the uropods or appendages of the sixth abdo- 
minal segment, and gives a good general view of 
the animal. 

Higher magnifications of any particular part are 
obtained as described by slipping the microscope into 
the apparatus. 

In addition to the above methods, the natural 
colours of marine animals may be recorded on the 
autochrome plate. The autochrome plate is particu- 
larly useful when it is desired to make a permanent 
record of a stained specimen where the staining is 
of a fugitive character. Francis Ward. 

SOME EXTINCT VERTEBRATE ANIMALS 
FROM NORTH AMERICA.' 

ANEW volume of collected papers, published by 
the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, enables us to realise how important and 
numerous are the additions to our 
knowledge of extinct vertebrate animals 
still made by systematic explorations in 
North America. The contributions 
now received deal with the work of 
only four years, 1904-8, accomplished 
bv one institution ; but they make great 
advances in nearly all parts of the sub- 
ject to which they relate, and their 
value is increased by the excellent 
text-figures and plates w-ith which they 
are illustrated. The pioneer discoveries 
of Leidy, Marsh, and Cope furnished 
for many years a continual series of 
surprises for the student of extinct 
vertebrates ; their successors during the 
past decade and a half have not only 
filled in many details in the ])re- 
liminary view thus obtained, but have 
also been scarcely less successful in 
recovering unexpected groups and 
niissing links. Present explorers have, indeed, 
the advantage of being able to pursue their 

' " Fossil Verte'^rates in the .'American Muieuiu of Natural Hislorj'." 
Dspariment of V^rtehrate ralseomology. Vol. iii.. Articles collected from 
the American \Ius-um Kiilletin for iht years 1904-8, by H. Faiffield Osborn, 
&c. (Mew York, 1909.) 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



work in the remote west in peaceful leisure, without 
any armed escort, and so have facilities for deter- 
mining the relative positions of the strata from which 
they excavate the various fossils. In the early days, 
with hurried traverses, there was a tendency to decide 
ilie rel;ili\e :n;i'^ of the fossils solely by their own 
peculiar features, without any ex.-ict 
.bservations in the field. The re- 
-idt was sometimes an argument in 
a vicious circle. As shown by the 
\olume now before us, that is all 
clianged. We find detailed descrip- 
tions of specimens from the 
Permian of Texas, the L'pper 
Cretaceous of Montana, the Eocene 
ijf Wyoming, and the Miocene of 
South Dakota. Accompanying them 
are well-illustrated exact accounts of 
all these formations and localities, 
determining the relative ages of the 
genera and species which were 
obtained from them. 

The scientific work of the 
palasontologists in the American 
Museum is of two kinds. Part is 
devoted to the reconstruction and 
mounting of skeletons of general 
interest ; part is concerned with the most 
detailed and special research, for which it often 
happens that not more than mere fragments are 
available. The publications record the results in both 
directions, and thus provide ample material, not only for 
the specialist, but for anyone interested in the broader 
features of natural history. It must also be added 
that the reconstructed skeletons are prepared with 
the greatest scientific care. The fine example of the 
Columbian mammoth now described, for example, 
was mounted after an elaborate study of the arrange- 
ment of the footprints of a living elephant and the 
attitude of its limbs when walking. The skeletons of 
Equidae were similarly mounted after studies of the 
living horse — especially after a studv of the Arab, to 
which one article in the new volume is devoted. 
.'Kmong startling mounts for which existing animals 
give little help may be specially mentioned the re- 
constructed skeleton of Naosaurus, which is one of 
the primitive reptiles from the Permian of Texas not 
hitherto found in a complete state. It is a long- 
bodied, squat reptile, with a formidable array of 




clavigcr, by Mr. C. R. Knight. 



sabre-like teeth, and a high, thorny frill along the 
back, which is supported by the much-elongated 
neural spines of the vertebrte (Fig. i). Prof. Osborn, 
who describes this specimen, is careful to explain 
exactly on what material the various parts of the recon- 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



13 



struction are based, so that each may judge of the 
extent to which it is trustworthy. 

Perhaps the most interesting real novehy is a small 
skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Wyoming, deter- 
mined by Prof. Osborn to belong to a primitive 
armadillo. Fragments of this animal were obtained 
some vears ago by Dr. J. L. Wortman, and ascribed 
by him to a Lemuroid under the name of Meta- 
cheiromys. Four good specimens now seem to show 
that it is truly an armadillo, differing chiefly from the 
typical existing armadillos in "the probable presence 
of a leathery instead of a bony shield, of an enamel 
covering on the single large caniniform teeth in the 
upper and lower jaws and the degeneration of other 
teeth." This discovery confirms the suppositions of 
Marsh, Wortman, and Schlosser as to the existence 
of Edentata in North .'\merica in the Eocene period; 



jm. 




1 of Tyra. 



and it adds to the difficulties of understanding the 
earlv Tertiary mammal faunas of South .\merica. 

."Vnother astonishing discovery is that of a colossal 
carnivorous Dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus (Fig. 2), from 
the Upper Cretaceous (Laramie formation) of Wyo- 
ming and Montana. It has hitherto been supposed that 
the flesh-eaters were all much smaller than the 
largest vegetable-feeders among Dinosaurs ; but here 
is a reptile like Megalosaurus, with a skull from 
4 to 5 feet in length, and when standing on its heavy 
hindquarters reaching a height of from 16 to 17 feet. 
.Another new herbivorous Dinosaur, Ankylosaurus, 
from the same geological formation, measures 14 feet 
in length, and is armoured like the South American 
Glyptodons. 

The technical papers on remains of horses and 
rhinoceroses, by Prof. Osborn and others, and on 
camels and deer, by Dr. Matthew, are of extreme 
scientific value. The discussion of the extinct horses 
is especially exhaustive, and the result is that it be- 
comes impossible at present to recognise any exact 
genetic series. Mr. Gidley even remarks that "there 
is a considerable phvletic hiatus between the groups 
of the Equidae, which are as yet not bridged over by 
intermediate forms " ; and he adds that this hiatus is 
particularlv marked between the .Anchitherium-group 
and the Protohippus-g/'oup, which " greatly overlap 
each other in time." Dr. Matthew's explanation of 
most of our difficulties in understanding the evolution 
of the European and North American Tertiary mam- 
malia is that northern .Asia was their actual ])lace 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



of origin. He thinks that "in Europe, on one sidt 
of this centre, in America, on the other side, we 
have parallel series of approximate phylogenies ; 
sometimes closer in the one country, sometimes in the 
other." Until the early Tertiary manmialia of 
northern Asia are discovered, we cannot advance 
much further towards real origins. 

Prof. Osborn and his associates are indeed to be 
congratulated on the wide import of the work they 
have done, and the excellent manner in which it is 
published. We would commend it to the notice of 
all students of biology. k. S. W. 

EXPERIMENTS ON AIR RESISTANCE. 

IN La Nature (February 26) there is a description 
by M. Fournier of the new laboratory which M. 
Eiffel recently erected for the purpose of carrying 
out his researches on the air resistance of plates and 
models, more especially with reference to the solution 
of problems in aeronautics. 

It will be remembered that M. Eiffel's earlier 
experiments were made on plates and models let fall 
from the second stage of the Eiffel Tower. The 
general agreement of his results on flat plates with 
those obtained by Mr. Dines on a whirling table and 
those at the National Physical Laboratory in a cur- 
rent of air was shown in the curves 
illustrating the present writer's article on 
the subject of wind pressure in Nature 
of May 28, 1908. As this method was 
not suitable for the rapid determination 
of centres of pressure, and the "lift" 
and "drift" of inclined plates, M. Eiffel 
has now commenced experiments in a 
current of air, and 
the manner in 
which this current 
is maintained pre- 
sents some novel 
'and interesting 
features. Hitherto, 
experiments by 
this method have 
carried out by suspending the models 
long channel with parallel sides through 
which air was drawn by means of a fan. This 
arrangement is open to two objections — (i) the diffi- 
culty of maintaining the velocity of the current 
uniform across the channel, and (2) the limited size 
of the models which could he used without an appre- 



of Natural Hislory. 



been 




ciable effect on the resistance due to the walls of the 
channel. The first difficulty is overcome by introduc- 
ing resistances to the flow where necessary, which is 
a long and tedious process, and the second by limiting 
the size of the models to within two or three per cent, 
of the area of the channel. The novelty of M. Eiffel's 
method consists in his using a comparatively short 
channel, and in suspending his models in a closed 



M 



NATURE 



[July 



1910 



chamber which constitutes an enlargement of the 
channel. 

The general arrangements will be clear from the 
diagrammatic sketch in the figure. C is the observa- 
tion chamber, which is air-tight, and provided with a 
platform for carrying the observer and the necessary 
measuring appliances. B is the bell-mouthed air 
inlet, which is provided with a series of guide plates 
of honeycomb section on the delivery side to ensure 
that the air enters the chamber in parallel filaments. 
V is the outlet and suction fan. S is the model under 
test, connected to the weighing beam at A. 

The advantages of this method as regards sim- 
plicity, comparative cheapness of construction, _ and 
convenience in making the observations are obvious, 
and in respect of its accuracy it is claimed that, using 
the results of M. Eiffel's earlier experiments on fall- 
ing plates as data, a complete check has been afforded 
by the results obtained in the new apparatus. It may 
be doubted, however, if the accuracy of this method 
is so great as that obtained in a carefully designed 
parallel channel, for there can hardly fail to be a 
disturbance of the stream lines due to the sudden 
enlargement at the inlet similar to that observed in 
the flow of water. From a curve published in the 
article, it appears that plates as large as 90 cm. by 
15 cm. have been used in a current drawn from 
an inlet 150 cm. in diameter. According to the 
writer's experience with this method, the apparent 
pressure for normal impingement of the current on a 
plate the area of which is the same fraction of that 
of the inlet as in the examples cited would be about 
10 per cent, in excess of its true value, but in the 
case of small inclinations, which is, of course, rela- 
tively more important in aeronautical work, the error 
would be much smaller, and possibly of the same 
order of magnitude as those incurred in the estima- 
tions of the velocity of the current. In this branch of 
aeronautics valuable results may be expected from 
M. Eiffel's researches. T. E. Stanton. 



C. H. GREVILLE WILLIAMS, F.R.S. 

pHARLES HANSON GREVILLE WILLIAMS 

^ was born at Cheltenham, September 22, 1829, 
the son of S. Hanson Williams, a solicitor; his 
death occurred on June 15, 1910. He commenced 
his professional career as first assistant to 
Prof. Anderson, of Glasgow University; after some 
years spent in research work he moved to Edinburgh, 
where he conducted a tutorial class under Dr. Lyon 
Playfair. From 1857 to 1859 he was lecturer on 
chemistry in the Normal College, Swansea. In 1859 
he returned to Glasgow as chemist to the works of 
Messrs. Miller, chemical manufacturers. He 
migrated to Greenford Green in 1863, remaining with 
Messrs. Perkin until i858. About that year he entered 
into partnership with M. Edouard Thomas, at the 
Star Chemical Works, Brentford, the firm being 
makers of coal-tar colours, and subsisting until 1877. 
Mr. Greville Williams about this time gave up his 
connection with manufacturing chemistrv and became 
photometric supervisor to the Gas Light and Coke 
Company, with whom he remained until 1901, then 
retiring into the country, where he seldom saw his 
old friends and acquaintances, but was much in- 
terested in the study of the ancient Egyptian language 
and the translation of inscriptions. Until rheumatism 
disabled him he was an expert draughtsman and calli- 
graphist, a fair game shot, and an enthusiastic angler. 
Although in reality a charming companion, with un- 
usual conversational powers, and a keen appreciation 
of literary and artistic culture, Greville Williams 
possessed a very modest and retiring disposition, arfd 



became, especially of late years, an almost complete 
recluse. He was more nervous about his state of 
health than he need have been, and, in consequence, 
cut himself off unnecessarily from scientific and social 
intercourse. This isolation was also due, no doubt, in 
part to his straitened circumstances, which neces- 
sitated strict economy and debarred him from the 
continuance of his scientific researches — hard lines tor 
a thorough enthusiast; and such he was, possessed, 
moreover, with the true chemical instinct and a 
general scientific aptitude. It is a pity that the genius 
for investigation which was shown in his researches 
on isoprene, on beryl, and on the bases from bitu- 
minous shale, from the Boghead mineral, and from 
the destructive distillation of cinchonine, did not 
develop in accordance with more modern methods in 
his later years. But he made many interesting dis- 
coveries, and has left a considerable record of 
thoroughly sound work. 

Greville Williams was elected F.R.S. in June, 1862. 
He outlived the rest of the distinguished "fifteen" of 
that year. It was in 1862 also that he joined the 
Chemical Society. He contributed a number of papers 
to the publications of these societies, as well as many 
notes to the Chemical Neix's, and also wrote articles 
for Ure's Dictionary and for Watts's Dictionary, as 
well as for the Journal of Gas Lighting. His chief 
literary work was "A Handbook of Chemical Mani- 
pulation " (Van Voorst, 1857) ; a supplement appeared 
in 1879. 

On November 25, 1852, Greville Williams married 
Henrietta Bosher ; she died on February 16, 1904. 
One son and three daughters survive. 

The writer of this notice has lost a friend of nearly 
sixty years' standing — a friend of rare quality and of 
high Christian character. A. H. C. 

NOTES. 
We announce with deep regret the death, on Monday 
last at Milan, at the age of seventy-five years, of Prof. 
G. V. Schiaparelli, Foreign Member of the Royal Society. 

The death (on June 12) is announced of Dr. W. H. 
Seaman, professor of chemistry in Harvard University, 
at the age of seventy-three years. 

We regret to announce the death, on July 4, of Mr. R. 
Russell, I.S.O., who was for thirty-six years connected 
with the administration of education in Natal. In 1877 
he became Superintendent of Education, and retired in 
1903. 

At the general monthly meeting of the members of the 
Royal Institution, held on Monday last, it was announced 
that the King has consented to become Patron of the 
institution. 

The Janssen prize of the Paris Academy of Sciences has 
been awarded to Prof. W. W. Campbell, director of the 
Lick Observatory, University of California. 

Sir J. J. Thomson, F.R.S., has been elected president 
of the Junior Institution of Engineers, in succession to 
Sir H. J. Oram, K.C.B. 

Dr. F. a. Bather, F.R.S., has been appointed by the 
trustees to represent the British Museum (Natural History) 
at the forthcoming International Geological Congress in 
Stockholm. 

The Cullen Victoria Jubilee prize has been awarded by 
the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh to Dr. 
R. W. Philip, for his work on tuberculosis. The prize is 
awarded onte in every four years for the " most important 
contribution to practical medicihe." 



NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



JrLv 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



15 



TiiK Journal of the American Medical Association 
^l;^tes that a bronze relief portrait of Prof. W. Osier, 
F-R-S., has been placed in Osier Hall of the Medical and 
Chirurgical Faculty, Baltimore. It is an enlargement of 
the small one now in the Johns Hopkins Medical Library. 

Mr. C. O. Waterfiouse, I.S.O., who for the period of 
forty-four years was in the service of the trustees of 
ilic British Museum, has just retired from the position of 
assistant-keeper in charge of the insect section of the Zoo- 
lugiral Department of the Natural History Museum. To 
mark the occasion of his retirement, he was last week 
presented by many colleagues and friends with an 
illuminated address, a Sheraton bureau-bookcase, a gold 
watch, and an aneroid barometer. 

Prof. Angelo Mosso asks uS to announce that the 
Monte Rosa laboratories, which are equipped with all 
JKcessary scientific instruments, will re-open on July 15, 
and that the Royal Society has at its disposal nominations 
for two workers in botany, bacteriology, zoology, physio- 
logy, terrestrial physics or meteorology. 

The banquet to the five past-presidents of the Chemical 
Society CProf. W. Odling, F.R.S., Sir Henry E. Roscoe, 
F.R.S., Sir William Crookes, F.R.S., Dr. Hugo Miiller, 
F.R.S., and Dr. A. G. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S.) who 
have attained their jubilee as fellows of the society is to 
take place at the Savoy Hotel on Friday, November 11 
next. .Applications for tickets must be made to the 
assistant secretary of the society by, at latest, November 4. 
It will be remembered that the banquet was postponed 
from May 26 in consequence of the death of the King. 

\ Reuter message from Catania states that a strong 
shock of earthquake was felt on Sunday morning in 
Sicily, at Giarre, Linguaglossa, and Zafferana. A slight 
shock was experienced at Mimeo. 

The twenty-first annual conference of the Museums 
.Association was opened on Tuesday at York, when the 
president. Dr. Tempest .Anderson, delivered an address on 
" Volcanoes and their Museum Treatment," and papers 
were read by Dr. F. A. Bather, F.R.S. , Dr. Scharff, Dr. 
E. I,. Gill, and Mr. L. E. Hope on, respectively, 
'■ Palaeontology Exhibits at the Japan-British Exhibi- 
tion," ■' Cleaning Bones by a Dry Sand Process," " A 
Method of Exhibiting Corals," " A Simple Way of Exhibit- 
ing the Reverse of Coins and Medals," and " The Natural 
History Records Bureau at the Carlisle Museum." 

.A.v exhibition of Hygiene was opened at Buenos .Aires 
on July 3. The British section is reported to be small. 
It is divided into twenty-nine sub-sections, and contains 
specimens of surgical instruments, orthopaedic appliances, 
and drugs. The French section is incomplete. Italy 
exhibits numerous health foods. Chile furnishes exhaustive 
bacteriological laboratories, mainly for veterinary research. 
The Argentine Asistencia Publica displays first-aid and life- 
saving appliances, preventives, &c. The promised agri- 
cultural and railway exhibitions are expected to be opened 
this week. 

The fifth meeting of the International Congress of 
Mathematicians will take place at Cambridge in 1912. 
In connection with one of the sections of the con- 
gress, an International Commission on Mathematical 
Teaching has been constituted, which includes dele- 
gates appointed by tilt various Governments interested in 
the congress, and a series of national sub-commissions 
has been established to assist the International Commission. 
The President of the Board of Education has appointed 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



Sir George Greenhill, F.R.S., Prof. W. W. Hobson, 
F.R.S., and Mr. C. Godfrey to be the British delegates, 
and he has further appointed an advisory committee to 
assist the commission in the collection of reports and 
papers on the teaching of mathematics, and this com 
mittee, which is to act also as the British sub-commission, 
has been constituted as follows : — Mr. C. E. Ashford, 
Sir G. H. Darwin, F.R.S., Mr. C. Godfrey, Sir George 
Greenhill, F.R.S., Mr. G. H. Hardy, F.R.S., Prof. W. W. 
Hobson, F.R.S., Mr. C. S. Jackson, Sir Joseph Larmor, 
F.R.S., Prof. A. E. H. Love, F.R.S., and Prof. G. A. 
Gibson. Mr. C. S. Jackson is honorary secretary to the 
sub-commission. 

The programme of the joint summer meeting of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers is now available. As 
has already been announced, the meeting will take place 
in Birmingham and London on July 26 to 30. The 
following papers are to be read and discussed : — In 
Birmingham : English running-shed practice, by Mr. C. W. 
Paget ; engine-house practice, or the handling of loco- 
motives at terminals to secure continuous operation, by 
Mr. F. H. Clark ; handling locomotives at terminals, by 
Mr. F. M. Whyte ; handling locomotives, by Mr. H. H. 
Vaughan ; American locomotive terminals, by Mr. W. 
Forsyth ; high-speed tools, and machines to fit them, by 
Mr. H. I. Brackenbury ; tooth-gearing, by Mr. J. D. 
Steven ; interchangeable involute gearing, a joint paper by 
Members of the Committee of the A.S.M.E. on standards 
for involute gears. In London : electrification of 
suburban railways, by Mr. F. W. Carter; cost of elec- 
trically-propelled suburban trains, by Mr. H, M. Hobart ; 
economics of railway electrification, by Mr. W. B. Potter ; 
electrification of trunk lines, by Mr. L. R. Pomeroy ; 
electrication of railways, by Mr. G. Westinghouse. 

In connection with the summer meeting of the Associa- 
tion of Technical Institutions, the Mayor and Mayoress of 
Salford are to give a garden-party in Peel Park, Salford, 
and hold a reception in the Royal Museum and Art 
Galleries on Thursday, July 14. 

The sixty-ninth annual meeting of the Medico-psycho- 
logical Association of Great Britain and Ireland will be 
held at the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, on 
July 21 and 22, under the presidency of Dr. John Mac- 
pherson. Dr. C. H. Bond, 11 Chandos Street, Cavendish 
Square, W., is the honorary general secretary. 

An International Congress of Forensic Medicine will be 
held at Brussels on August 4 to 10. The programme 
will include psychological medicine, bacteriology, toxi- 
cology, and legislation in relation to legal medicine. 
Governments, academies of medicine, universities, and 
associations of chemists and toxicologists have been invited 
to send delegates. There will be an exhibition of apparatus 
and medical instruments in connection with the congress. 
The general secretary is Dr. C. Moreau, rue de la 
Gendarmerie, 6, Charleroi. 

According to the Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 
the second International Congress on Industrial Diseases 
is to be held in Brussels on September lo to 14 next. 
Among the questions to be discussed are : — Can industrial 
diseases be distinguished from accidents? What should 
be their distinctive characteristics ? What medical equip- 
ment is provided in mines, factories, workshops, &c. ? 
the present state of the problem of ankylostomiasis ; the 
eye and eyesight in connection with industrial diseases ; 
work in compressed air. 



i6 



NATURE 



[July 7, 1910 



The tenth International Geographical Congress is to be 
held in Rome on October 15 to 22, 191 1. The congress 
will be divided into eight sections, and communications 
may be made in Italian, French, German, or English. 
Abstracts of papers proposed for presentation to the meet- 
ing must be sent in not later than April 30, igii, and 
reports on subjects brought before previous congresses or 
suggested by the executive subcommittee must be received 
not later than August 31, igii. The president of the 
congress is the Marquis Raffaele Cappelli, president of the 
Italian Geograpliical Society. 

."VccoRDiNG to Science, plans for the extension of the 
American Museum of Natural History are being prepared 
by the trustees. The present building, erected between 
1874 and igoS, includes eight units, and the plans now in 
preparation contemplate an additional six units, com- 
pleting the central hall, the east and west transepts, the 
east entrance pavilion, and the south-east fagade. 

A SOCIETY called the Christopher S. Ledentzoff 
Society for the Development of Experimental Sciences and 
their Practical Applications has been formed in connec- 
tion with the Moscow Imperial Technical School, the 
objects of which are to assist discoveries and experiments 
in connection with natural science ; to develop technical 
inventions and improvements ; to investigate and apply to 
practical use any scientific or technical discovery or 
improvement. The society expresses the hope that its 
aims will attract the notice of all similar institutions and 
persons working in scientific and technical spheres, and 
appeals for assistance to all such institutions and persons 
for any support which might be given by (a) interchange 
of correspondence ; (b) a supply of lists of privileges and 
patents, and reports on scientific and technical subjects. 
Further particulars as to the aims of the society may be 
obtained from the secretary, care of the Imperial Technical 
Si hool, Moscow. 

A GEOGRAPliic.\L society, called the Servian Geographical 
Society, has been established at Belgrade. Its first presi- 
dent is Prof. J. Cvijic. The society proposes to begin the 
publication of a quarterly journal in January next. 

The Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland 
gives notice of the following examinations : — in biological 
chemistry, bacteriology, fermentation and enzyme action, 
with special reference to the chemistry and bacteriology of 
food-stuffs, water-supply and sewage disposal, and the 
application of biological chemistry to industries and manu- 
factures, beginning on Monday, October 17 next ; in 
chemical technology in October next, the exact date to be 
announced later. 

Speaking in the House of Commons on Wednesday of 
last week on the Colonial Office Vote, Colonel Seely, the 
Under-Secretary for the Colonies, referred to the sub- 
ject of sleeping sickness, and the work that has been 
done or is in progress in combating it. Coincident 
with the coming of the white man there had been, he 
said, a spread of various diseases. The spread of sleep- 
ing sickness alone had been most remarkable and 
disastrous. How many persons had died they did not 
know, but that hundreds of thousands had died they did 
know. Tremendous efforts had been made by many 
countries, and he thought we might claim especially by 
this country, to remove this great scourge. Sir David 
Bruce went, with his wife, into the heart of the plague- 
stricken country, and spent many months there investi- 
gating this great scourge of sleeping sickness. Almost 
every person in the place where he lived was suffering in 
some degree from this sickness, and when he told the 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



House that, out of the hundreds of thousands of cases, 
they did not know of a single case of recovery, he thought 
they would realise to how great an extent those who tried 
to deal with the disease took their lives in their hands 
when they went out to these countries. He had mentioned 
Sir David Bruce, but there were many others. Some had 
already died in this great cause, and their names were, 
alas ! already forgotten. But when the history of brave 
deeds came to be written, the deeds of those men who had 
gone into the heart of Africa to try to combat this 
insidious and most fatal of all diseases would not be for- 
gotten, and would perhaps be considered as giving more 
striking proof of the ability of men to overcome natural 
fear than almost anything else in the annals of mankind. 
We now knew that these diseases were caused by flies, 
but the difficulty of finding a remedy was immense. It 
was thought that the removal of the natives from the 
infested areas might prove a remedy. Sleeping sickness 
was caused by the tsetse-fly, and it was thought that if 
the population could be removed from the shores of the 
lakes where alone that fly could live, they would be cured. 
Unfortunately, that had not proved to be entirely the case. 
But still we did know a great deal more than we did 
before about the origin and cause of sleeping sickness, and 
we had checked the mortality to a most remarkable 
degree. 

Dr. W. L. Duckworth and Mr. \V. J. Pocock con- 
tribute to vol. xiv. of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society's 
Proceedings for the current year a paper on a collection 
of human bones found in the course of excavations on the 
site of an Augustinian Friary near the Corn Market, Cam- 
bridge. Among these appear specimens of a tall, broad- 
headed race which may be assigned to the British Bronze- 
age type, to early Danish immigrants of the Borreby class, 
or to later arrivals from a southerly region, perhaps 
Normandy or Burgundy, these last being foreign ecclesi- 
astics who founded the Cambridge Friary. After full dis- 
cussion of the question, Dr. Duckworth favours the last 
explanation. An excavation at Durham supplies similar 
relics of foreign bishops, and the proportion of these broad- 
headed men is too great to be provided by the local 
medi£Eval population, which, though it doubtless contained 
individuals of the Bronze-age type, was yet, on the whole, 
characterised by a very large majority of individuals with 
distinctly narrow heads. 

Mr. W. Morfitt has been for some time engaged in 
the examination of a series of pit-dwellings accidentally 
discovered in the district of Holderness, in the East Riding 
of Yorkshire. Canon Greenwell and Mr. R. .'\. Gatty 
contribute an account of these discoveries to the June issue 
of Man. The people occupying this district, much of 
which, since their time, has been destroyed by encroach- 
ments of the sea, were evidently a very early Neolithic 
race, probably an early branch of that which introduced 
polished stone implements. Those which they possessed 
are almost Palaeolithic in character. The fauna, however, 
which consisted of Bos longifrons, the horse, sheep or 
goat, hog, and red deer, is distinctly Neolithic. The only 
evidence of their acquaintance with the sea is the vertebra 
of a whale, which, on the analogy of the Guachos of the 
River Plate, Prof. Boyd Dawkins supposes to have been 
used as a seat. 

The Takelma language, one of the distinct linguistic 
stocks of America, is now nearly extinct, being spoken by 
only a few survivors of the tribe in the Siletz Reservation, 
western Oregon. It is therefore fortunate that Mr. E. 
Sapir, working under the direction of the American Bureau 
of Ethnology, has been able to secure the record of a con- 



July 7, 19 10] 



NATURE 



i: 



sidorable body of their tribal mythology and folklore. This 
report, issued by the University of Pennsylvania, and 
forming part i., vol. ii., of their Anthropological Publica- 
tions, is valuable from a linguistic point of view. The 
beliefs and mythology of the tribe exhibit curious re- 
semblances and variances when compared with those of 
the neighbouring tribes, the explanation of which awaits 
ti.ither investigation. 

To the June number of the American Naturalist Dr. 
R. L. Moodie -contributes a note on the alimentary canal 
of a branchiosaurian salamander from the Carboniferous 
sh.iles of Mazon Creelv, Illinois, for which the new generic 
and specific name Etinucrerpeton parvum is proposed. 
The specimens, for there are two, are preserved in nodules, 
and were it not that soon after death the oesophagus be- 
came loosened and displaced, the viscera would recall those 
of a freshly dissected modern salamander. The author has 
compared the viscera with those of several genera of 
modern salamanders, and finds that they come nearest to 
those of an immature example of Diemyctylus torosus 
from Orcas Island, Puget Sound, the next nearest being 
Desmognathus, Spelerpes. and Hemidac'tylus. It is sug- 
gested that the adults of the three latter retain an ancestral 
condition of the intestine which is transient in Diemyctylus, 
and the author finds in the resemblance of the viscera of 
the fossil to the recent forms confirmation of his theory 
that modern salamanders are directly descended from the 
Branchiosauria. 

In the same (June) issue of the American Naturalist 
Dr. J. Stafford gives a further account of his investiga- 
tions on the early developmental history of the Canadian 
oyster, of which the first part was published in the journal 
cited for January, 1909. The author systematically 
employed plankton-nets in collecting the larvae, which he 
claims to have been the first to recognise definitely in 
Canadian waters. He has also identified stages in develop- 
ment hitherto unobserved, including the young stages of 
the spat. He has defined the spatting period and the period 
during which the larva is free-swimming, while the 
developmental history has been foflowed up to adult stages. 
His results will, it is believed, be of importance in con- 
nection with commercial oyster-culture. 

In a report on the giant moth-borer (Castnia licus), pub- 
lished at Georgetown, Demerara, Mr. J. J. Quelch directs 
attention in the strongest manner to the damage threatened 
to sugar-cane plantations, which form the staple industry 
of the colony, by the attacks of this insect. In spite of 
remedial measures, Enmore Plantation, where this insect 
inflicted so much damage in 1904 and 1905, is still suffer- 
ing great loss, while Non Pareil Plantation is equally, if 
not more severely, affected. Some idea of the nature of 
the damage may be gleaned from the fact that the adult 
caterpillars are 3 inches in length and nearly i inch in 
thickness, and that their growth is abnormally rapid. 
Concerted action on the part of plantation-owners is 
essential if the plague is to be stayed. 

A LIST of the grasses of Alaska, prepared by Prof. F. 
Lamson-Scribner and Mr. E. D. Merrill, occupies vol. xiii., 
part iii., of the Contributions from the United States 
National Herbarium. Most of the material examined 
comes from the coast region, as very few botanists have 
ventured into the practically unknown regions of the 
iliterior, so that the present list may be regarded as a 
working basis for future collections. It is very remark- 
able that not a single species of the series Panicaceae has 
been collected, while all the tribes except Bambuseae 
of the other series Poaceas are represented. Poa furnishes 
a number of species, while Calamagrostis, Bromus, and 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



.'\gropyron are well represented. The authors have pro- 
vided analytical keys to the genera and species, as well as 
a short description for each item. 

The authentic list of new garden plants of the year 1909 
has been issued as Appendix iii. to the current volume of 
the Kew BtiUetin. The Orchidaceae provides, as usual, 
more species and varieties than any other family, amongst 
them being Cirrhopelalum longissimum, a fine plant intro- 
duced from Siam ; Dendrobium Sanderae, D. acuminatum, 
both from the Philippines ; and Megaclinium purpureo- 
rachis, from the Congo. China supplies a fair quota of 
plants, notably Primula Forrestii, P. Littoniana, P. 
Bulleyana, and Rhododendron Souliei, besides sharing with 
Japan in the supply of species of Juglans. The genus 
Salix receives additions from Asia, while Mexico furnishes 
several species of Mammillaria. The Kew introductions 
include an Encephalartos, Baikiaea insignis, a leguminous 
evergreen tree, and Strophanihus Preussii, a climbing shrub, 
all from tropical Africa ; also Euphorbia Ledienii, from 
South Africa. Six new species of the fern genus Nephro- 
lepis and Adiantum grossum are noteworthy. 

The International Commission on Glaciers has just 
issued the fourteenth report upon " Les Variations 
p^riodiques des Glaciers," by Prof. E. Briickner and M. E. 
Muret {Extrait des Annales de Glaciologie, t. iv., March, 
1910, pp. 161-76. Berlin : Borntraeger, 1910). This 
useful report, covering the year 1908, shows that the 
majority of glaciers under observation still continue to 
shrink, though the changes, as a rule, are not important. 
In the Swiss Alps fifty-three glaciers are probably or 
certainly decreasing, while fourteen are in the opposite 
condition. In the eastern Alps only one glacier shows 
some advance ; in the others the general retreat continues. 
This it does, so far as observed, in the Italian and French 
Alps, but in the Pyrenees there is generally an increase, 
though not large. Of Norwegian glaciers thirty-five have 
been observed, and the table published ranges in most cases 
from 1904 to 1908 inclusive. In the latter year ten glaciers 
were growing and twenty-two shrinking. The author, Mr. 
P. A. 0yen, directs attention to the fact that in the • 
central highlands the oscillation of the glaciers nearly corre- 
sponds with that of the climate, but in the western coast 
range it is rather retarded. In Sweden some advance is 
perceptible. The North American glaciers are oscillating, 
more especially in Alaska, and from Asia little precise 
information has been received. Evidently the ground 
which glaciers began to lose nearly half a century ago has 
not yet been recovered. 

The June number of the Journal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society contains papers read before the society 
by Dr. T. G. Longstaff on glacier exploration in the 
eastern Karakorum, and by Prof. J. W. Gregory on the 
geographical factors that control the development of 
Australia. Dr. Longstaff achieved four important feats : 
the discovery of the Saltoro Pass ; the fixing of the water- 
shed in the eastern Karakorum ; the discovery of the 
Siachen Glacier, the greatest glacier in Asia ; the discovery 
of the peak " Teram Kangri," with an altitude of at 
least 27,500 feet, and possibly the highest tnountain in the 
world. Prof. Gregory emphasises the isolation of 
-Australia, the contrast between the marginal and the 
interior zones, and discusses the problem of the water- 
supply, the growth of population, and the question of the 
possibilitv of white colonisation in tropical countries such 
as North Australia. 

In one of the useful scientific papers contained in the 
report of the Prussian Meteorological Institute for 1909 
Prof. Hellmann compares the results of the exposure of 



NATURE 



[July 



1910 



iliermometers in windows and in screens, such as are now 
generally used in this country, with the view of a future 
critical discussion of temperature conditions in Germany. 
The first part of the inquiry, contained in the report for 
1908, showed that the introduction of the window screen 
about the year 1880, instead of the unprotected window 
exposure adopted at all stations prior to that date, did not 
interrupt the homogeneity of the observations. In the 
second part of the inquiry, experiments carried out at 
Potsdam as regards window exposure and exposure in 
" Stevenson screens," now used at about two-thirds of the 
German stations, show that not only the readings obtained 
bv these two methods, but those at some of the more 
recent stations, are not strictly comparable. The differ- 
ences are relatively small in coastal cloudy and windy 
weather, but considerably greater in dry and sunny inland 
districts. For details of this interesting discussion refer- 
ence must be made to the tables and curves of the mean 
daily range shown for each month in the original paper. 

Every month sees a fresh issue of the bulletins from the 
Bureau of Entomology of the United States Department 
of .'\griculture. In Circular 119 Mr. Webster describes 
the clover root-borer {Hylasiinus obscurus, Marsham), 
which has been introduced from Europe and become estab- 
lished in helds of red clover in the eastern States and else- 
where, causing considerable damage. The life-history has 
been investigated, but no method of extermination could be 
discovered. Mr. Ainslie deals with the large corn-stalk- 
borer (Diatraea saccbaralis, Fab.). This insect burrows 
in the stalks of maize close to the ground, and so weakens 
them that they often break off in a strong wind. It was 
•originally a sugar-cane pest, and came from the West 
Indies and from Central and South America, but for some 
time now has devoted its attention to maize. 

The presidential address delivered by Prof. M. C. Potter 
before the British Mycological Society has now been issued, 
and deals with bacteria in their relation to plant pathology. 
The subject has been much neglected both by bacteriologists 
and mycologists, in spite of the fact that at least ten plant 
diseases are considered to be caused by bacteria. They 
are pear-blight (Bac. amylovorus), yellow disease of 
hyacinth (Pscudomonas hyacinihi), canker of the olive 
{Bac. oleae), corn-blight {B. zeae), potato wet-rot (B. 
solamperda), soft rot of hyacinth (B. hyacinthi-septicus), 
tacteriosis of the vine (B. uvae), cucurbit wilt (B. trachei- 
philus), brown rot of Cruciferae (Pseudomonas campestris), 
and potato and tomato disease (Bac. solanacearum). A 
■discussion of the problem is given and a bibliography is 
appended. 

The Chemical Society's Journal for May contains two 
papers by Mr. H. E. Watson on the molecular weights of 
helium, neon, krypton, and xenon. The neon was prepared 
in a state of exceptional purity by fractionating 40 litres 
of a mixture of helium and neon over charcoal at the 
temperature of liquid air, and full details are given of the 
methods used both in effecting the purification and in 
measuring the density of the gas; repeated determinations 
with various highly purified fractions gave values ranging 
from 0-8997 '° 0-9006, the mean of eleven values being 
•0-9002. In the case of helium only two measurements 
were made, giving the values 0-17830 and 0-17814, mean 
■0-1782 ; as the gas which was weighed amounted only to 
.0-05 gram, the experimental error is placed at i part in 
2000. Reduction of observed densities to zero pressure 
gave for the molecular weights of the gases of the series 
the values: — heUum, 3-994; neon, 20-200; argon, 39-881; 
krypton, 812-92 ; xenon, 130-22. 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



.■\lthough the use of oil as a means of securing more 
rapid dissipation of the heat generated in transformers has 
become almost universal in the case of large transformers, 
very little information has been available as to the relative 
merits of the various oil- and air-cooling devices. This 
information is now supplied in a paper by Mr. R. D. 
Gifford, of the University of Birmingham, which will be 
found in the May number of the Journal of the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers. His measurements show that if 
the cooling effect of the air in the case of a transformer 
be taken as unity, that of the free air would be about i-i 
and that of a strong air blast about 2. With oil cooling 
the effect rises to about 3, and if the oil itself is cooled 
by the passage of cold water through a worm immersed 
in the oil, the cooUng effect becomes 6 or 7. 

Bulletin No. 40 of the Engineering Experimental Station 
of the University of Illinois consists of an account of 
measurements made by Messrs. J. K. Clement and C. M. 
Garland of the heat transmitted through a steel tube of 
i^-inch external diameter, with walls J-inch thick, from 
steam outside to water inside running through the tube. 
The temperature of the outside surface of the tube was 
measured at two points by means of thermojunctions of 
copper-constantan placed in small holes drilled in the tube. 
The temperatures of the incoming and outgoing water and 
of the steam were determined by mercury thermometers. 
Curves are given showing the variation of the heat trans- 
mitted with the velocity of the stream of water and with 
the temperature of the steam, and the resistance to the 
transmission of heat is shown to be almost entirely con- ' 
centrated in the films of stagnant steam and water in 
contact with the surfaces of the steel tube. The authors 
regard the present communication, not as one devoted to 
new facts, but as a demonstration of the utility of their 
method of measurement, and propose to apply the method 
to the investigation of problems connected with steam 
boilers. We should like to point out that a good deal of 
work has already been done in this direction both in this 
country and in others, and it is to be hoped that the new 
experiments will be directed to the solutions of problems 
which have not been already dealt with by Mr. Jordan or 
by one or other of the experimenters mentioned in Prof. 
Dalby's bibliography of the subject contained in the Journal 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for last year. 

We learn from Engineering of June 24 that Lloyd's 
Register of British and Foreign Shipping is about to 
issue rules for internal-combustion engines for marine 
purposes. The rules are divided into four headings. The 
section concerning construction strongly enforces the 
importance of accessibility for examination and repair, and 
requires that engines of more than 60 brake-horse-power, 
which are not reversible, and are manceuvred by clutch, 
must be fitted with a governor or other arrangement to 
prevent the racing of the engine when declutched. The 
cylinders are to be tested by hydraulic pressure to twice 
the working pressure to which they will be subjected ; the 
water-jackets of the cylinders to 50 lb. per square inch, 
and the exhaust-pipes and silencers to 100 lb. per square 
inch. The tables are comprehensive, embracing smooth- 
water and open-sea service boats, and engines of 4-stroke 
cycle and 2-stroke cycle. Separate fuel-tanks are to be 
tested, with all fittings, to a head of at least 15 feet of 
water. Oil-fuel pipes are to be of annealed seamless 
copper, with flexible bends, conical joints metal to metal, 
with a cock or valve at each end of the pipe conveying 
the fuel from the tank to the carburettor or vaporiser. 
The machinery is to be submitted for survey annually, 
and practically all parts are to be examined, the fuel- 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



19 



tanks and all connections being, if deemed necessary by 
the surveyor, tested to the same pressure as when new. 
The screw-shaft is to be drawn at intervals of not more 
than two years. 

In directing attention to the diversity of published results 
of compressive tests on cubes of concrete, the Builder for 
June 18 suggests that the explanation is to be found in the 
different methods and diflerent pressures used in ramming 
the concrete into the test moulds. We may add to this 
explanation the fact that variation in the water used in 
mixing the concrete under test is a most important factor, 
influencing both the ramming pressure required and also 
the strength of the resulting specimen. Our contemporary 
suggests that an appliance such as is used in the Charlotten- 
burg laboratory might be adopted in this country. In 
this appliance a ram is lifted by gearing and released by 
a cam, the arrangement being such that the ram always 
falls from the same height. After each blow the ram is 
automatically moved for a short distance in a direction 
parallel to the axis of the actuating wheel, while the 
mould is moved perpendicularly to the same axis. The 
effect is to ensure uniform ramming of the whole. It is 
stated that the experience at Charloltenburg shows the 
resistance of test blocks so prepared to be very uniform 
for concrete of given composition. 



OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. 

Astronomical Occurrenxes in Ji'ly : — 
July 12. I4h. Ilm. Jupiter in conjunction with the Moon 
(Jupiler 2" 5S S. ). 

15. Mercury. Illuminated portion of disc = 0'978, Venus 

= 0-813. 

16. loh. 39m. Minimum of Algol (S Persei). 

19. Saturn. Major axis of outer ring = 39'96", minor 

axis=i2-35". 
21. 9h. 6m. Uianus in conjunction with Moon (Uranus 

3° 44' N. ,'. 
27. 6h. 29m. to gh. 9m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III. 

(Ganymede). 
27-31. Meteors abundant from Perseus and Aquarius. 

• Halley's Comet. — A number of observations, generally 
confirmatory of those already noted in these columns, are 
recorded in No. 4421 of the Astronomische Nachrichten. 
Dr. Wolf gives a sketch of the tail showing its position, 
with regard to the surrounding stars, and its form as 
shown on a photograph taken on May 12 at I4h. 15m., 
Kbuigstuhl M.T. This shows that a straight, narrow tail 
extended from the head to just south of 70 Pegasi, and 
from there to the end was bounded by two faint clouds of 
cometary matter, too faint to be seen visually. The out- 
line of the northern cloud was very irregular, and departed 
considerably from that of the visual tail, and in any dis- 
cussion as to whether the earth passed through any mass 
of cometary material these abnormal extensions must be 
taken into consideration. 

Prof. Seeliger reports that, at Munich, careful observa- 
tions failed to reveal any trace of the comet's head or 
nucleus during its passage across the solar disc, nor were 
any magnetic or electrical phenomena recorded which could 
be, with certainty, attributed to the comet. So many 
observers report the non-detection of the nucleus that it 
must now be taken as fairly certain that the material of 
which the head and nucleus are composed is too tenuous 
to interfere, effectively, with the passage of light. 

M. Eginitis gives further details as to observations at 
Athens Observatory, and directs special attention to the 
pecuUar shape presented by the comet on the evening of 
May 20. The appearance was very similar to that of a 
crescent moon, with a very bright condensation at the 
centre of the convex arc, and no extended tail was seen ; 
such a form might be explained by assuming that the axis 
of the- tail was nearly in the line of sight. This would 
also explain the apparent anomaly of the slight tail being 
turned towards the sun if one supposes that the curvature 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



was sufficiently great ; in this case, the passage of the 
earth through that part of the tail extending to its orbit 
would have been delayed some forty to si.xty hours, and 
it appears to be probable, if these observations of May 20 
are verified, that a passage did actually take place. 

M. Comas Sola gives drawings showing the definite 
duplication of the nucleus on June 2, and the appearance 
of four or five separate condensations, globes, on June 4. 

In an interesting communication to the Comples renins 
(No. 26, June 27, p. 1732), M. Nordmann discusses the 
amount and the nature of the light emitted by the comet, 
as observed with his colour-screen photometer. He finds 
that on three dates of observation, April 25, May 15 and 
23, the nucleus contributed only about one thirty-seventh 
of the total light emitted by the head. By comparing his 
values with the observed diameters of the nucleus and 
coma, respectively, he deduces that towards May 15 the 
mean intrinsic light of the nucleus was about ' nineteen 
times that of the visible part of the coma. Taking the 
theoretical increase of light of a comet as varying in the 
ratio i/r^A^, and comparing his observed with the calculated 
values, -M. Nordmann finds that between April 25 and 
May 23 the augmentation of the brilliancy of the nucleus 
was much less than provided for by the theory. Finallv, 
by the employment of his colour-screen method', M. Nord- 
mann found that the distribution of energy in the spectrum 
of the nucleus was very similar to the distribution in the 
so'ar spectrum, and hence he concludes that the light of 
the nucleus is almost exclusively, if not entirely, reflected 
sunlight. 

Mr. Leach, Malta, reports that, after finding the comet 
so faintly distinguishable on June 14, he gave up all hope 
of seeing it again. On June 25, however, he saw it quite 
clearly at 9 p.m., and was able to follow it each evening 
until the day of writing, June 30; with field-glasses, a tail 
2° or 3° in length was clearly visible. 

Ephemeris for Comet 1910a. — In No. 4422 of the Astro- 
nomische Nachrichten Prof. Kobold gives a continuation 
of his ephemeris for comet 1910a. The position is chang- 
ing very slowly, and for July 7 is 2ih. 40-sm., -1-33° 21-4'; 
an observation by Prof. Barnard on June 7 gave a correc- 
tion of -H7S., -t-i-6', and showed the magnitude to be 
about i6-o. 

Photographs of Morehouse's Comet. — From the Tokio 
Observatory we have received part vi., vol. iii., of the 
Annnles, in which are reproduced nearly fifty excellent 
photographs of Morehouse's comet, 1908c. Messrs. 
Hirayama and Toda briefly describe the separate photo- 
graphs, and discuss the remarkable changes which took 
place in the comet's tail. By comparing their results with 
those obtained at the Yerkes and Heidelberg Observatories, 
they find that between October i and 2 a recognised de- 
tached mass, at a mean distance of 2-4° from the head, 
was receding at an hourly rate of 8-5' ; other values are : — 
October 15, 1° from head, northern mass 3-1', southern 
mass 3-4', per hour; October 15-16, 1-4° from head, 3-1' 
per hour. As is pointed out, the accumulation of such data 
will serve to determine the nature of the repulsive force. 
.■\ discussion of the photographs also discloses that on 
November 13, 14, 15, and 16, the outer streamers of the 
tail appeared to change in phase, predominating south- 
wards on November 13 and 15, and northwards on 
November 14 and 16. This might be ascribed to a rotation 
of the head, with a period of forty-eight hours, but further 
discussion is necessary to estabhsh this ; in any case, the 
photographs show that if such a rotation existed it was not 
uniform throughout the tail, for the outer and inner 
streamers did not rotate with the same angular velocity. 

The Determination of Position near the Poles. — .\s 
an excerpt from the Geographical Journal for March, we 
have received a copy of a paper by Mr. Hinks deaUng 
with the methods of determining an observer's position 
when near the poles. Mr. Hinks suggests that a theo- 
dolite, say a 3-inch, read on both faces, would prove the 
most suitable instrument, and then proposes a modification 
of Sumner's method for the reduction of the observations. 
Two observations of the sun at two different known 
G.M.T. 's give two circles of equal altitude which inter- 
sect at the observer's position ; a simple graphical method 
may be used for the reduction. A most interesting dis- 
cussion, by well-known explorers, followed the reading of 



NATURE 



[July 7, 19 10 



the paper and dealt, with varvhig conclusions, with the 
several points raised by Mr. Hinks ; the chronometer 
difficulty appears to be an important one, and some curious 
refraction anomalies have to be considered. 

'I'he same subject was discussed by Herr Charlier in a 
paper which appeared in No. 4393 of the Aslronomischc 
Nachrichten. 

The Variation of Latitude. — The usual provisional 
results obtained by the International Latitude Bureau are 
published, for 19080-iqioo, by Prof. ."Mbrecht in No. 4414 
of the Aslronomische Nachrichten. A marked increase in 
the amplitude of the departure of the momentary, from 
the mean, pole took place during 1909, the previous curve, 
1907-9, having shown a regularly increasing spiral form. 
During the ten years that the international Service has 
been at work the curve has been fairly regular, with 
maxima in the years 1903 and 1909 ; the latter is clearly 
shown on the chart published with the results. 

New Canals and Lakes on Mars. — Seventeen " canals " 
and two " lakes " which were seen at the Hem Observa- 
tory, and which M. Jonckheere has been unable to identify 
from previous records, are enumerated in No. 4420 of the 
Aslronomische Nachrichten. This brings M. Jonckheere 's 
total of new " canals " up to forty, the previous lists 
having appeared in earlier numbers of the same journal. 
One of the " lakes," at the junction of Aethiops and 
Cambyse, is described as small and feeble, and the other, 
at the junction of Astaboras and Anubis, as large and 
diffuse. 



THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS AT 
DUSSELDORF. 
"T^HE fifth International Congress of Mining, Metallurgy, 
Mechanical Engineering, and Practical Geology met at 
Diisseldorf on Monday, June 20. Whilst, strictly speak- 
ing, this is the fifth congress, it is only the third that has 
assumed a really international character. The first congress 
was held in Paris in the year 1878, in connection with the 
Great Exhibition of that year, its initiation being due to 
the efforts of a number of prominent French mining and 
metallurgical engineers, and more especially to that well- 
known French association, the Soci^te de I'lndustrie 
min^rale. The next great Paris Exhibition of 18S9 again 
provided the occasion for a second congress, but both these 
first two congresses were attended mainly by French 
engineers, and could scarcely be called international. At 
the Paris Exhibition of 1900 a vigorous effort was made 
to interest foreign as well as French engineers, and was 
supported warmly by both their English and their German 
colleagues, our Iron and Steel Institute and Institution 
of Mining Engineers both taking an active part in forward- 
ing the .scheme. This congress was thoroughly inter- 
national in all respects, and at its closing meeting it was 
decided to hold a quinquennial international congress, the 
next, that of 1905, to be held at Li^ge, in connection with 
the International Exhibition planned for that year. This 
congress, again, was completely successful, and its mem- 
bers gladly accepted the invitation of the Rheno-West- 
phalian Mining and Metallurgical Industry to hold the next 
meeting at Diisseldorf. This town is in many respects the 
centre of the above industries, and is remarkable not only 
for its great industrial development, but also for its highlv 
advanced artistic culture ; it is, furthermore, well situated 
on the main railway system of central Germany, affording 
ready communication with all neighbouring countries, and 
is thus ,-idmirably adapted for the purpose of such a con- 
gress. On the opening day the congress numbered 1762 
members, of whom 1128 were Germans and 634 foreigners, 
the latter comprising 94 from France, 74 from Great 
Britain, Tic; from Austro-Hungary, and 57 from Belgium. 
The number of entries in the different sections were : — 
Mining, 1141; metallurgy, 1140 ; engineering, 939; geology, 
784. Of course, it will be understood that many members 
had entered their names in more than one section. 

The great majority of the members of the congress had 
arrived in Diisseldorf on Saturday and Sunday, June 18 
and 10, and on Sunday evening there was an informal 
open-air gathering at the Zoological Gardens, this being 
.in excellent opportunity to make and renew many acquaint- 
.Tiiceships. The actual work of the congress began next 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



morning, the meeting-place being the Tonhallc, a concert- 
hall belonging to the town of Diisseldorf, the large main 
hall of which was admirably adapted for the general meet- 
ing of the congress. There are several smaller lecture- 
rooms available for the meetings of the sections, 
:ilthough it must be admitted that the accommodation thus 
provided was in some cases barely sufficient for the large 
audiences that assembled to hear some of the more im- 
portant of the papers. The geological section met in a 
suitable room close to the Toiilialle. 

The general meeting was opened on Monday morning by 
the president of the organising committee, Mr. Edward 
Kleine, who welcomed the congress in a short address, in 
which he referred more particularly to the increase in the 
production of coal and iron that had taken place since the 
last meeting of the congress. His speech was translated, 
first into French and then into English, by Mr. E: Schalten- 
brand, chairman of the board of management of the Steel- 
works' .Association. The Prussian Minister of Commerce, 
His Excellency Mr. Sydow, also welcomed the members of 
the congress in the name of the Prussian Government and 
of the Imperial Chancellor. 

The honorary consultative committee of the congress was 
then formed, after which the meeting broke up into the 
various sections, of which there were five, namely, i.. 
Mining; iio.. Practical Metallurgy; iifc.. Theoretical 
Metallurgy; iii., Mechanical Engineering; iv., Applied 
Geology. 

The official list of papers submitted to these sections is 
as follows : — 

Section !., Mining. — W. Zaringer (Nordhausen), the 
freezing process and its latest developments; F. Bruchausen 
(Dortmund), shaft sinking by the process of petrifaction ; 
H. Grahn (Bochum), the use of compressed-air locks in 
sinking ; — Viebig (Kray), the use of reinforced concrete in 
mine workings ; Prof. J. Stumpf (Berlin), the steam-engine 
with unidirectional flow of steam, with especial reference to 
its use as a winding engine ; W. Schultze (Essen), recent 
improvements in pumping plant ; O. Piitz (Tarnowitz), the 
present position of hydraulic stowage in Germany ; Dr. W. 
Kohlmann (Diedenhofen), the mining development of the 
Minette iron-ore district ; P. Nicou (Nancy), the present 
position of the Minette mining industry in French Lorraine; 
Prof. K. Haussmann (Aachen), modern improvements in 
mine surveying; Prof. G. Franke (Berlin), conveying of 
coals from the working face ; J. Loiret (Clermont-Ferrand), 
value of a rescue-chamber in an outburst of carbonic acid 
gas at the Singles Colliery, July 26, 1909 ; sudden 
outbursts of carbonic acid gas in the collieries of the 
Central Plateau of France ; S. v. Bolesta-Malewski (Nalenc- 
zow), critical observations on the existing methods of wind- 
ing, and a proposal for their modification ; F. Schember 
(Vienna), the development of machine kirving in coal 
mining ; Dr. H. Bruns (Gclsenkirchen), to what extent does 
coal mining contribute to the dissemination of infectious 
diseases? F. Trippe (Dortmund), hydraulic impregna- 
tion of the coal-face in the solid, and hydraulic coal-getting 
by the Meissner method ; J. Taffanel (Lens), the French 
experiments upon coal-dust ; W. E. Garforth (Pontefract), 
the British coal-dust experiments. 

The last two very important papers were admirably illus- 
trated, that of Mr. Garforth by a very fine series of coloured 
lantern-slides, and that of Mr. Taffanel by lantern-slides 
and by the kinematograph. 

There were further presented to this section two reports 
on the testing of colliery ropes, namely. Prof. H. Louis 
(Newcastle-on-Tyne), report on the testing of colliery rooes 
in England; L. Denoel (Li^ge), the testing of winding 
ropes in Belgium. These are to form part of a complete 
international report on the standardisation of rope-testing. 

.'Section ii.a. Practical Metallurgy. — Dr. Blasberg (Dahl- 
hausen), changes in the composition of fire-brick ; G. 
.Arnou (Paris), notes upon electro-steel; P. Breuil (Couillet), 
rail-steel ; — Esser (Differdingen), the present posi- 
tion of the Thomas process in Germany ; Prof. G. Franke 
(Berlin), the present position of the briquetting and nodulis- 
ing of iron-ores in Germany ; R. Gcnzmer (Julienhiitte), 
the open-hearth ore process in Germany; J. Hofmann (Wit- 
kowitz), gas-producers ; H. Terpitz (Hubertushiitte), 
the employment of various kinds of gas in the open-hearth 
furnace, and their respective influence on the Quality of the 
products ; O. Friedrich (Julienhiitte), recent improvements 



July 7. 1910] 



NATURE 



in the construction of opcn-liearth furnaces ; C. Grosze 
(Metz), tiie present position of the methods of purifying 
blast-furnace gases in Gurniany ; Prof. F. Herbst (Aachen), 
on the development of coUing as regards the construction of 
coko ovens and the improvement in mechanical appliances ; 
Prof. E. Heyn (Gross-Lichterfelde), contribution to the sub- 
ject of rusting; C. Irresberger (Miilheim), present-day 
iron-foundrv practice in (_iermany ; O. Alauritz (Niirnberg), 
the economics of the various forms of working blowing- 
engines in steel works : Dr. B. Neumann (IJarmstadt), 
the existing processes for the production of electro-steel in 
Germany ; H. Ortmann (Volklingen), improvements in 
the construction of rolling-mills during the last decade ; 
Dr. R. Passow (.Aachen), the value of the microscope in 
judging blast-furnace slags : Dr. J. Puppe (Dortmund), 
the results of recent investigations in rolling-mill practice 
■n Germany ; Dr. O. Rau (.Aachen), the advances in the 
recovery of by-products in coke-oven plants ; Dr. B. Schiick 
(Berlin), a new process for the generation of hydrogen, and 
its application in metallurgy. 

Section ii.b. Theoretical Metallurgy. — Dr. C. Benedicks 
(Upsala), the synthesis of meteoric iron ; Prof. W. 
Borchers (Aachen), the reactions in the melting and refin- 
ing of copper, their acceleration, and their simplification bv 
electric smelting; Dr. K. Bornemann and P. Miiller 
(.Aachen), the electrical conductivity of alloys in the liquid 
state ; Dr. H. Braune and E. Hubendick (Stockholm), the 
generation of producer-gas, free from tar, from uncoked 
fuel, from the point of view of organic chemistry ; C. 
Brisker (Leoben), the theoretical and practical import- 
ance of the electric blast-furnace ; G. Charpy (Montlugon), 
the part played by carbon and carbon monoxide in 
metallurgical reactions; Dr. W. Conrad (Vienna), the 
current and the voltage in the electric furnace ; Dr. G. 
Gillhausen (Aachen), the balance of heat and of matter 
in the blast-furnace ; Dr. P. Goerens (Aachen), the 
gases contained in the various kinds of iron ; Dr. H. Gross- 
mann (Berlin), the volumetric estimation of nickel and 
cobalt; Prof. Guillet (Paris), the thermic treatment of 
special steels ; certain practical and theoretical observa- 
tions upon cementation ; — Joisten (.Aachen), the influence 
of heat treatment upon the dimensions of the grain of iron ; 
Prof. J. W. Richards (South Bethlehem), Gruner's ideal 
working of a blast-furnace ; the rationale of dried 
blast ? E. Richarme (Zarizinsky Savod), the dephos- 
phorisation of iron in the presence of carbon ; Prof. R. 
Rucr (Aachen), the iron-nickel system ; O. Thallner (Rem- 
scheid), the relations between the thermic effect, the 
metallurgical phenomena, and crystallisation in basic and 
acid processes of electric fusion ; F. Weyl (Aachen), 
cementation in vacuo ; Dr. H. Winter (Bochum), the 
influence of galvanisation on the strength of wire ; Prof. F. 
W'iist (Aachen), the causes of the economy of fuel and 
the increased production in the blast-furnace by the use of 
heated and dried blast ; Prof. F. Wiist and — Felser 
(.Aachen), the influence of segregation on the strength of 
ingot-iron. 

It need only be said here that the division of the 
metallurgical section into two portions was rendered neces- 
sary by the large number of metallurgical papers presented, 
and even so the sections were somewhat overweighted with 
work. 

Section Hi., Mechanical Engineering^. — M. Androuin and 
C. Stein (Paris), the influence of the improvements in heat- 
ing on the development of machine forging ; T. v. Bavier 
(DCisseldorf), the development of ventilators and compressors 
in German mining; P. Bernstein (Cologne), hydraulic com- 
pressors; P. Bodenstein (Kalk), modern ore-dressing; W. 
Ellingen fCologne), aerial ropeways of great capacity ; — 
Giller (Miilheim), haulage by compressed-air locomotives 
in mines ; G. v. Hanffstengel (Leipzig), the cheapening of 
the cost of transport bv means of wire-rope and electrical 
aerial railwavs ; — Heym (Wetter), the influence of elec- 
tricity on the development and efficiency of lifting appliances 
in mines and works ; Dr. H. Hoffmann (Bochum), the 
working of motor engines, especially for winding engines, 
rolling-mill engines, and dynamos ; Prof. P. Langer 
(.Aachen), recent experience in large gas-engine plants; 
K. Maleyka (Berlin),' electricity in metallurgy ; W. PhilippI 
(Berlin), electricity in mining; C. Matschoss (Berlin), the 
position of mining and metallurcy in the history of machine 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



construction ; Dr. Rateau (Paris), turbo-compressors ; 
— Stach (Bochum), the development of independent and of 
central condensation ; heat accumulators for the utilisation 
of waste steam ; F. Tillmann (Saarbriicken), underground 
haulage. 

It will be noticed that very few of these papers deal with 
purely engineering subjects ; some of them are in the main 
metallurgical, and most of them are upon mining subjects. 
The only reason for their inclusion in this section lies in 
the fact that the other sections were overcrowded. 

Section iv.. Applied Geology.— Dc. C. Barrois (Lille), 
the origin of the clastic coal deposits and of the erratic 
pebbles found in the north of France ; Dr. Beyschlag (Ber- 
lin), communication on the iron-ore supplies of the world ; 
C. Capacci (Florence), the gold deposits of Abyssinia and 
Erythrea ; Dr. G. Fliegel (Berlin), the tectonics of the Lower 
Rhine basin, and their importance in the development of 
the lignite formation ; — Holz (Aachen), the utilisation of 
water-power, with special reference to Germany and Scan- 
dinavia ; M. Krahmann (Berlin), the modern policy respect- 
ing mineral deposits, and its problems ; P. Kukuk (Bochum), 
the tectonic conditions of the coal deposits of the Lower 
Rhine and Westphalia in the light of the most recent in- 
vestigations ; E. Link (Essen), the dams of the Ruhr dis- 
trict, and particularly the dam of the Mbhne valley ; A. 
Macco (BrUhl), the science of mining economics, its objects 
and its limits; L. Mintrop (Bochum), on artificial earth- 
quakes; H. Mortimer-Lamb (Montreal), the unique mineral 
resources of Canada ; Dr. M. Mourlon (Brussels), a synthesis 
of Belgian geology as obtained from documents ; Dr. H. 
Potoni^ (Berlin), the origin of coal ; Prof. A. Renier 
(Li^ge), the state of our knowledge of the general strati- 
graphy of the Belgian coal-formation ; B. Schulz-Briescn 
(Dusseldorf), the scientific and economic importance of prac- 
tical geology ; Dr. G. Steinmann (Bonn), the composite 
mineral veins in the South American Cordilleras ; Dr. O. 
Stutzer (Freiberg), recent springs: H. Werner (St. Andreas- 
berg), the silver-bearing veins of St. Andreasberg in the 
Harz ; Dr. W. Wunstorf (Berlin), the coal-bearing forma- 
tion in the region of the Rhine and the Maas ; Dr. S. 
Papavasiliou (Na.xos), on Grecian emery. 

All this formidable list of papers was disposed of by the 
various sections in three sessions, on Monday morning and 
afternoon and on Tuesday morning. Whilst the standard 
of the various papers was, on the whole, a high one, some 
being, indeed, of especial interest, the discussions were 
disappointing, being, in general, brief, and of no great 
importance ; the great majority of the papers were not 
discussed at all. This was probably due to the large 
number of papers set down for reading. It would have 
been far better to have limited their number, or to have 
read them only in the briefest abstract, so as to have left 
time for adequate discussion, this being usually the most 
interesting feature of such gatherings. 

Tuesday afternoon, June 21, Wednesday, and Thursday 
were devoted to excursions, of which there was a list of 
more than forty, which gave an opportunity to see all the 
more important collieries and iron works of this flourishing 
industrial region. A special set of geological excursions 
was arranged for the members of section iv. An interest- 
ing series of trips had also been arranged for the ladies 
accompanying the members to a number of points of 
interest in and near Dusseldorf. The social functions 
included a reception on Monday evening, given by the town 
of Dusseldorf, a leading feature of which was an admir- 
able speech bv Mr. Marx, the Mayor of Dusseldorf. On 
Tuesday evening an official dinner was given in the large 
hall of' the Tonhalle, after which a little allegorical play 
was performed. The conception of this was due to Dr. 
Schrodter, one of the general secretaries of the congress, 
and both the idea and its execution were in every respect 
beyond praise. On Wednesday evening a trip on the Rhirie 
was made in one of the large steamers that ply on this 
river. This was rendered especially interesting by the 
presence of Count Zeppelin, who had come over in the 
forenoon from Friedrichshafen in his latest airship, the 
Dentschland. 

The closing meeting of the congress took place at Essen 
under the presidency of Mr. Kleine. The secretaries of the 
various sections presented short reports on the work of 
each section. The only resolution submitted to the General 



22 



NATURE 



[July 7, 1910 



Meeting was one from the Mining Section, declaring that it 
was urgent that some international system for the unifica- 
tion of mining statistics should be adopted. This resolu- 
tion was unanimously agreed to, and it was decided that 
steps should be taken to bring it to the notice of the 
various Powers that had sent representatives to the con- 
gress. An invitation to hold the next Quinquennial con- 
gress, namely, that of 1915, in London was then sub- 
mitted to the meeting by Prof. H. Louis (Newcastle-on- 
Tyne), and supported by Mr. G. C. Lloyd, secretary of the 
Iron and Steel Institute, and Dr. J. B. Simpson, president I 
of the Institution of Mining Engineers. The invitation was 
tendered on behalf of the University of London, the Im- ' 
perial College of Science and Technologry, the Geological I 
Society of London, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, [ 
the Iron and Steel Institute, the Society of Chemical In- I 
dustry, the Institution of Mining Engineers, the Institution | 
of Mining and Metallurgy, and the Institute of Metals, and [ 
it was unanimously and enthusiastically accepted. j 

This ended the business of the congress proper, but a 
reception vi'as given in the evening by the town of Essen, 1 
and on the following day a numerous contingent of mem- ; 
bers left in two special trains for Brussels, where arrange- 
ments had been made to receive them at the exhibition 
now in progress there. 

From every point of view the Diisseldorf Congress may 
be pronounced a brilliant success. The local members 
exerted themselves to the utmost to entertain their visitors, ! 
and, thanks in no small degree to the excellent system of 
organisation that pervaded the whole affair, everything 
went without a hitch. It is a matter of sincere satisfaction 
that English technologists will now have an opportunity 
afforded thepi of returning the splendid hospitality of their 
foreign colleagues, but they will have to exert their utmost 
endeavours if they propose to maintain the high standard 
of excellence that has been set by the congress of 19 10. 

THE TUBERCULOSIS CONFERENCE AND 
EXHIBITION. 
'T'HE annual meeting of the National Association for the 
Prevention of Tuberculosis and the conference is 
still in full swing, though by the time that this goes to 
press most of the work, except the exhibition and the public 
lectures, will have been completed. A local committee, 
consisting of the Right Hon. Lord Balfour of Burleigh, 
K.T., Sir .Alexander Christison, Bart., as chairman. Dr. 
R. W. Philip, treasurer, and Drs. W. Leslie Lyall, 
Geo. A. Mackey, and James Miller, secretaries, and a 
number of public and medical men, prepared an admirable 
programme for the large number of members, old and 
new, which has been carried out both fully and successfully. 

The exhibition, which is probably the best of the kind 
tliat has yet been seen in this country, containing not 
only the ordinary travelling specimens, but a number of 
very fine preparations from Edinburgh and Cambridge 
illustrating the various phases of the tuberculous process 
in man and in animals, was opened on Friday, July 1, by 
the Countess of Aberdeen, whose interest in this work 
induced her to send over the Irish exhibit that has done 
such excellent service in Ireland. On the evening of the 
same day Prof. McWeeney, of Dublin, gave an interesting 
lecture on " Consumption : what it is and how it can be 
prevented." 

On Saturday morning the teachers and scholars in the 
various school centres were addressed by the Countess of 
Aberdeen at one, by Dr. Jane Walther at another, and by 
Drs. Gray, McWeeney, Squire, and VVoodhead at others. 
These addresses, according to the newspaper reports, 
appear to have been followed with keen interest by both 
tf-achers and scholars. 

In the afternoon, the Royal Victoria Hospital Farm 
Colony at Springfield, Lasswade, a beautiful and healthful 
*pot, was opened by Lady Dunedin. This farm is for 
convalescents from phthisis, and is to be a kind of training 
ground for those who have to earn their living after their 
recovery. As it is only at the stage of opening, little of 
the plan of operations could be seen, but it appears that 
Frimley is the model on which it is to be carried out. 

On Sunday there was a special service for universitv 
students in the McEwan Hall (the " Aula " of the Unf- 



versity). Dr. Norman McI,eod presided, and Dr. Kelman 
and Dean Wilson both took part in the service. Prof. 
Osier, of Oxford, spoke of man's redemption of man, re- 
ferring to the great work done during the last fifty years 
by those who had set themselves to the amelioration of 
the sufferings and disease of their fellows. Then followed 
a short service in memoriam of Robert Koch, in which 
Dr. Hermann Biggs, of New York, and Drs. Woodhead 
and Philip took part. The whole service was most 
impressive, and was attended by a very large congregation. 

On Monday evening the annual meeting of the National 
-Association for the Prevention of Consumption, presided 
over by Lord Balfour of Burleigh, was a most successful 
gathering, and, like all the other meetings, was very 
largely attended. 

This was followed by a reception given by the Right 
Hon. the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council of the 
City of Edinburgh, in tlie splendid Museum of Science and 
Art, at which the members of the association and their 
friends were most hospitably entertained. 

The four conference meetings, at which such subjects as 
"The Avenues of Infection in Tuberculosis," "The Pre- 
vention and the Administrative Control of Tuberculosis," 
"The Incidence of Tuberculosis in Childhood," and "The 
Working Man in Relation to Tuberculosis," were well 
attended, and the subjects were well discussed. These 
discussions should be productive of much good in 
the way of disseminating information on the various points 
raised. Popular lectures were given on Friday, Saturday, 
and Tuesday, and others will be given up to the end of the 
week, each lecture being in charge of an authority on his 
subject. 

This conference and exhibition is an advance on any- 
thing of the kind that has yet been attempted, and its 
usefulness and popularity should encourage the executive 
of the association to repeat the experiment of a provincial 
meeting. 



INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR COOPERATION 

IN SOLAR RESEARCH. 
HTHE fourth conference of the International Union for 
Cooperation in Solar Research will take place on 
Mount Wilson, California, between August 29 and Sep- 
tember €. The meeting promises to be a very successful 
one, about forty astronomers and physicists from Europe 
having signified their intention of being present, as well as 
a large number of Americans. 

The members of the union and others who have accepted 
Prof. Hale's invitation are invited by the .Astronomical 
and .Astrophysical Society of .America to attend a meeting 
of that- society which will be held at Harvard College 
Observatory on August 17. At the end of this meeting 
the astronomers will be taken from Boston to California 
by the train leaving Boston on August 20. One day will 
be spent at Niagara Falls, and another at Chicago, where, 
however, the time will not be sutTicient to visit the Yerkes 
Observatory. The journey from Chicago to Pasadena will 
be made by the southern route, and a visit will be paid 
on the way to the Lowell Observatory at Flagstaff, while 
two days will be spent at the Grand Canyon. The party 
will reach Pasadena on August 27. 

After the meeting, it has been arranged that visitors 
who may wish to join shall travel by way of Santa 
Barbara and Monterey to San Jos6, from whence the Lick 
Observatory may be visited. 

Those intending to travel with the party from Boston 
to Pasadena, or join the party at any point on the way, 
are requested to send in their names to Prof. S. I. Bailey, 
Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Mass., at as 
early a date as possible, in order that the necessary rail- 
way arrangements may be made. 

.As regards the .meeting itself, it is proposed that the 
visitors should stay in Pasadena until Tuesday, September 
13, on which day they will leave for Mount Wilson, the 
journey occupying about seven hours. The meeting will 
be held during the four remaining days of the week, and 
the return journey will take place on Sunday, September 4. 

On September 6 it is intended to make an excursion to 
Los Angeles, and the meeting will conclude with a banquet 
after returning to Pasadena. 



NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



MODERN SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHY.' 
'PHIS lecture relates to modern submarine telegraphy, 
and, therefore, I shall omit the historical part of the 
subject and start with the cable itself, as we deal with 
it now. The signals to form the messages are sent over 
the submarine cable as electric currents. The cable 
consists of a central copper wire ; this is the conductor for 
the current, and to prevent the electricity escaping from 
the wire it is insulated along its entire length by gutta- 
percha. 

Gutta-percha is chosen for submarine work because of 
its very high insulating properties and its not being acted 
on, or suffering chemical change, under water. The gutta- 
percha-covered wire is called the core ; this core, before it 
can be laid at the bottom of the sea, must be surrounded 
by jute serving and steel wires for protection when being 
laid and during its existence after. 

When dealing with the electrical properties of a cable, 
the core only is considered, and for all practical purposes 
it may be taken that the return conductor to the current 
is the water immediately outside the gutta-percha. A core 
of any given length has a certain time rate of signalling ; 



I take an Atlantic cable laid in 1894 (Fig. i) as having 
the greatest size of copper for size of core ; I take this 
core to illustrate the improvement that might result by 
increasing the copper up to the largest size electrically 
permissible : — - 

1894 Cable. 

Diameter of core 0466 inch 

Diameter of copper 0202 inch 

Resistance per nautical mile 1-684 ohms 

Capacity per nautical mile 0420 microfarad 

The cable is 1852 nautical miles long and its K.R. is 
2-41, and its speed of working under the capacity block 
system of duplex, about 205 letters per minute. 



CFiG. 2.) 

... 0-466 inch 

0-2S2 inch 

... 0-864 ohm 

0-700 microfarad 
... 2-06 




Atlantic 1894 Cable. 

that is to say, when a voltage is applied at one end, the 
effective current, that as a consequence flows in the wire, 
does not arrive at the distant end instantaneously, but 
takes time to grow. 

The time rate of signalling is inversely proportional to 
the product of the resistance of the wire and the electro- 
static capacity of the core. This is termed the " K.R." 
or capacity resistance law, a law first pointed out by Lord 
Kelvin. It follows from this law that if you double the 
length of any given kind of cable you reduce its speed for 
signalling to one-quarter. 

The time rate is inversely proportional to the resistance 
multiplied by the capacity. If you make a certain sized 
core (size of gutta-percha) with a large copper, up" to a 
certain point you decrease the resistance and increase the 
capacity; but there is a critical value giving the minimum 
K.R. This critical limit, or the point when the size of 
the copper is reached to give the lowest K.R., is when the 
diameter of the copper is to the diameter of the core as 
I : 1-65. 

There is another advantage in keeping the resistance 
low for any K.R. ; the time constant ortly deter- 
mines the time when the current at the far end 
reaches a certain percentage of the possible maxi- 
mum after the application of the voltage at thr- 
sending end. Of course, the quantity of current 
after any given time is determined again by the 
voltage of the sending' battery, and is inversely 
as the resistance of the cable. 

For instance, if two cables were constructed of equal 
K.R., but one had a larger copper of half the resistance 
of the other, with equal sending batteries, the one with 
the lower resistance would deliver twice the current at the 
receiving end, at the ends of equal times, and could there- 
fore be made to work at a faster rate. It should also be 
a cheaper cable, because copper is less expensive than 
gutta-percha. 

-Against these electrical advantages should be placed 
several mechanical disadvantages ; the reduction of the 
thickness of the insulation might result in a greater liability 
to faults developing after the cable was laid. With such 
a heavy wire, which would naturally have to be well 
stranded,^ to reduce the stiffness, the liability of the 
decentralisation during manufacture would be greater than 
with existing cores. 

These mechanical dilTficulties could, I feel sure, be over- 
conne, say, by greater care being taken in the manufacture 
or by substitution for the present yielding gutta-percha of 
dry cotton or similar ' material well impregnated with 
gutta-percha compound. 

1 Discourse delivered at the Ro>-al Institution by Mr. Sidney G- Ilrovvn. 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



The Ideal Core. 

Diameter of core 

Diameter of copper 

Resistance per nautical mile ... 

Capacity 

K.R. for 1852 nautical miles 

The speed of working with the same duplex 
system is about 240 letters per minute, and the 
current received with this speed would be twice 
as strong as in the actual cable, so that a stil' 
greater speed than that given would result, 
perhaps a speed of 260 letters per minute, a 
-.ending battery of 40 volts to be used on both 
cables. 

The copper conductor offers resistance to the electric 
currents that flow along it ; this resistance by itself would, 
with sufficiently sensitive receiving instruments, not affect 
the speed of signalling ; it produces what is termed 
" attenuation," or a weakening of the signalling current. 

There is also a lateral storage of electricity along the 
outside of the copper due to the capacity of the insulating 
material to absorb a charge of electricity ; this property is 
termed the electrostatic capacity of the core. 

To allow this to be more fully understood, I shall take 
mechanical analogies. Resistance in electricity is equi- 
valent to friction in mechanics, capacity to elasticity of a 
spring, and self-induction to inertia. If I force water 
through an iron pipe, the friction in the pipe offers resist- 
ance to the flow of water ; the same quantity that is forced 
in flows out at the receiving end, but the energy accom- 
panying the flow of water suffers attenuation, as part is 
wasted in overcoming the friclional resistance. 

Suppose that, instead of taking an iron pipe, I take a 
soft india-rubber pipe, a new kind of phenomenon will be 
noticed. .As I force the water in, the resistance that the 




water encounters in flowing along the pipe causes the 
rubber to swell, and the rubber will continue to swell until 
it has acquired sufficient strain to press with sufficient force 
on the water to overcome the friction of the pipe. 

.At the sending end, that is, the end where we are 
forcing in the water, the pipe will swell the most, because 
the pressure on the water is there the greatest and the 
frictional resistance offered by the pipe to its flow also the 
greatest. .As we move along, the swelling will be less, 
being least at the far end, that is, at the receiving end 
where the water escapes. 

.At the instant that we start forcing the water in, prac- 
tically none escapes at the receiving end, the pipe com- 
mences to stretch and the water begins to flow out, 
continuously increasing in quantity, until it obtains a steady 
value ; this steady value is reached when the pipe has 
ceased to expand. 

The time taken for the pipe to expand and for the water 
to reach a steady value is termed the variable period. 
The less the elasticity of the pipe and the less the resist- 
ance to water flowing through it, the less the time taken 
to reach the steady value. This is equivalent to our sub- 



24 



NATURE 



[July 7, 19 10 



marine cable, where the less the capacity and the less the 
resistance, the less the time constant, or the quicker the 
rate of signalling. 

Now the swelling of the pipe or the capacity effect of 
the cable does not destroy the energy in the water or of 
the electricity respectively ; this is very different from the 
waste of energy through resistance, and if by some method 
we could compensate for the capacity we could signal 



\^ 








\ 


^-- 


-v^ 




f^ 


^N^ 

k 


L^" 


^^■-^ 




V. 


^^^ 


■^^ 



Volts. Amps. 


Volts. 


Amps. Volis. 


Amps. 


Volts. ! Amps. 


400 


0-1264 


40-0 


o'[364 40*0 


0-0408 


40-0 0-041 


12-25 


o'°39 


12-7 


0-0.(2 1 31 -O 


0-0316 


23-7 0-0244 


3-8 


0-0125 


^•4 


0-OI37 23-9 


0-0244 


M-2 0-OI47 




0-005 


1-5 


0-0055 , iS'S 


0-0.89 


8 3 lo-oo88 


o'3S 


0-0012 


0-48 


0-00155 14-2 


0-0146 


5-1 0-0051 


0-I5 


0-00065 


0-2 


0-00083 1 1 -0 


Q-oiia 


304 0-0031 


0-0453 


o"oooi43 


0-0418 


0-000132 B-32 


0-0085 


1-71 )-ooi75 



lag) 
Vo/' 



1714 1714 



Kxcept in Case I. (near its end), the lag in every case is proportional to x 

Kreque- cy, 6"36 per second. 

Submarine telegraph cable -?■= f684 ohms per naut, <i' = o'42 mfd. ye 
naut. The current received by recorder would be 82 times this if we had n. 
capacity. 

At -V nauts from sending end the<:e are the voli.s and amperes : — 

I. There is a recorder with 317 ohms resistance at the end of 1825 nau 
cable 



Infin 



able 



nrys per naut ; no leakance. Not much di^ 
rjs per naut ; Icakance, 1 '768X10"'' ohms pe 











\ 
















\ 


k. _ 








■— — s__ 




~~*^^*^^=^s^^:--S_ 


izir: 



The above curves are plotted from the resul;>. given in TaMe I. 

through the conductor at any rate we liked, being limited 
only by the strength of our battery and the sensitiveness 
of_ our receiver. I may say that the current usually re- 
ceived would be 1000 times greater if we had no capacity 
but only the resistance to deal with.' 

As before stated, the cable has resistance ; the current 
therefore suffers attenuation. It also possesses capacity ; 
the signalling currents through it therefore suffer distor- 
tion. Before dealing with this distortion, I must refer 
you to the diagram of the signals as they are sent into the 
cable (Fig. 5) and received from it on the siphon recorder. 
You will notice that the signals, arranged to form thp 
alphabet in the cable code, are of varying lengths, being 
I, 2, 3, 4, and 5 times the length of the individual or 
shortest signal. Sending and receiving on this principle 
is electrically equivalent to working the cable with varying 
electrical frequencies of 6, 3, 2, &c., complete periods per 
second. 

1 I must here refe- to the fact that Mr. Heaviside twenty yeirs ago 
showed that by giving .series inductance to a cable we could grea 
our rapidity of sienalling. 

This will be understood from Table I. and Figs. 3 and 4 showi 
Unfortunately, we see no practical method of carrying out Mr. " 
suggestion, so that I must go on onsidering the submarine c 



III. Infin 
tortion. 

IV. Infinite cable. 0-4 h 
naut to give no distortion. 

(See Figs. 3 .ind 4 ) 

The lower the frequency the less the capacity affects the 
current, so that the higher frequencies of b and 3 a second 
are more attenuated than those of 2 and less. The signals 
that form the letters in the alphabet are differentially 
attenuated ; the quicker signals, such as those forming a 
C, are much weaker when they arrive to operate the 
receiving instrument than the slower signals that form the 
letters M, O, and so on for the other and longer signals. 

Submarine cable signalling of the present day affords us 
an electrical illustration of the fable of " the tortoise 
and the hare " or the principle of " more haste, less 
speed." 

.As the slower signals get through the cable with more 
vigour than is necessary, the ingenuity of experimenters is 
to retard them and to assist as much as possible the 
quicker ones so that all the signals, whatever their period, 
shall arrive with exactly the same strength. 

Cromwell Varley in 1862 patented a system for the re- 
duction of distortion on cables by inserting condensers of 
suitable capacity in series with the conductor at each end 
of the cable. 

The reason for the abolition of distortion is obvious ; 
the condenser absorbs the signals of slow frequency, while 
the cable transmits them. The condenser allows the 
signals of high frequency to pass through it, although the 
cable has attenuated them. It is therefore possible so to 
arrange the condensers at each end of the line that the 
condensers and the cable together will more or less correct 
one another and the distortion be reduced. 

Unfortunately, the absorption of a series condenser is 
relative, and is inversely proportional to the frequency ; it 
absorbs more of the slow than the quick signals ; at the 
same time it does absorb some of the quick, and so far 
as that is concerned it is harmful ; it diminishes distortion, 
but at the same time it adds to the attenuation. 



-OATVl/Vn^^. WS^^—^-^ 



allv 



NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



v^- 



Now " distortion " means something more than the 
differential transmission of various electrical frequencies ; 
it also means the " phase relation " of the current to the 
voltage, and this " phase relation " varies with the various 
frequencies, so you see that " distortion," looked at from 



July 7. 1910] 



NATURE 



25 



all sides, is rather a complicated phenomenon. By " phase 
relation " we mean the position of the current with regard 
to the voltage producing it. To understand what " phase 
relation " means, let us take the analogy of a pendulum 
in motion. 

The force keeping the pendulum swinging is a maxi- 
mum at the end of each swing, while the greatest velocity 
resulting from this force is at the middle of the swing ; 
obviously the times of greatest speed and greatest force 
are not coincident ; the one is out of phase with the other 
by what mathematicians would determine, in the case of 
the pendulum, as 90°, or a quarter period. 

Now the current leads the voltage at the sending end of 
the cable by 45°. If a series condenser is introduced to 
diminish distortion, it still further increases the lead, and 
reduces the effective power into the cable. The effective 
power can only be a maximum when the current and 
voltage are exactly in step, or in ether words, when there 
is no " phase relation." 

A receiving condenser is also harmful for the same 
reason as a sending condenser. By abolishing the sending 
condenser and replacing the receiving one by a magnetic 
shunt placed across the suspended coil of the siphon re- 
corder or relay in 1898, the speed and accuracy of signal- 
ling were materially increased. 

A magnetic shunt, as employed on the cables, consists 
of an insulated copper wire wound round a closed circuited 
iron core. The resistance of the shunt is about 30 ohms ; 
its inductance varies up to a maximum of from 20 to 40 
henrys, and its weight from 1 to 3 cwt. In the case of 
a siphon recorder used as the receiver, the shunt short- 
circuits the suspended coil and the series condenser is 
abolished. In the case of a cable relay, the series con- 
denser is usually retained, to ensure that earth currents 
are effectually stopped, but the condenser is made large. 

.A shunt inductance has a similar time action on the in- 
coming current to that of a series condenser, but with this 
improvement — that it helps to reduce the phase distortion 
of current with voltage rather than accentuate it, as is 
the case with the condenser. 

Having obtained the best value of the shunt alone, the 
following curious effect was discovered : that adding a 
condenser as an additional shunt, the size of the signals 
on the recorder got larger and more distinct. The mathe- 
matical reason for this is as follows : that for any par- 
ticular frequency, say the highest frequency of the cable 
signalling, the shunts of inductance and capacity when 
properly proportioned act as a shunt of infinite resistance. 
For frequencies much below this it is as if we had no 
condenser at all. For frequencies much above this, it is 
as if we had no inductance, but only a condenser. 

To reduce still further the harmful effect of phase dis- 
placement, series inductances have latelv been introduced 
at the ends of cables, particularly at the sending end. By 
placing an inductive coil of low resistance in series with 
the battery at the apex of the duplex bridge, not only has 
the speed of signalling been increased, but the effect of 
what is known as " jar " on the duplex balance has also 
been greatly reduced. 

Before proceeding to describe the instruments that work 
the cables, I will say a few words about "duplexing." 
All cables are now duplexed, that is to say, are arranged 
so that messages can be sent and received, at the same 
time, at each end simultaneously. The first cables were 
duplexed by Stearns, and later ones by Muirhead and 
Taylor. Duplex reduces the speed of simplex, or of work- 
ing one way only, by 20 per cent., but the total carrying 
power of the cable, irrespective of direction, is raised by 
some 70 per cent., and is for this reason valuable, and 
repays the trouble in maintaining the balance. 
_ Cables are duplexed by arranging an artificial or imita- 
tion cable, which is an exact electrical copy of the real, 
in parallel with the real cable. The current from the 
sending battery flows through two equal arms of capacity 
or inductance of a Wheatstone bridge arrangement and 
into the real and artificial cables. 

The inductive or magnetic bridge which I have applied 
lately is, I think, the best to emplov, because it gives in 
practice higher speeds than any other form of 'bridge. 
The receiving instrument is joined to the commencement 
of the cables, and is thus not interfered with bv the send- 



NO. 



2123, VOL. 84] 



ing currents, because there is no tendency for the current 
to flow one way or the other, the real and artificial cables 
having exactly the same electrical properties and acting 
on the sending current in the same way ; but the current 
that is received flows only from the real cable, and is not 
balanced by any from the artificial, so that the receiving 
instrument is worked by it. 

When duplex is properly adjusted it is said to be in 
balance, from its similarity to the adjustment of an 
ordinary balance used for weighing goods. Take the 
ordinary balance as an illustration of the electrical one. 
Let one scale-pan represent the cable, the other the 
artificial ; if equal weights are placed in each pan the 
beam will not turn, but the beam will turn if, while equal 
weights are or are not in the pan, a small weight is added 
or placed on one pan. 

In the cable " duplex," the receiving instrument will 
not be affected by the sending current, because the voltage 
is always the same on each side of the instrument, but 
will turn to indicate a signal when a voltage is received 
or is added to or subtracted from the voltage already on 
the cable side, due to a voltage being applied to the cable 
at the far end. 

In Fig. 6 is shown the simplest diagram of a cable 
"duplex," and Fig. 7 illustrates its mechanical equivalent; 
the lettering is similarly related. 





ns of the balance 
difference of voltage 

the pan ; C and AL a 
pans of the balance. 



If the battery B sends equal currents into cable and 
artificial line, as it should do if there is a perfect balance, 
no current will flow through S, and thus the receiver S 
is unaffected by the sending voltage ; or, if the pans of 
the balance have equal weights B placed on them, the 
indicator S will not move. On the contrary, if a voltage 
is received from the cable C, this voltage is added to or 
subtracted from whatever voltage may be in C at the 
time, due to the sending battery, and thus there will be 
a difference of potential across S, and the receiving instru- 
ment will be worked from currents sent from the far end 
of the cable, and from these currents only. 

In the mechanical analogy a small weight W is added 
to or taken from one of two equal weights in the pans C 
and .AL, and the beam will be tilted and will be moved by 
this weight only however the weights B B are varied. 

The voltage of the battery as applied to the sending end 
of a cable is very much greater than that received from 
the cable to work the instrument, say in the relation of 
40 volts to 1/20 volt in the case of a moderately long 
cable, or as 800 is to i, and the sending and received 
currents resulting from the same follow a similar propor- 
tion. 

In the mechanical illustration I have therefore indicated 
the weights B and W as squares having this proportion to 
give a visual indication of what this means in the balance. 
The proportion I have given is only the relation of the 
sending voltage to that received. If the balance were out 



26 



NATURE 



[July 7, 19 10 



to this proportion, the sending voltage would affect the 
receiver with disturbances equal in size to those due to 
the receiving voltage ; the duplex would then be very badly 
indeed out of balance. 

To receive properly, the sending voltage must produce 
no movement of the receiver whatever; that is to say, 
any disturbance due to this cause must certainly be less 
than one-tenth of that due to the arrival current. 

Taking the figures I have given, we see that the balance 
must be obtained and maintained so that, applying 40 volts 
to the cable and artificial line, the two currents dividing 
must not vary more than what will produce 1/200 volt; 
that is, must be balanced to an accuracy of 8000 to i. 

If, after the duplex has been established, the artificial 
line varies in its electrical properties as much as 1/8000 
of its value, the balance would require adjustment so as 
to keep it useful for receiving. The sensitiveness under 
these conditions may be considered as equivalent to the 
sensitiveness of an ordinary metal balance that with 
8 grams in each pan must turn accurately with i milli- 
gram. 

It is now found necessary to maintain still more perfect 
balances for my new method of " high-speed working of 
cables"; in fact, a balance that must be maintained to 
within the proportion of 72,000 to i. To do this, the very 
greatest care has to be directed to questions of insulation 
and temperature correction, and special appliances are sup- 
plied to obtain this high degree of accuracy. In fact, 
the future of " high-speed working of cables " is locked 
up very much with this question of more delicate and 
accurate balances ; and if still more perfect balances could 
be obtained, still higher working speeds of cables would 
immediately be possible. 

I now come to the instruments employed to work the 
cables, starting with the sending end. As before pointed 
out, the various letters of the cable alphabet are com- 
posed of combinations of -(- and - electrical impulses, 
or of the records that these impulses produce. The letter 
e is a -J- impulse, t 3. — one ; a is composed of two 
impulses, a -\- and -, and so on for all the other letters. 
The operator has, therefore, first to translate the message 
to be sent into the cable code, and then to tap on the 
sending-key the order of the impulses that make up the 
code message. A sending-key consists of two levers ; the 
depression by the finger of either one or the other deter- 
mines which end of the battery, the -t- or - end, is joined 
to the cable. 

Sending messages by hand is open to two objections : 
one the want of speed, the other the want of accurate 
spacing of the letters. A good trained clerk can send at 
the rate of about 140 letters per minute ; but as most 
cables are capable of being worked at greater speeds, auto- 
matic or machine transmission has now become universal. 

An automatic transmitter is an instrument that does 
the work of the clerk in sending; the two levers of the 
hand key are now operated upon by mechanism driven by 
a motor, through the agency of a perforated ribbon. 
Lveryone who is acquainted with the pianola or auto- 
matic piano-player knows that the music to be played is 
punched as holes in a broad paper strip; this strip is run 
through the machine, and determines which levers are to 
press upon the keys of the piano. 

The operation of the automatic transmitter is precisely 
like this, only instead of the extended keyboard there are 
two keys, a -|- and -, and the paper strip is a narrow 
ribbon with only two rows of holes to work the levers. 

To send a message, the clerk first of all, bv mearis of 
a hand perforator, punches the message as combinations of 
holes in the paper ribbon ; this ribbon, after being per- 
forated, is fed through the automatic transmitter. 

The automatic transmitter is a motor-driven instru- 
ment, adapted to feed the perforated ribbon over the ends 
of a pair of blunt needles. These needles are kept per- 
petually moving up against and away from the moving 
ribbon, but if there is a hole in the paper, that particular 
needle over which it is fed will find it, and the needle 
will move a little way through the hole. Attached to the 
two needles are contact levers which connect the cable 
with one or the other pole of the Sending battery. 

When there are no holes in the paper ribbon, "the needles 
move up against the paper, the further movement is 



NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



arrested, and the contact with the battery is not closed, 
but the battery circuit is closed when there is a hole in 
the paper, because there is nothing now to block the 
needle, and the further movement through the hole enables 
the contact lever to close the battery circuit and thus send 
the signal. 

The sending levers do one or other of two things : they 
join the cable to earth (in other words, they short-circuit 
the cable end) or they disconnect the cable from earth and 
connect it to the battery, so that the battery may send a 
signal. At the end of each signal the cable is automatic- 
ally put to " earth." 

Every signalling impulse due to each hole in the paper 
is, therefore, divided into two parts, the battery or 
signalling and the earthing portion. These two portions 
are adjustable relatively to one another ; when the best 
relationship has been found, it is maintained at that adjust- 
ment. The object of earthing the cable after the battery 
contact is to allow the cable to discharge itself, and thus 
clear itself for the ne.xt signal. Automatic transmitters 
constructed on this principle are called " plain " auto- 
matics, and are in universal use. 

The " curb " was a device applied to an automatic trans- 
mitter to sharpen the signalling impulse, and thus gain 
greater definition and increased speed by reversing the. 
battery at the termination of every battery period. The 
reverse battery voltage helped to neutralise the charge , 
already in the cable, and thus discharge the cable in 
quicker time than by simply earthing the cable, as in the 
" plain " automatic. 

Unfortunately, the use of the " curb " results in a 
greater voltage stress on the sending end of the cable, for 
the reason that the reverse voltage of the " curb " is 
added to the voltage already in the cable ready to dis- 
charge, and the rapid reversal of current resulting upon 
the application of the " curb " is liable to cause " jar " 
disturbances on the duplex balance. For these reasons 
" curb " automatics are not now employed. 

Instruments adapted to receive messages at the end of 
long submarine cables must of necessity work at the 
highest possible speed that the cable will allow, and are 
of extreme sensitiveness, and as a consequence are of great 
delicacy. 

There are two kinds of receivers now commonly 
employed, viz. the siphon recorder and the " drum " cable 
relay. The siphon recorder, invented by Lord Kelvin in 
1867, is an instrument that inks the message as received 
on a moving band of paper. The " drum " cable relay, 
by means of an electric contact-making device, brings in a 
fresh source of energy from a local battery, so that the 
electric signalling impulses are multiplied many times over 
in power, and are thus enabled to do many useful things 
besides inking the message, such as working signalling 
keys to re-transmit the message on to another line, or to 
guide the levers of an automatic punching machine to 
perforate the message. The siphon recorder requires the 
constant attention of a clerk, the " drum " cable relay 
does not. 

The siphon recorder consists of a bent glass siphon tube 
nearly as fine as a human hair. The siphon is suspended 
by a fine bronze wire; one end of the tube dips in a 
reservoir of blue aniline ink, the other end can move 
across the surface of a travelling band of paper, upon 
which it inks its movement. If the end of the siphon 
touched the paper, the friction thus introduced would be 
fatal to the proper working of the instrument, because of 
the loss of sensitiveness ; it is therefore kept in a state of 
constant vibration by attaching the tube near its end by 
means of a silk fibre to an electromagnetic vibrator. The 
message is thus recorded as a close row of ink dots on 
the moving paper, and the glass tube is quite free to- 
swing sideways under the action of the received signals. 

The siphon tube is joined by two silk fibres to a 
rectangular suspended coil of fine insulated copper wire, 
which coil hangs in a strong magnetic field. The currents 
from the cable flow through the wire of the suspended 
coil, and the reaction of these currents with the magnetic 
field causes the coil to oscillate to one side or the other, 
depending upon the direction of the current. The motion 
of the coil is transmitted by means of the two fibres to 
the siphon, and thus the signals are recorded as received. 



July 7, 19 10] 



NATURE 



27 



Ever since the invention of tlie siphon recorder, efforts 
have been made to turn it into a relay, but two difficulties 
had to be faced. The extreme feebleness of the received 
signalling currents was such that they were incapable of 
opening and closing a battery circuit so as to do useful 
work in that circuit. 

The reason for this is that a certain force is required 
to press the relay contacts together to complete the circuit 
and a certain force to break the circuit when formed ; 
these forces of " make " and " break " are too great for 
the cable relay to supply under normal working conditions. 
^ The second difficulty was the want of definition in the 
signals received to operate a relay ; they were too ill- 
defined, and the zero line wandered too greatly to ensure 
that a relay with a fixed mechanical zero would work 
satisfactorily. 

These two difficulties were overcome by the invention of 
my '■ drum " cable relay and my magnetic shunt. The 
drum cable relay (Fig. 8) is very similar to the siphon re- 
cordpr. It Is the same, so far as the suspended coil and 
connecting fibres are concerned, but in place of the siphon 
tube a relay contact arm is provided. 

The end of this arm is arranged to press upon the 
surface of a revolving drum. The outer drum surface of 
gold or silver is divided into three parts : a central insu- 
lated portion, upon which the end of the contact arm 
normally rests when no signals are received, and portions 
one on each side of the central one. These outer divisions 
are included in the circuit of a local batterv and 
two post-office pattern relays. 

When the relay arm is deflected to one side or 
the other, upon the receipt of the signal, it slides 
or skates into contact with one or other of the 
outer portions of the drum, and thus closes circu't 
of the battery through one or other of the post- 
office relays; this second relay is thus operated, 
and in turn works a " sounder " key to re-trans- 
mit the signal into a second cable. 

To reduce the electrical resistance that is found 
to exist in the contact botwcen the relay pointer 
and the revolving drum, and to allow a largf 
current to pass, condensers are placed across to ^ 

short-circuit the contact. 

These short-circuiting condensers are verv 
important to the proper working of the relay, as 
without their aid very little current indeed could 
be obtained in the local circuit to do useful work. 
The cable relay is a delicate instrument, and 
mechanical effects had to be produced by means 
of energy four-millionths of that required to 
produce one candle-power of an ordinary carbon 
lamp. The operation of the relay throughout 
is quite automatic and trustworthy, and no clerk 
is required to supervise. 

The drum relay has two properties that peculiarly 
fit it for cable work : — (i) the relay contact is always made, 
because the contact arm ne\'er leaves the surface of the 
drum ; (2) by the rotation of the drum, the friction between 
the arm, to side motion, and the surface of the drum is 
reduced in a most wonderful way, so that the arm may be 
moved by the extremely feeble forces received at the end 
of the cables. 

The relay has a fixed mechanical zero, the centre of 
the insulated portion, to which the end of the arm must 
return after every signal or group of signals, and the zero 
of the electrical signals has been made by electrical adjust- 
ment to coincide with the mechanical zero. If there were 
not this coincidence there would be mutilation of the re- 
transmitted signals. 

The working of the relay is complicated by the require- 
ments of the service, which demand that a condenser should 
be included in the suspended coil circuit. The object of 
this condenser is to exclude the possibility of interference 
from " earth " currents, which sometimes flow along the 
caole. 

The presence of the " earth " current is due to outside 
electrical influences, atmospheric or celestial. 

Now these " earth " currents, if allowed to flow through 
the suspended coil, would produce deflections that would 
interfere with the proper working of the relay. 

The magnetic shunt which is always placed across the 
coil does shunt the " earth " current to a verv great 



extent, but does not always get rid of it, and so to make 
matters sure the " unshunted " series or Varley condenser 
is included in the system. 

The condenser, unfortunately, polarises or charges up 
under a series of signalling impulses of the same polarity 
or sign, and for this reason itself causes a wandering of 
the electrical zero of the signals. We are therefore trying 
to stop one kind of variable zero effect by a device that 
produces another one of its own. 

The effect of the wandering zero due to the series con- 
denser can be cured, because the wandering, unlike that of 
the " earth " currents, follows a regular law, viz. the law 
of the signals themselves. The relay produces the signals 
and combination of signals in its local circuit, precisely 
the same as the signals or combination sent through the 
cable that work it, and are at the same time causing the 
variable zero. Current is therefore taken from the local 
circuit and passed through an electrical retarding device, 
which is called the " local correction circuit," consisting 
of a series of inductances and shunting resistances. The 
local circuit is so adjusted in its value that the current at 
the far end rises exactly as there is a drop in the received 
signalling current through the series condenser. 

The correction current is passed through a separate 
winding on the suspended coil of the relay, and produces 
an effect on the coil exactly opposite to that produced on 
the main winding by the variable zero itself, that is to 
say, two variable zeros of equal strength but of opposite 




directions are superimposed on the suspended coil, and 
thus neutralise one another. The variable zero of the 
signals themselves is thus eliminated. 

Local correction is a very important part of the relay 
adjustment, and cannot very well be dispensed with. 

The Eastern Telegraph Company generously lent me 
their lines for a trial of my " high-speed " system of 
working. The cable over which the tests have taken place 
stretches from Porthcurnow in Cornwall to Gibraltar, and 
is normally worked at 170 letters per minute, each way, 
with the siphon recorder as receiver. With the new 
method, using a special relay (Fig. 9), traffic has been 
carried continuously, duplex, at 230 letters per minute. 
On special trial runs, not carrying traffic, and not sending 
into the cable at the receiving station, although on duplex 
conditions, a speed of 2.80 letters per minute has been 
obtained. 

The principle of operation is as follows. When a sub- 
marine cable is forced much beyond its normal speed of 
working, the quick-changing signals, such as make up 
the letter c, are the first to fail, or in other words, 
do not arrive with sufficient strength to work the 
receiver. 

It was found on trial that allowing more of the current 
from the cable to flow through the receiver, say by in- 
creasing the size of the receiving condenser, the first and 



NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



NATURE 



[July 7, 1910 



last signal of a series of reversals could be obtained with 
sufficient strength efficiently to work the relay. 

The relay, once started, is arranged to bring in fresh 
energy from its local battery, through a special retarding 
circuit, to add to the strength of the quick-changing 
currents, on its own coil, and thus the reversals are made 
strong enough to give a record, which without this aid 
they would have been unable to do. 

By these means weak signals are built up at the receiv- 
ing end of the cable, and the speed of working can thus 
be materially increased. 

It is fortunate that the class of signal that has the 
greatest difficulty in getting through the cable is the 




F)G g.-Hisli-!pee.! Rd.iy(-ide yieiv; 
Rtructed of quartz fibres kept in te 

wire, the whole weight of the poirjter being not more ihan 
one or two grains. 

easiest to be added to when received. The " high-speed " 
relay works, therefore, not from the signals received from 
the cable only, but also from those that it transmits through 
its own local circuit, the record that it makes being the 
combined action of the two.' 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 

Dublin. — Mr. M. W. J. Fry has been appointed pro- 
fessor of natural philosophy at Trinity College. 

Liverpool. — Mr. E. C. C. Baly, F.R.S., assistant pro- 
fessor of cheinistry and lecturer on spectroscopy at Uni- 
versity College, London, has been appointed Grant pro- 
fessor of chemistry at the University of Liverpool in 
succession to the late Prof. Campbell Brown. 

London. — Miss H. L. M. Pixell, demonstrator in zoo- 
logy at the Bedford College for Women, has been 
elected by the Reid trustees to a Reid fellowship, tenable 
for two years. Miss Pixell proposes to spend some months 
next year in Vancouver, investigating the marine fauna of 
the Georgian Straits. 

Oxford. — Mr. R. R. Marett, secretary to the committee 
for anthropology, has been appointed reader in social 
anthropology. 

Mr. C. H. Manley has been elected to a Bracegirdle 
exhibition, following on an examination in cheinistry. The 
exhibition is tenable for three years. 

The honorary degree of Doctor of Science has been con- 
ferred upon Sir John Murray, K.C.B., F.R.S., bv Harvard 
University. 

A PROFESSORSHIP of Commercial geography has recently 
been established at the E.xport-Aka'demie of the Imperia'l 
Austrian Handelsmuseum at Vienna, and Dr. F. Hiederich 
has been appointed the first holder of the chair. 

: of my acqnaintance lells me lh.lt 1 ought tn put thing? 
nt arrives loo we.ik to make .t signal, but all 
ishes to make a signal, the hint is recognised, 



1 this way. .\ fluti 
can do is/iM/ A, hint th<t 
nd the local battery makes 



NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



Dr. a. C. Crawford has been appointed professor of 
pharmacology at Stanford University, and Prof. G. H. Cox 
has been placed in charge of the department of geology 
and mineralogy at the Missouri School of Mines, Prof. 
L. S. Griswold having vacated the chair of geology at 
that institution. 

The United Services' College at Windsor possesses an 
aviation workshop, built and furnished by Mr. P. 
.Alexander, in wliich instruction is given in the making of 
model aeroplanes. Hitherto the use of the workshop made 
by the students has been voluntary, but in the next term 
aviation is to be made a special subject of instruction. 

.An annual prize (to be known as the " Howard T. 
Ricketts prize ") has been established at Rush Medical 
College, of the University of Chicago, in memory of Dr. 
H. T. Ricketts, who recently died in Mexico of typhus 
fever while investigating that disease. The prize will be 
awarded to the student presenting the best thesis embody- 
ing the results of original investigation on some topic 
relating to dermatology. 

In continuation of the successful evening courses in 
aeronautics at the Northampton Polytechnic Institute, 
Clerkenwell, during the session 1909-10, extended courses 
of a more complete and practical nature are being arranged 
for next session, and Mr. F. Handley Page has been 
appointed to take charge of them. The institute has under 
consideration the establishment of full-time day courses in 
aeronautical engineering extending over four years, further 
particulars of which will be published later. 

The model for the memorial in the Medical School of 
Trinity College, Dublin, to the late Prof. D. J. Cunning- 
ham, F.R.S., is now completed, and the bronze portrait 
panel will, it is hoped, be placed in position by the time 
of the opening of the school for the coming winter session. 
.As it is proposed shortly to close the subscription list, i,t 
is hoped that friends and pupils of Prof. Cunningham who 
desire to contribute will communicate with the honorary 
treasurer or honorary secretaries of the Cunningham 
Memorial Fund, Trinity College, at an early date. 

The Essex Education Committee has arranged for a 
twelve days' visit (ranging from July 14 to 26) of agri- 
culturists and horticulturists to Ireland. The programme 
is a comprehensive one, and will afford the party oppor- 
tunities of seeing the organisation and practice of agri- 
culture and horticulture on farms and holdings varying in 
size from four or five up to three hundred and fifty acres ; 
also of studying the schemes of instruction and agricultural 
institutions of the Department of Agriculture, the work of 
the Congested Districts Board, and the Irish .Agricultural 
Organisation Society. This is the first time the Essex 
Education Committee has organised a visit to Ireland, but 
successful tours in Deninark, Holland, Hungary, and Scot- 
land have been undertaken under its auspices in recent 
years. 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies has selected 
Dr. Joseph Pearson as director of the museum at Colombo, 
Ceylon, in succession to Dr. Arthur Willey, now appointed 
professor of zoology at McGill University, Montreal. Dr. 
Pearson has for some years held the post of chief demon- 
strator and assistant lecturer in the zoological department 
of the University of Liverpool, and previous to that he 
had held appointments on the zoological staffs at Cardiff 
and at Belfast. His original work has been chiefly in 
marine biology, including several reports upon Holo- 
thuroidea of tropical seas, and an exhaustive memoir upon 
Cancer, the edible crab. Dr. Pearson's removal has 
created a vacancy in the zoological staff at the University 
of Liverpool which will be filled by the appointment of 
Mr. R. Douglas Laurie as senior demonstrator and assistant 
lecturer, while Dr. W. J. Dakin will join the staff as 
second demonstrator. 

E.\RLY in the present .year University College, Reading, 
appointed a deputation to visit certain universities of 
Canada and of the United States with the object of in- 
vestigating methods of agricultural education and research, 
and also other aspects of university development. The 
deputation left England on May 6, and was absent six 
weeks. The tour included the McGill University at 
Montreal, the Macdonald College, St. .Anne de Belle Vue, 



July 7, 1910] 



NATURE 



the State Experimental Farm at Ottawa, the University 
of Toronto, the Ontario College of Agriculture at Guelph, 
Cornell University, Wisconsin University, and Harvard 
University. In each case the members of the deputation 
made it their principal object to acquaint themselves with 
the agricultural activities of the institution visited, and 
their work was greatly facilitated by the cordial assistance 
of the Government and other authorities both in Canada 
and in the United States. It is hoped to publish a report 
during the course of the ensuing autumn containing the 
substance of the information gained and emphasising 
certain conclusions. 

The igio report of the council of the City and Guilds 
of London Institute to the members of the institute is 
now available. As usual, full particulars are provided of 
the work done during the previous year at the Central 
Technical College, the Finsbury Technical College, the 
other schools and colleges in connection with the institute, 
and the department of technology. In the section of the 
report dealing with the department of technology, it is 
pointed out that the preliminary education of candidates 
who enter technical classes is evidently very often the 
reverse of satisfactory. It was noted in the last report 
that the institute, in conjunction with the Board of Educa- 
tion, was taking active steps to encourage the attendance 
of young persons engaged in different trades at evening 
continuation classes, with the view of their acquiring a 
competent knowledge of English, arithmetic, drawing, and 
elementary science before entering upon their first year's 
course of training in technology. The committee regrets, 
however, to state that it has been found very difficult to 
enforce the regulations introduced in 1908, by which, in 
certain textile subjects, students of registered classes In 
technology were only to be admitted to the first year's 
examination on satisfying the institute that they possessed 
t!ie necessary preliminary knowledge. Notwithstanding the 
growth of group courses and the increased facilities for the 
altendance of students at evening continuation classes, it 
has not been found possible to insist on evidence of attend- 
ance at continuation classes prior to the admission of 
students to a technical school. It has proved necessary 
to decide that the full enforcement of the regulations in 
question should be postponed until igi2. Commenting on 
the results of the examinations conducted throughout the 
country by the institute, the report says the Independent 
criticisms from examiners in wholly distinct subjects show 
that many teachers, while undoubtedly using their best 
efforts to acquaint the students with the technical details 
of their trade, fail to obtain good results owing to their 
giving instruction on wrong lines, paying too much atten- 
tion to description and too little to the theory of the sub- 
ject and to the principles underlying the work in which 
they are engaged. This may be partially due to lack of 
experience in teaching and failure to realise the difficulties 
of their students. The institute concurs in a suggestion 
made by its inspectors that if the education authority 
could send a comparatively inexperienced teacher to visit 
some of the schools at which successful classes are con- 
ducted and see their methods of work, such a visit would 
amply repay its cost. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
London. 
Geological Society, lime 15. — Pr^r. W. W. Waits, 
F.R.S., president, in the" chair. — Dr. W. Cross: The 
natural classification of igneous rocks. The author re- 
viewed the various systems of classification which have 
been proposed. He discussed the origin of the difference 
of composition of igneous rocks due to : — (i) primaeval 
difference, (2) magmatic differentiation, {3) assimilation, 
and pointed out that differentiation and assimilation are 
in a measure antithetical processes. The following general 
conclusions were formulated : — The scientific logical classi- 
fication of igneous rocks must apparently be based on the 
quantitative developnient of fundamental characters, and 
the divisions of the scheme must have sharp artificial 
boundaries, since none exist in nature. Chemical composi- 
tion is the fundamental character of igneous rocks, but it 
may be advantageously expressed for classificatory pur- 

NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



poses in terms of simple compounds, which represent either 
rock-making minerals or molecules entering into iso- 
morphous mixtures in known minerals. It is probable 
that the magmatic solution consists of such molecules, 
and that the norm of the " quantitative system " is a 
fairly representative set of these compounds. The actual 
mineral and textural characters of igneous rocks are 
variable qualifiers of each chemical unit, and should be 
applied as such to terms indicating magmatic character. 
— H. Bury : The denudation of the western end of the 
Weald. There are two main theories of Wealden denuda- 
tion : — (i) attributing the removal of most of the Chalk 
to marine planation ; and (2) denying planation, and rely- 
ing solely on subaerial denudation. Prof. W. M. Davis's 
suggestion of a subaeria! peneplain forms a sort of con- 
necting link between the two. The evidence in favour of 
planation whiclj Ramsay and Topley brought forward is 
inconclusive, and might plausibly, if it stood alone, be 
attributed to pre-Eocene causes. On the other hand, 
I'restwich's arguments against planation are equally weak, 
while the Chalk plateau to which he directs attention 
strongly supports Ramsay's views. The distribution of 
chert is fatal to Prof. Davis's hypothesis, and very 
difficult to account for, except on the marine theory. In 
the case of the river Blackwater it can be proved that, 
long after the Hythe beds of Hindhead were uncovered, 
the river-system remained extremely immature, and this 
affords very strong grounds for the acceptance of the 
marine hypothesis. The evidence of the other western 
rivers is less conclusive, though the Wey and the Mo'e 
both provide minor arguments pointing in the same direc- 
tion. The anomalous position of the Arun, at the foot of 
the northern escarpment of the Lower Greensand on 
either side of the Wey, is almost certainly due to com- 
paratively recent captures from the latter river, and affords 
no ground for assuming a river-system of great age 
matured on a Miocene peninsula. There is no proof that 
anv of the existing connections between rivers and longi- 
tudinal folds are of a primitive character, and, on the 
other hand, there are many alleged examples of transverse 
disturbances having served as guides to consequent rivers. 
This again, on the whole, supports the marine hypothesis, 
especially if, as there are reasons for believing, the longi- 
tudinal folds are older than the transverse. — Dr. J. W. 
Evans ; .^n earthquake model. This model is designed to 
show the successive conditions that result in an earth- 
quake shock : — (i) slow relative movement between two 
extensive portions of the earth's crust lasting over a long 
period, and causing (2) a state of strain in the intervening 
tract, leading to (3) fracture which relieves the strain and 
allows (4) the adjoining portions of the rock on either 
side to fly back by virtue of their elasticity,^ so as to 
resume, so far as possible, their original relation to the 
rock-masses with which they are still connected. This 
movement of release may give rise to two kinds of periodic 
disturbance : (5) short-period vibrations, due to a sudden 
arrest by an obstacle and constituting the earthquake 
properly so called, and (6) a slower backward and forward 
swing of the rock about the position of equilibrium. 

Royal Microscopical Society, June 75.— Prof. J. Ar'hui 
Thomson, president, in the chair.— Prof. J. -'\rthur 
Thomson: Some alcyonarians collected by Mr. J. Murray, 
of Sir E. Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition. The species, 
of which there were four, were Clavularia rosea, Studer, 
C. chiini, Kiikenthal, Alcyonium paessleri, May, and 
Ceratoises delicatula, Hickson.— E. M. Nelson : Apparatus 
for increasing the power of an achromatic condenser.— 
E. B. Stringer : The use of the mercury vapour lamp m 
observing the rings and brushes in crystals. 

Linnean Society. Tune i6.-Dr. D. H. Scott. F.R S., 
president, in the chair.— Dr. R. N. Salaman : Male 
sterility in potatoes, a dominant Mendehan character, with 
remarks on the shape of the pollen in wild and domestic 
varieties. The paper was based upon experiments made by 
the author in his own garden at Barley, near Royston, 
Herts, during the past four years ; but on this occasion 
the author confined his remarks to the pollen, leaving other 
points for some future occasion. He pointed out that 
"dead" pollen-grains, or none, were usually associated 
with flowers of heliotrope colour. 



^o 



WATURE 



[July 7, 1910 



Royal Anthropological Institute, June 28 — Sr II. 
Risley, president, in tlie chair. — \V. J. Lewis Abbott : 
'X'he classification of the British Stone age, and some new 
and little l^nown horizons and cultures. After pointing 
out that the implementiferous deposits have not always 
been laid down in an unbroken chronological sequence, so 
that the number of feet at which an implement is found 
above Ordnance Datum is not always enough in itself to 
determine its age, the author urged that none of the 
systems of classification which have been formulated upon 
the conditions which obtain on the Continent are applic- 
able in this country, where the conditions do not neces- 
sarily obtain. He suggested that nature in the first 
instance furnished man with the prototypes of his tools, 
and that subsequently he discovered new methods of work- 
ing flint, and these gave rise to new sets of shapes. In 
the author's opinion, therefore, these groups of implements, 
representing various cultures or industries, must enter as 
basal units in the classification. The author then went 
into details of two such industries, which he has named 
the Prestwichian and Ebbsfleetian respectively. Each of 
these is characterised by a set of special implements worked 
in a special manner. Although the author had been work- 
ing at this industry for many years, it was only recently 
that a large deposit of them was found ; this was at North- 
fleet, where Ihe deposit fills a hollow some si.x acres in 
extent. The principal implement of this industry is a 
large weapon, weighing sometimes as much as 7 lb., and 
resembling a gigantic spear-head. For this implement the 
author proposed the name Preslwich. The great peculiarity 
of this implement was that, when finished, another imple- 
ment was struck off it without impairing its efficacy. This 
latter the author has named after Sir John Evans. The 
author suggested that these may have been used as tallies 
in a bargain, as it seems clear that they were religiously 
kept. The implements occur in enormous numbers, and 
include large axes, with a rounded edge and triangular, 
heavy side choppers, spear-heads of peculiar type and of 
large size, and knives, many of which are more than a 
foot long. 

Edinburgh. 

Royal Society, June 6. — Prof. Hudson Beare, vice- 
president, in the chair. — Dr. R. A. Houston : Two rela- 
tions in magnetism. By a simple application of the two 
laws of thermodynamics, relations were established 
between each pair of the quantities, magnetic force, stress, 
and temperature. The chief novelty lay in the manner in 
which the relations were deduced. — A. D. Ross : A new 
method of differentiating between overlapping orders in 
mapping grating spectra. The method consisted in photo- 
graphing the Zeeman effect in the spectrum, a thin plate 
or lens of optically active quartz or other allogyric sub- 
stance being introduced between the source of light and 
the slit. The plane of polarisation of the components was 
thus rotated by amounts depending on the wave-length. 
Owing to the selective or polarising action of the grating 
itself, the intensity ratios between the components in 
triplets, quartets, &c., gave an indication of the approxi- 
mate wave-length. The method had been successfully 
applied to the mapping of spectra of certain rare elements. 
It greatly reduced the cost of the work, and might be ex- 
pected to reveal, incidentally, series among the spectrum 
lines. — Dr. H. Walker : The variation of Young's modulus 
under an electric current, part iii. In this continuation 
of previous papers a number of new results were given. 
In particular, the effect of increasing tension on the pheno- 
menon was investigated. The peculiar law of variation of 
Young's modulus under increasing currents, as shown in 
the cases of the four metals iron, nickel, copper, and 
platinum, gradually changed as the tension was increased, 
until, finally, all peculiarity vanished. — Prof. W. Peddie : 
Continuous and stable isothermal change of state. James 
Thomson's form of continuous isothermals was discussed, 
and was shown to be inapplicable below the triple point. 
For example, water free from ice-nuclei and vapour-nuclei 
must pass either to the solid or to the vapour state. If it 
follows the paths of Thomson's curves, two such paths 
must exist ; but no physical distinction remains to deter- 
mine which shall be selected. .'\ modification of Thom- 
son's form of isothermal was suggested, in which no un- 
stable part occurred. In the liquid state, under decreasing 
NO. 2123, VOL. 84] 



pressure, the volume would increase until, without change 
of density, a molecular re-arrangement would take place 
and the substance become solid. Under increasing pressure 
the volume of the solid would decrease until, by molecular 
re-arrangement, the vapour state would be reached. The 
applicability of this representation above the triple point, 
when solid does not exist, was shown to be complete. 
Calcutta. 
Asiatic ' Society of Bengal, June i. — Dr. L. L. 
Fermor : A Palaeolithic implement of manganese ore. 
The paper gives a description of a Palaeolithic implement 
which is unique in that it is made of manganese ore. — 
F. D. Ascoli : Rivers of Dacca district. The paper deals 
with the changes that have taken place in the courses of 
the rivers of the Dacca and Faridpur districts since the 
desertion by the Brahmaputra of its old channel north of 
Dacca. The author attributes the origin of these changes 
to the incursion of the Teesta into the Brahmaputra in 
17S7, and shows that the principal changes now going on 
are not, as Fergusson anticipated, in the Ganges at and 
above the confluence at Goalundo, but further to the south 
in the Rajnagur area. — D. Hooper : Medicinal lizards. 
The dried lizard sold in the bazaars of northern India is 
Scinctis mitranus, .Anderson, and not, as quoted by writers 
on Indian materia medica, Lacerta scincus, Linn. Refer- 
ences are given to the uses of this lizard in medicine, and 
to the use of other saurians in Europe and China. 



DIARY OF SOCIETIES. 

FRIDAY, July 8. 
Physical Society, at 5.— A Thermo-electric Balance for the Absolute 
Me.isurement of Radiation: Prof. H. L. Callendar, F.R.S.— The Con- 
vection of Heat from a Body cooled by a Stream of Fluid : Dr. Alexander 
Russell. — On Hysteresis Loops and Lissajous' Figures, and on the 
Energy wasted in a Hjsteresis Loop: Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S.— 
The Energy Relations of certain Detectors used in Wireless Telegraphy : 
Dr. W. H. Eccles. 



CONTENTS. PAGE 

The Laws of Heredity. Ky Sir W. T. Thiselton- 

Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S i 

The Metabolism of Marine Animals. By J. J. . . 5 

Smallpox and Vaccination in British India . . 5 
The Alternate. current Theory. By Prof. Gisbert 

Kapp 6 

Our Book Shelf 7 

Letters to the Editor : — 

Arthur's Round Table in Glamorgan. (IllustraleJ.) — 

Rev. John Griffith . . . . S 

Halley's Comet. (///»j/;a/f(^.)— Dr. James Moir . 9 
Earth-current Observations in Stockholm during the 
Transit of Halley's Comet on May 19. — D. Sten- 

quist and E. Petri . . 9 

Lcptocephaliis hyopyoroidcs and L. thoriaims. — Johs. 

Schmidt 9 

Static Charge in Bicycle Frame. — Robert S. Ball, 

jun- 9 

Marine Biological Photography. [lUiistrahd.) By 

Francis Ward .... ,10 

Some Extinct Vertebrate Animals from North 

America, (fllustiated.) By A. S. W , 12 

Experiments on Air Resistance. (U'il/i Diij^raii:.) 

By Dr. T. E. Stanton 13 

C. H. Grtville Williams, F.R.S. By A. H. C. . . . 14 

Notes . 14 

Our Astronomical Column : — 

Astronomical Occurrences in July 19 

Halley's Comet 19 

Ephemeris for Comet \<)\oa 19 

Photographs of Morehouse's Comet 19 

The Determination of Position near the Poles .... 19 

The Variation of Latitude 20 

New Canals and Lakes on Mars 20 

The International Congress at Eusseldorf ... 20 
The Tuberculosis Conference and Exhibition ... 22 
International Union for Cooperation in Solar Re- 
search 22 

Modern Submarine Telegraphy. {Illustrated.) By 

Sidney G. Brown 23 

University and Educational Intelligence 28 

Societies and Academies 29 

Diary of Societies 30 



NATURE 



31 



THURSDAY, JULY 14, 1910. 



TOTEMISM UNVEILED. 
Totetnism and Exogamy : a Treatise on Certain Early 
Forms of Superstition and Society. By Prof. J. G. 
Frazer. In four vols. Vol. i., xix + 579; vol. ii., 
ix + 640: vol. ii., ix + 583; vol. iv., v + 379; eight 
maps. (London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd., igio.) 
Price 2?. los. net the four vols. 

PROF. FR.AZER is a great artist as well as a 
great anthropologist. He works on a big scale ; 
no one in any department of research, not even Dar- 
win, has employed a wider induction of facts. No 
one, again, has dealt more conscientiously with each 
fact; however seemingly trivial, it is prepared with 
minute pains and cautious tests for its destiny as a 
slip to be placed under the anthropological microscope. 
He combines, so to speak, the merits of Tintoretto 
and Meissonier. What, then, we may ask, of the 
philosophical result, of the theory which should 
emerge from all this acreage of minute workmanship? 
In "Totemism and Exogamy" (so far the most 
voluminous of his anthropological treatises) he admits 
. — the passage is an interesting one — that he has 
"never hesitated either to frame theories which 
seemed to fit the facts, or to throw them away when 
thev ceased to do so ; rtiy aim in this and my other 
writings has not been to blow bubble hypotheses 
which glitter for a moment and are gone; it has been 
bv a wide collection and an exact classification of 
facts to lay a broad and solid foundation for the 
inductive studv of primitive man." 

To the mind of the truly scientific inquirer, the 
theory of a subject is a continuously modified machine, 
the object of, which is at once to sort the elements 
of a combination and to re-combine them, so that by 
a turn of the handle the observer can reproduce the 
original process in all or any of its parts. Such a 
machine onlv arrives at perfection after a long evolu- 
tion guided by the "method of trial." Prof. Frazer 
in anthropoloe'v, as Darwin in biology, is content to 
try new models, and to fit new parts, not with the 
meticulousness of static curatorship, but with the 
abandon of experimental genius. 

This method and its result are illustrated in a very 
perfect way bv that portion of the book which is 
concerned with totemism. This portion (if we may 
express our own belief at the risk of offending Prof. 
Frazer's characteristic modesty), is actually "The 
Complete Histor>' of Totemism, its Practice and its 
Theory, its Origin and its End." Commencing with 
a reprint of the first (1887) edition of "Totemism," a 
model of its kind, a brief and digested survey of the 
then known facts (and in its working hypotheses 
innocuous enough to serve as an introduction for the 
complete treatise), he next reproduces his first tentative 
theory in "The Origin of Totemism" (Fortnightly 
Review, 1899), namely, that the essence of it is the 
"external soul," as suggested in "The Golden 
Bough" of 1890, only to discard it, in the light of 
the remarkable discoveries made by Messrs. Spencer 
and Gillen in Central Australia, for another form, a 
system of magic, " designed to supply a community 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



with all the necessaries of life, and especially with 
the chief necessary of all, with food," a notable pic- 
ture of cooperation tinged with superstition. Next, 
in the reprint, "The Beginnings of Religion and 
Totemism Among the Australian Aborigines " {Fort- 
nightly Review, 1905 ; articles expanded from 
" Observations on Central Australian Totemism," in 
the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vol. 
xxviii., 1899), he reproduces his third hypothesis. 

As this, in the present writer's opinion, when com- 
pleted by the discoveries of Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, 
and fully expounded in vol. iv., is the final explanation 
of the mystery of totemism, and as even its author 
admits that "here at last we seem to find a complete 
and adequate explanation of the origin of totemism," 
it calls for detailed attention. In 1899, Messrs. 
Spencer and Gillen described the .Arunta and Kaitish 
method of determining the totem. 

"A person derives his totem neither from his father 
nor from his mother, but from the place where his 
mother first became aware that she was with child. 
Scattered all over the country are what Messrs. 
Spencer and Gillen call local totem centres, that is, 
spots where the souls of the dead are supposed^ to 
live awaiting reincarnation, each of these spots being 
haunted bv the spirits of people of one totem only ; 
and wherever a pregnant woman first feels the child 
in her womb, she thinks that a spirit of the nearest 
totem centre has entered into her, and accordingly 
the child will be of that local centre, whatever it may 
be. without any regard to the totem either of the 
father or of the mother." 

This Prof. Frazer terms conceptional totemism. 

" The theory on which it is based denies implicitly, 
and the natives themselves deny explicitly, that 
children are the fruit of the commerce of the sexes." 

He gives probable reasons for this apparently 
strange ignorance. 

Turning now to the summary and conclusion in 
vol. iv. of the present workj we read : — 

"Obviously, however, this theory of conception does 
not by itself' explain totemism. ... It stops short of 
doing so, by a single step. What a woman imagines 
to enter her bodv at conception is not an anirnal, a 
plant, a stone, or what not ; it is only the spirit of 
a human child which has an animal, a plant, a 
stone, or what not for its totem. . . . For the essence 
of totemism . . . consists in the identification of a 
man with a thing, whether an animal, a plant, or 
what not. . . . Absolutely primitive totemism _. . . 
ought to consist in nothing more or less than in a 
belief that women are impregnated without the help 
of men by something which enters their womb at the 
moment when they first feel it quickened." 

The "missing link" was found in the Banks' 
Islands by Dr. W. H. R. Rivers. Here the natives 
"identify themselves with certain animals or fruits 
and believe that they themselves partake of the quali- 
ties and character of these animals and fruits. . . . 
The reason they give for holding this belief and 
observing this conduct is that their mothers were 
impregnated bv the entrance into their wombs of 
spirit 'animals or spirit fruits, and that they them- 
selves are nothing but the particular animal or 
plant. . . ." 

The theory, as thus completed, "accounts for all the 
facts (of totemism) in a simple and natural manner." 

C 



32 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



Hence, as secondary results, the practice of abstaining 
from killing and eating the totem, and conversely of 
occasionally eating a little; the belief that men have 
a magical power over their totems, particularly that 
of multiplying them; the belief that people are 
descended from their totems, and that women some- 
times give birth to these animals or plants; the fact 
that people often confuse their ancestors with their 
totems; and, lastly, the fact that totems comprise 
an immense range of organic, physical, and artificial 
objects, the reason being 

" that there is nothing from the light of the sun or 
the moon or the stars down to the humblest imple- 
ment of domestic utility which may not have impressed 
a woman's fancy at the critical season and have been 
by her identified with the child in her womb." 

One great merit of the theory, it will be seen, lies 
in this — that it rests upon a psychical phenomenon 
of universal occurrence. In a very interesting section, 
the author connects the facts of totemism with the 
" longings," the envie, of pregnant women. The per- 
sistence of the belief and the difficulty of explaining 
away the physical results of "maternal impressions" 
on the offspring are most significant. As the author 
observes, if totemism existed to-day in England, the 
child of the lady who had a "longing" for rasp- 
berries, would, being marked with a raspberry, clearly 
outlined on the back of the neck, have had a rasp- 
berry for its totem. The possibilities latent in such 
world-wide ideas may explain, suggests the author, 
the remarkable preservation of clan type in clan 
exogamy. 

" The children of each clan take after their mothers 
or their fathers, as the case (that is, of residence) 
may be, according as the mental impressions made 
on pregnant women are derived mainly from their 
own clan or from the clan of their husband." 

We are glad to see that the author recognises, and 
continually emphasises, the primary independence of 
totemism and exogamy ; they " are fundamentallv 
distinct in origin and nature, though they have acci- 
dentally crossed and blended in many tribes." 
Throughout the book exogamy is treated as an acci- 
dental adjunct of totemism. Yet a complete explana- 
tion of its origin and evolution is attempted. In our 
opinion, this explanation is unconvincing. By a 
curious irony, J. F. Mclennan, the discoverer of both 
institutions, never essayed an explanation of totem- 
ism, but concentrated his mind on an explanation of 
exogamy, now shown conclusively to be erroneous. 
Prof. Frazer, on the other hand, found in totemism 
his first interest, and his explanation of it consti- 
tutes his greatest triumph, while in dealing with 
exogamy he seems to be engaged on a secondary 
problem. An excellent discussion of theories is fol- 
lowed by a comparison of the action of exogamy to 
that of scientific breeding. His account of the de- 
velopment of exogamy from an original prohibition 
of the "marriage" of brothers and sisters is masterly 
enough, and we are grateful for it. That the later 
prohibitions were deliberate we cannot doubt ; it is 
when he follows Messrs. Howitt, Spencer, and Gillen 
in asserting that the first dichotomy of the primitive 
group, for the prevention of brother-sister unions, into 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



two halves was also deliberate, that we feel unsatis- 
fied. He rests on an assumed and unexplained super- 
stition (as to the evil effects of incest) in the primi- 
tive mind. Nor does he explain how a group, how- 
ever small, could be divided into two. On what prin- 
ciple could it be done? Here he ignores Mr. J. J. 
Atkinson's theory of primal law. 

Nearly two thousand pages are occupied with an 
ethnographical survey of totemism, an invaluable 
compilation. The maps, including that of the dis- 
tribution of totemic peoples, are a new and useful 
feature. The notes and corrections bring the reprints 
up to date. A. E. Crawley. 



A THEORY OF PREHISTORIC RHODESIA. 
Prehistoric Rhodesia. By Richard N. Hall. Pp. 
xxviii + 88. (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1909.) 
Price I2S. 6d. net. 

MR. R. N. Hall, the South African excavator, is 
not very tolerant of criticism. He is up 
again, and running full tilt against Dr. Randall 
Maciver, who, in "Mediaeval Rhodesia," dared to try 
to demolish his prehistoric Semitic Zimbabwe theory. 
Whether Dr. Maciver was right in all his con- 
tentions as to the stratification of Zimbabwe, the 
Nankin china found in it, and so forth, cannot be 
decided until after he has replied to Mr. Hall's objec- 
tions as stated in this book. We have little doubt 
that his reply will finally dispose of these objections, 
which, of course, Mr. Hall was perfectly justified in 
advancing if he felt that Dr. Maciver had not handled 
the evidence rightly. It is, however, a pity that in 
doing this Mr. Hall allows a certain tone of bitter- 
ness to appear in his references to his antagonist. 

Mr. Hall is still dominated by the idea that he can 
find Semitic traces in South Africa. But, again, he 
brings forward no satisfying proofs of any tangible 
Semitic influence there. Round towers with conical 
tops are no proof of Semitic connection. It is not 
only the Semites who have built such. "Cones" are 
no speciality of the Semites. In support of the idea 
that Cones mean Semites, Mr. R. N. Hall brings 
forward references to Messrs. L. W. King and H. R. 
Hall's book, "Egypt and Western ."Xsia." Mr. R. N. 
Hall's note referring to this supposed support for his 
theory reads as follows : — 

"In King and Hall's ' Egypt and Western Asia' 
reference is made to ' the great cone ' at Sinai in the 
Elamite kingdom (p. 159); to the remains of a 
' temple-tower ' at Ninib at Babylon (p. 166) ; to the 
' temple-towers ' erected by Gudea at Shirpurla in 
southern Babylonia (p. 217); to 'massive temple- 
towers ' at Samarra on the Tigris (p. 284) ; to 
' cones ' in Assyria (p. 392) ; and to the ' temple-tower ' 
of Ashur (p. 410)." 

Now, apart from the extraordinary solecisms "at 
Sinai in the Elamite kingdom," and "at Ninib at 
Babylon " (does Mr. R. N. Hall not know where Elam 
was, where or what Sinai is, or that Ninib was a 
god?), on referring, incredulous, to the work of Mr. 
L. W. King and his coadjutor, Mr. R. N. Hall's 
namesake, we find that this note of the South African 
Mr. Hall's is one of the oddest farragos of mis- 



JULV 14, 1910] 



NATURE 



33 



quotations and miscomprehensions that we have ever 
seen. The "'great cone' at Sinai in the Elamite 
kingdom" (which is as if one were to say "at Mont 
Blanc in Russia") is the representation of a moun- 
tain-peak on the well-known stela of the Babylonian 
king Naram-Sin, which represents that monarcli 
conquering his enemies in a mountainous country, 
presumably Elam. How Mr. Hall has got Sinai in 
appears from a neighbouring sentence, in which 
Messrs. King and H. R. Hall say that Naram-Sin 
"made an e.xpedition to Sinai." But that does not 
matter ; what does matter is that Mr. Hall quotes 
Messrs. King and Hall as speaking of this " great 
cone " as if it bore out his theory, as if it were a 
building, whereas what they actually say is " the great 
cone in front of Naram-Sin. which is probably intended 
to represent the peak of the mountain." What right 
has Mr. Hall, then, to refer to the authors of " Egypt 
and Western Asia" at all? If he disagrees with them 
as to the interpretation of the cone on the monument, 
let him say so. But the relief showing the king before 
the " cone " in question is dead against him in that 
case. 

The "'temple-tower' at Ninib at Babylon" is the 
" ziggurat " or "temple-tower" of the temple 0/ Ndbu 
at Birs Nimrud, which is the site of the ancient 
Borsippa, not Babylon ; and these ziggurats were 
not conical at all, nor do King and Hall, either in 
connection with that at Borsippa or that at Shirpurla, 
mention anything like a cone in connection with 
them ! 

The " ' massive temple-towers ' of Samarra on the 
Tigris " are a gem. Samarra is a comparatively 
modern city, with mediaeval walls, over which one 
sees the gilt domes of two mosques, and a peculiar 
minaret rather like that of Ibn Tulun, at Cairo. 
Messrs. King and Hall, writing picturesquely, say : — 

" Such a picture as that of the approach to the city 
of Samarra, with its mediEeval walls, may be taken as 
having its counterpart in many a city of the early 
Babylonians. The caravan-route leads through the 
desert, and if we substitute two massive temple-towers 
for the domes of the mosques that rise above the wall, 
little else in the picture need be changed." 

Mr. Hall has too hastily assumed that these massive 
temple-towers were conical, or even domed, like the 
modern mosques. The analogy need not be taken so 
literally as all that ! 

Finally, the "' cones ' in Assyria " which Mr. R. N. 
Hall says are mentioned on p. 392 of Messrs. King 
and Hall's book are the objects thus referred to on 
that page : — 

"Last year a small cone" [sic: Messrs. King and 
Hall do not speak of "cones" in the plural, as Mr. 
Hall misquotes them] "or cylinder was found, 
which, though it bears only a few lines of inscription, 
restores the names of no less than seven early Assyrian 
viceroys whose existence was not previously known." 

These small objects, measuring about nine inches or 
a foot long, are usually called cones, but they are 
more properly nail-shaped. What they have to do 
with Mr. R. N. Hall's theory of conical buildings 
being Semitic it is hard to see. 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



The examination of this footnote was interesting, 
but is not calculated to strengthen one's faith in 
Mr. Hall's theory, and his authorities do not 
seem to bear him out so much as he thinks. 
A more careful study of Semitic lore will prob- 
ably lead him later to see, himself, the weak 
points of his dogma. .\s for the supposed Semitic 
traits of the Makaranga, on which he lays such 
stress (p. 400), we fail to see in the long list given 
bv Mr. Hall any peculiarity which is common to 
Semites and Makaranga only; most of these char- 
acteristics are shared by every negro tribe in Africa, 
and the fact that some of them were also shared by 
the Semites proves no more than that primitive people 
all the world over have similar customs, especially 
with regard to marriage, ritual cleanliness, and the 
like maUers. In this list, also, Mr. Hall shows an 
inabilitv to distinguish between strong and weak 
evidence. What is the use to his thesis of such an 
absurdity as his thirty-eighth resemblance between 
the Makaranga and Semites, 

" Iron rods were the insignia of old Ma-Karanga 
chiefs, and it was illegal for any ordinary member 
of the tribe to own such an article. These iron 
sceptres have their parallel in Semitic countries, where 
gold was of more value than iron, and are mentioned 
in the Scriptures "? 

What is the point of the solemn information " where 
gold was of more value than iron " in this particular 
connection? 

We really believe that Mr. Hall does himself and 
his theory an injustice in his unskilled manner of 
presenting his ideas and his inability to distinguish 
between good and bad evidence. Thus the rather 
"muzzy" photograph facing p. 39S which purports 
to show the "Semitic Appearance of a Karanga, 
Zimbabwe." is absolutely bad evidence. Where is 
this supposed Semitic appearance? In this negro's 
rather large nose? Does not Mr. Hall know that the 
purest Semites of Arabia have straight noses, not at 
all like the "Jewish" type? 

Were it pruned of these and other absurdities, Mr. 
Hall's theory would command serious attention, for it 
is by no means impossible that Arab traders may 
have penetrated as far south as Sofala, even so early 
as the time of the Himyar kingdom, and have exer- 
cised a civilising influence on the negro tribes, as the 
Portuguese did on the tribes of Benin. But granted 
what one knows now of the capability of certain negro 
tribes to evolve cultures of their own, Mr. Hall is a 
bold man to deny the possibility of the truth of Dr. 
Maciver's theory, that the buildings of Zimbabwe are 
the work of a native race of comparatively modern 
times, independent of foreign influence. In any case, 
until the question of the "Nankin china" is finally 
settled, it is of little use for Mr. Hall to go on draw- 
ing "evidence" of supposed Semitic connections in 
South Africa, which are presumably no older than the 
early Middle Ages, from "cones " in Mesopotamia of 
any' date between 3000 and 1500 B.C., especially since 
these "cones," when examined, turn out to be either 
mountains, or square, flat-topped towers, or votive 
offerings, a few inches high, which are shaped like 
nails ! 



NATURE 



[Jl'lv 14, 1910 



i'HE MARINE FAUNA OF JAPAN. 

Bcitriigi; ;iir Naturgeschichte Ostasiens. Edited by 
Dr. F. Dofiein. Japanische Alcyonaceen. By Prof. 
\V. Kiikenthal. Pp. 86 + Tafel v. Price 4 marks. 
Japanische Gorgoniden. Tail i. Die Familien der 
Primnoideh, Muriceiden, und .\canthogorgiiden. By 
Prof. W. Kulcenthal and H. Gorzawsky. Pp. 71 + 
Tafel iv. Price 3.60 marks. Japanische gorgon- 
iden. Teil ii. Die Familien der Plexauriden 
Chrysogorgiiden und Melitodiden. By Prof. W. 
Kiikenthal. Pp. 78 + Tafel vii. Price 6 marks. 
Hydroidpolypen der japanische Ostkiiste. Teil i. 
Athecata und Plumularidas. By E. Stechow. Pp. 
109 + Tafel vii. Price 5 marks. Japanische Anti- 
patharien. By E. Silberfeld. Pp. 30 + Tafel ii. 
Price 2.50 marks. Japanische Medusen. By O. 
Maas. Pp. 52+Tafel iii. Price 4 marks. Japan- 
ische Actinien. By Dr. A. Wassilieff. Pp. 52 + 
Tafel ix. Price 2.70 marks. Japanische Cteno- 
phoren. By Dr. Fanny Moser. Pp. 77 + Tafel ii. 
Price 5 marks. Uber japanische Seewalzen. By 
E. Augustin. Pp. 44 + Tafel ii. Price 3 marks. 
(.Miinchen : K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
G. Franz'schen Verlags, J. Roth, 1906-9.) 
T T has been known for some time to zoologists that 
-L the southern coasts of Japan possess a very rich 
and varied marine fauna. The Challenger expedi- 
tion gave us some indication of it, and various special 
memoirs by Japanese writers that have appeared in 
recent years have served to maintain and stimulate our 
interest in it. But the nine memoirs dealing with the 
collections made by Dr. F. Dofiein in the Sagami 
and Sendai bays during the years 1904-5 bring home 
to us with great effect the amazing wealth with which 
our Japanese friends are favoured in respect of their 
submarine zoological treasures. 

Dr. Dofiein is a fortunate, and also undoubtedly 
a skilful, collector, for he has not only obtained 
a very large quantity of material, and succeeded in 
bringing it home in an excellent state of preservation, 
but he has been able to enlist the services of a number 
of eminent zoologists with special knowledge of the 
various groups, and to publish these memoirs in 
sumptuous style. Judging from the series already 
published, there can be little doubt that the results 
of Dr. Dofiein 's expedition will form a very important 
contribution to our knowledge of the systematic 
zoology of the Japanese waters. 

For the three memoirs on .Mcyonaria, Prof. Kiiken- 
thal, of Breslau, is very largely responsible, and those 
who are interested in this- group of Coelenterata will 
find in them descriptions of a large number of new- 
species, profusely illustrated by coloured plates and 
photographs. Prof. Kukenthal is so well known as a 
leading authority on the Alcyonaria that it is hardly 
necessary to remark that his elaborate descriptions of 
the new species and his profound knowledge of the 
history and literature of the group give his contribu- 
tions to the series a very high position. But although 
there is a great deal that is new in these three 
memoirs, there is no new genus that strikes us as 
benig p.irticularly interesting or important. Among 
NU. 2 I 24, VOL. 84] 



the Alcyonacea, the genus Spongodes (which has been 
re-named Dendronephthya by the author) is repre- 
sented by fifteen species, of which six are new to 
science, and Nidalia by seven species, of which five 
are new. The genu&Alcyonium, on the other hand, is 
represented by only one species, which is described 
under the new specific name of AlcyoiiiiiDi gracilli- 
miim. A new species of Siphonogorgia having been 
found in Sagami bay, the author takes the opportunity 
of giving us a very valuable summary of the characters 
of all the known species of the genus, including in 
the list the species formerly separated under this 
generic name Chironephthya. 

The title "Japanische Gorgoniden" given to the 
other two memoirs on Alcyonaria is rather misleading, 
as the family Gorgonidae has not yet been dealt with ; 
but it is nevertheless in the suborder Gorgonacea rather 
than in the Alcyonacea that "the richness of the 
Japanese fauna is so pronounced. The genera 
Chrysogorgia, Melitodes, and Plumarella appear to be 
particularly well represented, and in the family 
Plexauridae two new genera, Anthoplexaura and Para- 
plexaura, are described, as well as several new species 
of the older genus Euplexaura. 

The memoir on the hydroid polyps by Stechow 
is in some respects the most remarkable and 
valuable of the series, and special attention 
may be directed to the interesting introductory 
statement, and particularly to his valuable 
tabular scheme of the classification of the hydrozoa. 
Manv previous attempts have been made to bring, 
into one system the hydroid and medusoid forms be- 
longing to this class. On careful analysis and con- 
sideration, this system will probably be found by 
systematists to be the best that has yet been sug- 
gested. Of the many interesting hydroids that are 
described in this memoir, the most remarkable is the 
one to which the new generic name Hydrichthella is 
given. It was found epizoic on the new alcyonarian 
.\nthoplexaura described by Kiikenthal. It is a curious 
coincidence in zoology that the only other example of 
a hydroid epizoic upon an alcyonarian was also de- 
scribed last year. On January 30, 1909, a paprjr 
by Miss W. Coward was read before the Koninklijke 
.-Vkad. van Wetenschappen of Amsterdam on a new 
hydroid (Ptilocodium) epizoic on specimens of the 
genus Ptilosarcus collected by the Siboga expedition. 
In the same year Stechow described the genus 
Hydrichthella on Anthoplexaura. There can be little 
doubt that the two genera are very closely related, 
but it is more than probable that it will be found 
advisable to join them in one generic group. If this 
be done the question of priority will arise, and the 
name will be Ptilocodium or Hydrichthella according 
to the publication of Stechow 's memoir before or after 
January 30. 

The genus Dendrocoryne of Inaba found in 
Japanese waters has created some special interest of 
recent years owing to its relationship to the genus 
Ceratella, that occurs in Australian waters, on the 
east coast of Africa, off Hawaii, and elsewhere. The 
points of difference between Dendrocoryne and Cera- 
tella do not appear to some authors sulficientlv im- 



July 14, 1910] 



NATURE 



)5 



portant or constant to justify their separation into two 
genera, but a very strong protest must be made 
against tiiis autlior's practice of reviving tlie obsolete 
generic name Solanderia for Ceratella and tlirowing 
the literature into confusion thereby. M. Haime, who 
examined the type-specimen of Solanderia (Duch. and 
Michel.), declared that it was undoubtedly a Gorgonid. 
The genus was therefore rightly ignored by Gray, and 
the magnificent memoir by Baldwin Spencer on Cera- 
tella fiisca has firmly established the proper generic 
name once and for all time. 

Of the other memoirs in this series, the space at 
our disposal does not allow us to make more than 
passing notice. We observe some excellent coloured 
plates in the account by Maas of the Japanese 
medusK, and we are glad to observe that the wander- 
ing genera Gonionemus and Olindioides are becoming 
more definitely settled in the order Trachomedusse. 
The Ctenophora do not seem to be very well repre- 
sented in the Japanese fauna, but Dr. Fanny Moser's 
memoir on this group is a very important contribution 
to our knowledge of several of the important genera, 
as the author takes the opportunity to give a 
critical summary of all the known species of the 
LobatJE, Beroidee, and Cestidse. 

Silberfeld adds to his account of the few new- 
Japanese .^ntipatharia a useful list of all the species 
of the order that have been described since the pub- 
lication of Brook's Challenger monograph. 

The memoirs by Augustin on the Holothuria, and 
by W'assiliefif on the sea anemones, fully maintain 
the high standard of excellence that marks the earlier 
numbers. S. J. H. 

THE CAMBRIDGE PUBLIC ORATOR. 
Orati'Jues cl Epistolae Cantabrigienses (1876-1909). 
By Dr. John Edwin Sandys. Pp. xiv-l-290. 
(London : Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 19 10.) Price 
los. net. 

THIS Tery attractive volume, bound in the light 
blue which stands for the colour of Cambridge, 
contains the Latin speeches and letters which for 
thirty-three years Dr. Sandys has delivered as public 
orator for the University of Cambridge. In 1909 Dr. 
Merry, the public orator of Oxford, published his 
admirable orations, delivered in the Sheldonian 
Theatre during thirty years, and in the same year, bv 
a curious chance, appeared a volume containing 141 
brief speeches delivered by three successive public 
orators of Trinity College, Dublin — Drs. Palmer, 
Tyrrell, and Purser. 

It was a strange coincidence that in the course of a 
year the two great universities of England and the 
most ancient university of Ireland should have given 
to the world these characteristic effusions of university 
sentiment. This form of literary composition will 
appeal in a different way to different minds. But 
none will fail to see in it a somewhat interesting 
specimen of an art now obsolescent and destined, per- 
haps, soon to pass away, which recalls the time when 
Latin was the lingua Jranca of the learned world, and 
when the universities affected to convey their senti- 
ments only in the learned tongue. 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



So long as this time-honoured custom is observed, 
it will recommend itself by the happy classical turn 
of phrase and the ingenious adaptation of Latin idiom 
to very post-classical themes, to which the public 
orator must often have recourse ; and of these arts 
Dr. Sandys is a past-master. His career in Cam- 
bridge was most brilliant, and among other distinc- 
tions he won the coveted Porson prize. He was at 
once designated successor as public ora'tor to that 
great composer in Greek and Latin, the late Sir 
Richard Jebb. His orations are characterised by an 
elegance of Latinity and a felicity of allusion quite 
worthy of his distinguished predecessor. The public 
orations not only excite the interest of scholars, but 
sometimes evoke humorous comment from the under- 
graduates, as when Dr. Travers-Twiss at Oxford 
found a flight of superlatives (in which such speeches 
naturally abound) capped from the gallery by a new 
adjective. '" Illustrissimus, praeclarissimus," said the 
orator; " et Travers-Twissimus " was the contribution 
of an inglorious undergraduate rival. 

The iloges in the volume before us are not only 
charming examples of polished Latinity, but they are 
admirable specimens of brief and pointed criticism. 
A man's work is often summed up in a few words 
which could not be bettered in as many pages. One 
specimen of this delicate art will serve instar omnium. 
The great poet and critic, Matthew Arnold, writes 
thus to Dr. Sandys : — 

".A thousand thanks for the printed copies of your 
speeches which you have so kindly sent to me. I am 
glad the speeches are in this permanent form. For 
myself I can only say that I could wish the next age 
(if the next age 'inquires at all about me) to read no 
other and no longer character of me than yours." 

The reader should turn to the iloge (No. 71, p. 39) 
to see that the words of Matthew Arnold are justified. 
For those who have not the book w-e will make an 
extract, which shrewdly characterises Arnold's deal- 
ings with the Philistines, his (vrpmrfKia, ''cultured 
insolence," as Aristotle calls it, and another which 
compares his style to the Thames by which he was 
born, "Though deep yet clear, though gentle yet not 
dull" :— 

"Ouam suaviter subamarus est quotiens Attico 
quodam lepore et salibus quicquid insulsum est irridet, 
Graeca quadam elegantia quicquid barbarum est con- 
temnit. De gravioribus vero argumentis, quanto 
animi candore, quanta subtilitate, disputat. Idem 
poeta quam venustus, quam varius." 

"Equidem crediderim Thamesin ipsum inter rura ilia 
fluentem, ubi poeta ipse natus erat, alumno suo 
exemplar suum praetulisse, suum ingenium inspirasse; 
qui amnis, poetarum laudibus celebratus, tranquillus 
at non tardus it, profundus at pellucidus idem est." 

How happily he alludes to the work of Hu.xley : — 

" Olim in oceano Australi, ubi rectis ' oculis monstra 
natantia ' vidit, victoriam prope primam, velut alter 
Perseus, a Medusa reportavit; vnrias deinceps animan- 
tium formas. quasi ab ipsa Gorgone in saxum versas, 
sagacitate singulari explicavit; vitae denique universae 
explorandae vitam suam totam dedicavit." 

And we must quote his reference to Joseph Cham- 
berlain's "grand refusal" of the Home Rule Bill, and 
his allusion to the great statesman's love for orchids. 



36 



NATURE 



[July 14, 19 10 



■ Idem cum nova quaedam de Hibernia consilia sibi 
periculosa esse vidercntur, maliiit a duce suo, maluit 
etiam ab amico suo, discedere quam insulas nostras 
in uno coniunctas, quod ad sese attineret, sinere 
divelli. Ipse inter senatores suffragiis electos partium 
suarum ductor constitutus, socios suos quam fortiter 
ducit, adversaries quam acriter oppugnat ! Etenim, 
quamquam in rerum natura eos potissimum Acres 
dilifcere dicitur, qui solis a radiis remoti in horto 
secluso ab aperto caelo delicate defenduntur, ipse vitae 
publicae solem atque pulverem numquam reformidat, 
quolibet sub caelo ad dimicationem semper promptus, 
temper paratus." 

But we cannot indulge in quotations which would 
reach to infinity. In nearly six hundred specimens 
of the art of Dr. Sandys there is hardly one from 
which could not be quoted some felicitous phrase or 
allusion. The letters written in the name of Cam- 
bridge are as happv. Among these, specially interest- 
ing are the letter to the American Cambridge and that 
to Lord Morlev. The volume is one to which the 
scholarly reader will recur again and again with 
interest and admiration. R. Y. Tyrrell. 

PSYCBICAL RESEARCH. 
Spirit and Matter before the Bar of Modern Science. 

By Dr. Isaac W. Heysinger. Pp. xxviii -1-433. 

(London : T. Werner Laurie, 1910.) Price 155. 

net. 
' I ■'HE venue of Dr. Heysinger 's elaborate though 
-1- very readable work is the debatable land where 
three rival powers meet — religion, philosophy, and 
science. He shows very clearly that these three 
explainers are to some extent merging ; the sharp 
distinctions are vanishing. Religion is freeing itself 
from rigid metaphysical dogmas, philosophy is becom- 
ing more concrete, and science is becoming more 
philosophical — is recognising that it cannot provide 
ultimate explanations of anything. The hope of the 
future is in a spiritual interpretation of the universe. 
This interpretation is being forced upon us as the 
only possible one by the recent advances in psychology 
and psychical research. 

In dealing with spiritualism and occult phenomena 
generally. Dr. Heysinger takes up a sane and scien- 
tific position. He demolishes Hume's argument of 
"impossibility," quoting Huxley in support of the 
view that nothing can safely be called impossible out- 
side mathematics and formal logic. As to miracles, 
either ancient or modern, the really scientific man 
will say : — " It is a question of evidence; I will make 
no a priori decision, either for or against." The 
evidence brought forward during the last twenty-five 
years, by such men as Sir Oliver Lodge, Sir William 
Crookes, Prof. James, Dr. A. R. Wallace, F. W. H. 
Myers, and other careful investigators, seems sufficient 
to establish at least a prima facie case. Nevertheless, 
as the author is careful to point out, it must not be 
rashly conceded that all psychic phenomena are due 
to the agency of disembodied spirits ; many of these 
phenomena are probably the work of the subliminal 
consciousness of some living person, or even of some 
impersonal world-soul, as many philosophers have 
thought; but, in many cases, the evidence seems 
to be sufficient to justify at least a provisional hypo- 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



thesis that the minds of discarnate people are some- 
how still producing effects in our material world, by 
some such process, perhaps, as telepathy. The 
phenomena are various in kind, from planchette- 
writing to "apparitions"; but they point in the same 
direction — to survival of human personality past the 
wrench of bodily death, and consequently to a spiritual 
interpretation of experience. 

The present reviewer is a member of the Society 
for Psychical Jiesearch (though belonging to its 
" sceptical wing "), and has devoted much time and 
thought to the subject for many years. He is dubious 
about "materialisations," and has lurid opinions 
about "slate writing by spirits" (or, rather, about 
the mediums who produce it), but personal experience 
has convinced him that things do happen, sometimes, 
which seem inexplicable by orthodox hypotheses. The 
thing to do is to maintain a rigorously scientific atti- 
tude, to observe the phenomena with all possible keen- 
ness and precaution against fraud or illusion, and to 
beware of drawing hasty inferences. Darwin col- 
lected facts for many years before he "permitted him- 
self to speculate" concerning explanations. It is per- 
haps too much to expect that such caution should be 
shown by psychical researchers, for the subject is more 
intimately connected with our deepest interests ; but 
it is nevertheless desirable. On the other hand, it can 
truthfully be said that there is more foolishness shown 
by the ignorant disbeliever who has never investigated 
than by the man who has learnt a little and is apt 
to believe too much. 

Dr. Heysinger's book may be warmly recommended. 
Not the least of its good features is its tremendous 
armoury of quotations — showing very wide reading — 
from all the leading investigators. J. A. H. 

PSEUDOCYTOLOGY. 
The Plant Cell, its Modifications and Vital Processes. 
A Manual for Students. By H. .\. Haig. Pp. 
xxx + 79g. (London: C. Grifiin and Co., Ltd., 
1910.) Price 6s. net. 

WRITERS of elementary text-books might be 
expected to take some trouble to ensure that 
their statements are, at any rate as far as possible, 
accurate and clear. It is a matter of common experi- 
ence that failures in both respects are not uncommon, 
and the author of the book before us has compiled a 
volume which may have some merits, but they are 
hardly those which the ordinary student will appreciate. 
To start with, we may remark that some of the 
illustrations and photographs are decidedly good, but 
that the text strikes us as useful chiefly as an exercise 
in criticism for more advanced students. What are 
we to make, for instance, of such statements as the 
following: — "The various forms of 'pits' occurring 
in the walls (of tracheids) may possibly be of use in 
sap conduction, but, as a matter of fact, these pits 
function more as a means of exit for the protoplasm 
after it has finished its work in the Xylem elements." 
The confusion (on p. 115) between normal and homo- 
typic nuclear division is absurd. Germination of 
pollen, &c., is wrongly and very misleadingly described 
as maturation. 



JuLV 14, 1 9 10] 



NATURE 



37 



The development ot the angiospermic embryo seems 
to be confused with that of the fern, and the develop- 
ment of the archegonium (called by the author the 
oogonium), so far as it is intelligible, is quite incorrect. 
Bv the wav, the chemiotactic substance emitted from 
the archegonium is said to be "malic acid or an 
enzyme." 

Few botanists will agree with the view that the 
homosporous fern-prothalliuni can be properly, or 
otherwise than misleadingl)-, regarded in the light of 
a " fusion of two prothallia produced by the germina- 
tion of a potentially double (male and female) spore." 

Turning to the part of the book dealing with 
physiological topics, we find the statement that 
" Much of the reserve starch in the tuber is formed 
at first in plastids, and by the time the tuber is 
full grown, all the plastids have been converted into 
starch," and, in a footnote, w^e are further gravely in- 
formed that " some of the starch is, however, formed 
in the tuber by the translocation of carbohydrate from 
the cells of remote parts." It would have been of in- 
terest to know what proportions of the starch do and 
do not respectively owe their origin to this process. 

The above citations, which could easily have been 
added to, may suffice to exhibit the side of the book 
which a teacher would find defective or effective 
according to the use he made of it with his students. 

But it may be said that it is not fair to judge a 
book on the " plant cell " by the same canons that 
would apply to a work more ostensibly on botany, 
structural, morphological, and physiological. But, a.s 
a matter of fact, the volume is really compiled on these 
lines, and if it were to be criticised from a cytologica! 
standpoint the verdict would be far more disadvan- 
tageous. It is a pity that the author has not more 
fully and carefully surveyed his proposed field of work 
before writing a book. He has evidently aimed at 
clearness, and, with more knowledge and care, may 
still produce a useful contribution. 

BIOLOGY AND HUMAN LIFE. 
'Science from an Easy Chair. By Sir Ray Lankester, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. Pp. xiii -1-423. (London : Methuen 
and Co., Ltd., 1910.) Price 65. 

IN this volume of forty-three collected papers, the 
popularisation of science surely reaches high-water 
mark. To be vividly interesting without offending 
against accuracy, to season an abundance of solid fact 
with ideas so that the result is an intellectual feast, 
to illustrate scientific method by stratagem so subtle 
that the reader does not know he is being educated — 
that is what Sir Ray Lankester has achieved. He 
calls it " Science from an Easy Chair," and so be it ; 
but we hope the delighted reader will realise that it 
is science from a rich experience of lifelong observa- 
tion and research. Since Huxley, no one has had a 
deeper influence on British zoology than the author, 
and even these parerga show the hand of a master. 

Some of the papers are good tracts for the times. 
The first one, entitled " Science and Practice," with 
the hygienic triumphs at Panama for its text, illus- 
trates what science can do, if it be allowed, for "the 
< -tahlishing of the kingdom of man." The pages 
SO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



headed "Darwin's Theory Unshaken" should be of 
use to those who mislead the public by declaring that 
Darwinism is dead. Other papers show, very briefly, 
of course, what a living Darwinism has to say about 
the re-stocking of our villages, the feeble-minded, and 
various disquieting features of our British birth-rate 
and death-rate. Apart from such serious questions, 
it is interesting to notice how many of the papers 
have a practical point — the poison-vine in England ; 
oysters; the heart's beat; sleep; cholera; sea breezes, 
mountain air and ozone ; oxygen gas for athletes and 
others ; hop blight ; phylloxera ; clothes moths ; and 
more besides. This is symptomatic of our times, but 
it is also what we expect from the author of "The 
Kingdom of Man," that masterly exposition of the 
sound doctrine that science is for life — savoir, prevoir, 
poiirvoir! 

Another set of papers deals with subjects in regard 
to which much progress has been recently made. 
Among these we find the extraordinary story of the 
common eel, illustrated by a beautiful coloured draw- 
ing which shows the contrast between the mature 
" silver " eel and the immature "yellow " eel. Anothei 
of this type is the account of the human skull from 
the Chapelle-aux-Saints, in the Correze, of the Heidel- 
berg lower jaw, and other recent additions to the 
data from which the pedigree of man is being patiently 
worked out. We may also notice the interesting 
account of the new fresh-water medusoids. A third 
set — not that we are attempting to classify the forty- 
three — includes a number of delightful natural-history 
sketches, such as one on gossamer (where, by the 
wav, it seems to be suggested that the somewhat 
mvsterious parachute-making habit is confined to 
autumn), or another on honey-dew, or another on the 
jumping-bean. It seems to be a rotatory easy-chair 
from which this pleasant science comes, for the author 
takes the whole world for his province, from microbes 
to comets, from the land of azure blue to " the starres 
that wonne on highe," not forgetting either to write 
of dragons. Quite by itself, with a delightful note 
personnel, is the account of Metchnikoff's day with 
Tolstoi last year. We hope for many more volumes 
of the "Easy Chair Series." J. A. T. 



ALPINE FLOWERS. 

(i) Alpine Floiuers and Gardens, Painted and 
Described. By G. Flemwell. Pp. xiv+ 167. 
(London : A. and C. Black, 1910.) Price ys. 6d. 
net. 
(2) Summer Floii'ers of the High .Alps. By Somerville 
Hastings. Pp. xxvi4-85. With an index and 39 
colour plates from direct colour photographs by the 
author. (London : J. M. Dent and Sons, Ltd. ; 
New York : E. P. Dutton and Co., n.d.) Price 
■js. 6d. net. 
(i) A SERIES of twenty well-e.xecuted colour 
.^ prints appears to be the raison d'etre 
of this volume on alpine flowers and gar- 
dens. The author, who is also the artist, 
knows his Alps and alpine flowers well, and has 
contrived to write an interesting and instructive 
account of the alpine flora in its various aspects. He 



\S 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



is without doubt an enthusiast on the subject, and 
something of a poet as well, but it is unfortunate 
that poetical descriptions and Latin names of plants 
are but ill-assorted companions, and the frequency 
of the necessary names detracts considerably from the 
purely aesthetic pleasure of perusing the volume. 

The Alps, with their f^ora, are described at the 
different seasons of the year, and the beauties of each 
are duly eulogised ; to our thinking, however, the 
concluding chapters on the abuse and protection of 
alpines, and on some gardens in the Alps, are the 
most worthy portions of the volume. In the former 
chapter the good work done by the "Swiss League for 
the Protection of the Natural Beauties of the Alps " 
receives well-deserved commendation, for it is largely 
"owing to its efforts that much wanton destruction of 
alpine plants by the thoughtless tourist and so-called 
lover of plants is gradually being stopped. In the 
final chapter the Thomasia gardens, near Bex, Ram- 
bertia, at the summit of the Rochers de Na}'e, and 
Linnsea, at Bourg St. Pierre, are described. 

The author wonders why we in England have not 
attempted to create alpine pastures ; he seems to forget 
the peculiar beauty of English pasture as it is with 
its buttercups, cowslips, and orchis, daisies and 
red sorrel. Very possibly he might find that English 
grasses ere long would hold the field where once his 
less resisting alpines were planted. On laying down 
this book we cannot but feel that Mr. Flemwell is 
more at home with the brush than with the pen, and 
that in writing a book on alpine flowers and gardens 
he would have produced a more useful volume had 
his fancies been more restrained. 

(2) This work is an interesting contrast to the pre- 
ceding, and affords an example of the present limita- 
tions of the art of colour photography. In a few 
cases, as, for instance, the plates of Trifolium alpinum 
(plate xi.) and Saxifraga aizoides (plate xx.), the re- 
sults are good, but in many of the others the green 
of the leaves or of the background has come out badly. 
Blue and violet flowers are perhaps the least success- 
ful ; it may be that the original photographs have 
suffered considerably in reproduction, but from the 
examples before us we cannot entirely agree with the 
author that "the pictures are true portraits of the 
flowers 'at home.'" A page or so of descriptive text 
accompanies each illustration, and there, is a general 
introduction to the volume occupying sixteen pages 
which in some places needs textual revision ; for in- 
stance, we do not imagine that the author means to 
suggest that Baedeker or Bradshaw is either an 
efficient or an inefficient plant press. 



OUR BOOK SHELF. 

A Manual of Practical Farming. By John McLennan. 
Pp. xi + 298. (New York: The Macmillan Com- 
pany; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1910.) 
Price 6s. 6d. net. 

The number of books dealing with special branches 
of science applied to agriculture is great and is 
steadily increasing ; we have books on agricultural 
chemistry, botany and entomology, on the soil, on 

NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



fertilisers and feeding-stuffs; there are also a number 
of large treatises and encyclopEedias on agriculture. 
But only few writers have attempted to produce a 
small, handy book on practical agriculture dealing 
with the subject as a whole; the majority have been 
deterred by the difficulty of reducing so wide and 
coinjilex a subject to the necessary small dimensions. 

Mr. McLennan has essayed the task that many have 
avoided. His aim has been to give the farmer useful 
practical instruction, and also to set forth "the results 
of scientific research as far as known and as far as 
they square with practical experience." In the first 
object he will probably be found to have succeeded ; 
he clearly knows the men for whom he is writing, 
and furnishes facts and illustrations that will be useful 
and will also show what has been accomplished by 
competent workers. The average American farmer 
does not yet get all he might out of his land. To 
some e.Ktent the untrained amateur is a factor in the 
case, as he is beginning to be in England, and our 
author has something to say about the would-be 
poultry farmer who came out from the city without 
anv knowledge, but "full of literature on the subject, 
built elaborate houses, runs, brooders, and incubators, 
purchased high-priced eggs and costly fowls. He 
could figure out a comfortable living for himself and 
family, with freedom from city cares. He usually 
remained two years; the feed bills exceeded the re- 
ceipts for eggs; the roup got his hens, and lice got 
his chickens; his enthusiasm waned, and he went 
back to his counter." 

In his second object — the presentation of the scien- 
tific aspects of agriculture — our author is less success- 
ful. He shocks us on the very first page by saying 
that "the soil and the subsoil are primarily composed 
of molecules; that is, minute grains of rock of varying" 
size and forms. These are simply a result of the 
action of the, elements, such as frost, rain, wind, and 
heat, in breaking down and disintegrating the surface 
rock." This is a typical example of the "science" set 
out for the reader. If the author could persuade some 
scientific friend to read through the book and make 
the necessary alterations for the second edition its 
value would be much enhanced. 

Leitfadcn der Mincralogie. B}' Prof. Julius Ruska. 

Pp. viii-i-144. (Leipzig: Quelle und Meyer, 1910.) 

Price 2 marks. 
This "Guide to Mineralogy" is intended for the 
use of younger boys in German schools who have 
not yet received instruction in mathematics, physics, 
and chemistry. .Although it is customary to defer 
the study of mineralogy until after the latter subjects 
have been started, it is the author's belief that it is a 
subject that of itself can be made intelligible and 
interesting to younger boys. After a brief introduc- 
tion of four pages, in which hardness and specific 
gravity are dealt with, he plunges into the subject, 
explaining such terms and principles as are necessary 
when occasion arises. The order in which the more 
common minerals are described follows the usual 
classification into elements, sulphides, oxides, car- 
bonates, &c. Commencing with sulphur, an oppor- 
tunity is given to explain some of the principles of 
crystallography in connection with the rhombic system 
of crystals; and under the sulphides, galena, zinc- 
blende, and iron-pyrites, the three important classes 
of the cubic system are described. .\ large amount of 
information is given in a very concentrated form, and 
possibly such an essence of mineralogy might not 
agree with quite young boys. 

A striking feature of the book is its wealth of illus- 
trations. Besides the sixtv-nine figures on the coloured 



Jllv 14, 1910J 



NATURE 



39 



plates, there are 215 figures in the text, all of which 
appear to have been specially drawn for the book, and 
many are quite original. The coloured figures are 
reproduced bv the three-colour process, and are on 
the whole satisfactory, though one or two are scarcely 
recognisable. The text-figures include line-drawings 
of the forms of crystals, and excellent half-tones repre- 
senting actual crystals and mineral specimens. 

To the English student of mineralogy such a book 
might be used with advantage as a German reading 
book. The sentences are short and not involved. 

.4 Syiiojysis of the Orthoptcra of Western Europe. 
By Dr. Malcolm Burr. Pp. 160. (London : Oliver 
Janson, 1910.) Price 35. 

The present work appeared in instalments from 1903 
to 1909 in the Entomologist's Record, and in its present 
form will be extremely useful as an introduction to the 
subject, and as a tourist's guide, especially as its small 
size renders it more convenient than Brunner von 
Wattenwyl's work on European Orthoptera, or that 
of Tiimpel's on those of Central Europe. Dr. Burr's 
work includes all the countries west of (and includ- 
ing) the neighbourhood of \'ienna. For eastern 
Europe we have (for those who can use it) the great 
Russian expansion of Tiimpel's book by Jacobsen and 
Bianchi, which includes all the Orthoptera of central 
and eastern Europe, and Palajarctic Asia. 

Dr. Burr has given short but careful descriptions 
of genera and species, and also tables of species under 
the genera, and he has very properly included the more 
important naturalised species, such as Periplaneia 
australasiae. Orthoptera are, however, very liable !o 
be carried about from one place to another, and mere 
casual visitors are verv properly only mentioned by 
name, as on po. 17, 18. &c. A long-legged Japanese 
grasshopper, Dicsirammena marmorata, not men- 
tioned by Dr. Burr, has several times been captured 
recently in London. 

Prehistoric Man. By Joseph McCabe. Pp. viii-f-i^S. 

(London : Milner and Co., Ltd., n.d.) Price is. 

net. 
This book gives an excellent popular exposition of 
the present state of our knowledge of prehistoric 
anthropology. The chapters on Palaeolithic man and 
his implements are full of interest. Within the last 
few years a considerable number of more or less com- 
plete Palaeolithic skeletons have been discovered in 
France and elsewhere, and great additions have been 
made to our knowledge of man in this distant epoch. 
In this little volume will be found a lucid description 
of the latest discoveries. The author is not content 
to give a mere list of more or less disconnected data, 
but always endeavours to weave his material into a 
continuous evolutionary story. This tendency, though 
admirable in a popular writer, appears in some cases 
to lead to a slight distortion of the facts in order to 
make them fit into the theory. For example, the 
Palaeolithic race represented by the Grimaldi, Galley- 
hill, and other remains is assigned to the later 
Palaeolithic, though the geological evidence appears to 
be pretty clear that these remains belong at least to 
the middle Palaeolithic. The Gibraltar skull has re- 
cently been shown by Dr. Keith to have been the first 
Palaeolithic skull found (1843) in Europe, and to re- 
present one of the most primitive races. This dis- 
covery does not appear to have been known to the 
author. 

The chapters on the Neolithic and Bronze ages show 
that our knowledge of these periods is still in a very 
unsatisfactory condition, but that is not, of course, 
the fault of the author of this w-ork. 



(i) Metallografia appUcata ai Prodotti Sidcriirgici. By 
I'mberto Savoia. Pp. xvi-i-205. (Milan: U. 
Hoepli, 1909.) Price 3.50 lire. 

(2) Lo Zinco. By Prof. R. Musu-Boy. Pp. xiv-l-219. 
(Milan : U. Hoepli, 1909.) Price 3.50 lire. 

Both these little treatises belong to the excellent series 
of " Manuali Hoepli," and, like other members of the 
series, are written by specialists in their respective 
subjects. They possess the merit, common to prac- 
tically all other works of this series, of imparting in 
the fewest possible words the most essential facts and 
principles. The treatise on the metallopraphy of iron 
is essentially a practical guide for the laboratory 
worker. Its author was sent from Italy to study the 
methods adopted in the laboratories of Le Chatelier, 
Fremont, and Guillet, and on returning home estab- 
lished the metallographical laboratory of the Milan 
steel works. The author has selected for description 
the methods he has found best suited in practice, and 
has illustrated the work by nearly 100 of his own 
microphotographs of steel in its different states. 

The treatise on zinc is of a more general character, 
and calls for little coinment. It deals with the ores, 
methods of extraction, history, statistics, and uses of 
the metal. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

[The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake 
to returni or to correspond with the writers of, rejected 
manuscripts intended for this or any other part of Nature. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] 

Ooze and Irrigation. 

May I be allowed to reply to some inquiries? 

(1) It is thought by some that my remarks applied 
especially to foreign lands. Let me point out that the ooze 
of our English rivers is often just as fertile as that of the 
Nile, and that the number ot annelids found in the ooze 
is enormous. This may be illustrated by reference to the 
Thames. The late Frank Buckland tells us that when he 
kept fish he " fed them with red worms collected from 
the Thames mud. These worms cost 4s. 6d. a quart ; the 
price of Thames worms, like everything else, has increased 
considerably." Now whether these worms were true 
annelids, or merely the larvae of insects, the point is the 
same. In the case of Tubifex and its allies, a quart would 
mean many hundreds of thousands. Mr. Shrubsole, 
myself, and others, have frequently examined the ooze 
from various parts of the Thames, and the number of 
different species of mud-frequenting worms is very great, 
while it is utterly impossible to estimate the total of 
individuals. 

(2) .'Vnother interesting point is continually coming under 
my observation. When a number of annelids taken from 
the ooze is examined, it is found that the tail, which is in 
constant rhythmical motion in the water, is festooned with 
numbers of symbiotic vorticels. These move to and fro in 
the water, and are constantly capturing the bacteria and 
other lowly forms of life with which the putrid water is 
laden. So far as I am aware, no biologist has ever given 
this fact, or the action of the vorticels, any detailed study 
with a view to ascertaining their action, and their relation 
to their host on the one hand, and the water and soil on 
the other. 

(3) It would be of great value to science if someone would 
carefully examine the ooze before and after passing through 
the bodies of annelids, and ascertain what is the nature 
of the change that has taken place. Is there any difference 
between the quantity of nitrogen in pure mud and that 
which has been digested? 

These and many other problems having a vital bearing 
on agriculture need attention, and it is to be hoped that 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



40 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



at least a small portion of the time of the new commission 
will be devoted to a subject of such importance. 
Malvern. Hilderic Friend. 

In some interesting remarks upon this subject (Nature, 
pp. 427, 4S9), the Rev. Hilderic Friend suggests — and I 
believe he is correct in assuming for the first time — that 
the alluvial mud of such a river as the Nile derives its 
fertility, not from the nature of the sediment itself, as 
usually supposed, nor entirely from bacteria, but from the 
multitudinous remains of annelids that live in the mud. 

That there is " need for careful study of the alluvium 
of rivers from this point of view," and any other, is to 
be freely admitted. If we except the study of pre- and 
post-Pleistocene deposits carried out by Mr. Clement Reid, 
and summarised in his " Origin of the British Flora," 
there is scarcely another work that can be mentioned deal- 
ing with the subject. It is true that lately the Geological 
Survey have become alive to the necessity of introducing 
details as to the fertility or otherwise of the soils derived 
from the geological formations surveyed. But these are 
isolated, and are but the necessary outcome of previous 
activities of agricultural e.'cperimental stations. But neither 
have these latter undertaken any systematic study of the 
character and constituents of river alluvium. The nearest 
approach to a treatise on the subject is Darwin's " Earth- 
worms," and his work, whilst dealing with terrestrial 
forms and their influence in fertilising, renewing, and 
enriching the soil, strangely enough bears out Mr. Hilderic 
Friend's suggestion as to the cause of alluvial fertility. 

For without earthworms, what would the soil be? 
Ergo, without fluviatile annelids, what would the alluvium 
be — but a sterile accumulation of sand? Here we may add 
that where worms are too plentiful on land bad results 
follow, so too we may assume, accepting the worm- 
fertilising theory as correct, that an excess of annelids tends 
to cause, as on land, putrefaction, as may be illustrated 
by the case of ponds overstocked with blood-worms, 
causing the appearance of blood, which was a fruitful 
source of superstition in former days, notably at Garendon 
in this district. 

But apart from theoretical considerations, based on the 
hypothesis that Tubitex and other annelids do tend to 
increase fertility, we may attempt to draw an analogy with 
former^ conditions, and so to some extent corroborate Mr. 
Friend's very probable theory. 

All who have made any study of the palaeontologv of 
the Trias (referring here specially to Britain) are familiar 
with the extreme barrenness of great thicknesses of both 
Lower and Upper Keuper relieved alone by certain limited 
horizons at which a definite flora and fauna is to be met 
with. 

It has been assumed, and there is apparently no great 
reason^ against this on a purely faunistic basis, that the 
Trias is a desert formation ; but on other grounds, and also 
from a study of the flora and fauna, I have come to the 
conclusion (during a study of the Midland Trias, in which I 
am aided by a Government grant from the Roval Society) 
that the whole of the Triassic formation is a delta forma- 
tion, in other words, that from the Bunter (first suggested 
to be a delta deposit by Prof. Bonney) upwards conditions 
similar to those in the Nile area prevailed during Triassic 
times, and were responsible for its formation. Locally, 
wind acted on rocks, but formed no deposit. 

Now it is a remarkable fact that in the deposits in the 
British Keuper, in which alone plant-remains have so far 
been discovered, or where carbonaceous deposits occur, 
that a common associate of the plant-remains is a form of 
track or casting which has usually been ascribed to 
annelids or Crustacea ; and we must not overlook the fact 
that annelids alone are not the predominating component 
of the fauna of alluvial tracts, but Protozoa in their 
myriads, occasionally sponges, Crustacea (minute and 
large), insects, scorpions, and molluscs form a large pro- 
portion of the bulk of alluvial deposits. Of these, annelids 
and Crustacea are most likely to be preserved, and are 
most often discovered in the rocks. So that it seems that 
only where annelid life in Triassic times was abundant 
w.-js plant-life in evidence, just as now only where the 
Nile is alluvial does it yield productive results, due, appar- 
ently, to the same cause. The analogy I have drawn 

NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



strengthens Mr. Friend's theory, and, moreover, if the 
worms be found to be actually conducive to fertility (by 
experiment or otherwise), my case for the delta-origin of 
the Trias will receive additional confirmation. 

It would seem to us that no more fitting study could 
be made by the lake surveys that are now going on in 
different; parts of the kingdom than the very probable 
connection between worms and alluvium, for it seems that 
Mr. Friend has more or less proved his case without much 
need for argument. This affords another instance of the 
utility of beings hitherto supposed to have no useful part 
to play in the history of time or things. 

July 2. A. R. HoRwooD. 

A Singular Mammal called " Orocoma." 

In a letter of the Jesuit Father Cat at Buenos Aires, 
dated May i8, 1729 (" Lettres .ditiantes," ^d. Lyon, 1819, 
torn, v., p. 466), the following passage occurs : — 

" Outre ces animau.x, il en est un qui m'a paru fort 
singulier : c'est celui que les Moxes appellent orocoma 
[or ocorome, according to the " .'\br^g^ d'une Relation 
espagnole," in the same tome, p. 66]. II a le poll roux, 
le museau pointu, et les dents larges et tranchantes. 
Lorsque cet animal, qui est de la grandeur d'un gros 
chien, aper^oit un Indien arm4, il prend aussitot la fuite ; 
mais s'il le volt sans armes, il I'attaque, le renverse par 
terre, le foule a plusieurs reprises, et quand il le croit 
m.ort, il le couvre de feuilles et de branches d'arbres, et 
se retire. L'Indien, qui connoit I'instinct de cette bete, 
se live dis qu'elle a disparu, et cherche son salut dans la 
fuite, ou monte sur un arbre, d'ou il considire i loisir 
tout ce qui se passe. L'orocomo ne tarde pas A revenir 
accompagn^ d'un tigre qu'il semble avoir invito d venir 
partager sa proie ; mais ne la trouvant plus, il pousse des 
hurlemens ^pouvantables, regarde son compagnon d'un air 
triste et di5sol(^, et semble lui t^moigner le regret qu'il a 
de lui avoir fait faire un voyage inutile." 

In asking what mammalian species this " orocoma " is, 
and whether there is the slightest foundation for this 
story, I fully know I am showing my great ignorance. 
I hope the Editor and his readers will forgive me, taking 
into account the entire absence of a scientific reference 
library in this part. Kumagusu Min.m<.\ta. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan, June 15. 



Pwdre Ser. 

When a boy, at the latter end of the 'thirties of last 
century. I was told by a well-known man of the name of 
West — lock-keeper on the river Witham at Lincoln — that 
he had seen a star fall on the south common there, where 
he had a cow grazing, and that, on going up to it, he 
found nothing but a lump of jelly. At this distance of 
time I cannot recall all he said, but I remember he 
described the object as shining and as about the size of a 
plate. I have no recollection of his calling it luminous. 

Up to this time I have always thought my informant 
was under an illusion, but, after Mr. McKenny Hughes's 
article, there seems to be something more than I was 
aware of in the account he gave me. 

F. M. Burton. 

Highfield, Gainsborough, July 2. 



Curve Tracing and Cuive Analysis. 

I HAVE unwittingly done an Injustice to Mr. R. H. 
Duncan's book on " Practical Curve Tracing " (vol. 
Ixxxiii., p. 461). I judged by the review of it in N.ature 
of June 9 that it deals only with the subject indicated by 
its title. After writing to you regretting that no author 
deals with practical curve analysis, I bought Mr. Duncan's 
book, and find that, after describing each class of curve 
and how to trace it, he gives clear directions for reversing 
the process and deducing a formula from a given curve. 
So far as it goes, the book excellently meets the want 
which I expressed, and my only regret is that the author 
has not developed the subject a little further. 

A. P. Trotter. 

London, July 5. 



July 14, 19 10] 



NATURE 



41 



THE AKIKVYV OF EAST AFRICA.' 

IT may be said at once that this is a very valuable 
ctnuribution to^ the ethnology of Africa. In its 
thoroughness it recalls work characteristic of the 
latest German school. A trifling defect is the trick 
which both authors have of separating their African 
words into syllables, no doubt to facilitate immediate 
pronunciation by the unlearned ; but, although this 
plan might be recommended in certain important 
words at their first appearance, it becomes irritating 
to the eye when perpetuated throughout the book, 
and sometimes the separation of syllables cuts 
athwart the etymology of root-words. The same 
remarks apply to the introduction of the apostrophe 
after the initial " m " or '" n." To anyone really 
versed in Bantu studies this apostrophe is anathema, 
as it is quite unnecessary. A writer fastidious about 
Bantu prefi.NCs supplies a hyphen between the prefix 
and the root, and not an apostrophe. 

Perhaps, without ungraciousness, another criticism 
might be added — that the book would have been even 
more valuable than it is if the authors had either 
been more widely read in regard to other African 
studies or had submitted their MS. to a specialist 
in comparative African ethnology in England or 
Germany, who could have explained many points 
which are acknowledged as obscure by the authors, 
and enabled them to have instituted the most in- 
teresting comparisons. The book is such a good 
one, so likely to take a permanent place as a standard 
work, that it is to be hoped in a further edition 
these suggestions may be taken note of. 

The Akikuyu (.4- is a corruption of the plural prefix, 
Ba-. ki- is probably the eighth prefix often applied 
to ••languages," "sorts," or "kinds," and the root 
of Lhe name is really kiiyii) are a collection of clans 
of Bantu-speaking negroes which inhabit the elevated 
plateaus of equatorial East Africa on the eastern side 
of the great Rift \'alley. In language, and perhaps 
-partly in racial origin, they are akin to the Bantu 
tribes round the slopes of Mount Kenia and the river- 
side people of the Tana River ; also, less markedly, to 
the .A-kamba of the East African plains between these 
highlands and the sea coast. The Akikuvu speciallv 
are greatly interfused with Masai blood, so that 
many of them have a strong facial resemblance to the 
Masai, though not so tall in stature. It is very 
seldom that one meets amongst them the rather 
piog-nathous Pigmy type observable here and there 
amongst the nomad Ndorobo, who dwell on the 
fringe of their territory to the north. Obviously, thev 
are a remnant of the" Bantu invasion of East Africa, 
of a generalised negro type which at one time or 
another has intermixed very freelv with the Masai, 
retaining, however, their own Bantu dialect. This, 
by some centuries of comparative isolation, has be- 
come distinctly peculiar in the form of its prefixes 
and some elements of its grammar. The dense 
forests of their plateau country have enabled them 
to resist complete extermination and absorption at 
the hands of the Masai, when some century ago that 
bold offshoot of the Nilotic peoples overran the 
countries between the Victoria Nyanza and the Indian 
Ocean. 

According to the traditions collected bv Mr. and 
Mrs. Rputledge, the Akikuyu were preceded in their 
occupation of these forests by a diminutive race 
known as the .Agumba, and also bv the Ndorobo. 
The last-named is a nomadic people of verv mixed 
elements— composed partly of Bushmanlike 'Pigmies 

1 "With a Prehistoric Peopla The Akikuyu of British East .'\frica." Being 
some Account of the Method of Life and Mode of Thoueht found existent 
amongst a Nation on its First Contact with European Civilisation. By W. 
Scoresby Romledge and Katherine Routledge (born Pease). Pp. vxxii+tqz 
(London : Edward Arnold, 1910.) Pnce 21s. net. 

NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



and degraded Hamites — which ranges in scattered 
hunting colonies all over equatorial East Africa. The 
.Agumba may have been the Bushmanlike Pigmv race 
which seems to have inhabited East Africa in ancient 
times, and to have left many traces of its presence 
in existing tribes between Abyssinia on the north and 
Nyasa on the south. Or, again, the Agumba may 
have been a branch of the Congo Pigmies, the 
physical tvpe of which can apparently be traced as far 
east at the present day as the western slopes of 




a Neophyte as he dances pri-^r to 
Manhood. From " With a Prehistoric People. " 

Mount Elgon. According to the traditions collected 
by the authors, these Agumba finally went west- 
wards to "a big forest." 

Mr. and Mrs. Routledge think that the root-word 
kuyii refers to the great fig-trees which are abundant 
in the forests of the Akikuyu country, fig-trees, prob- 
ably, that produce bark cloth. But it mav also be 
a word meaning "up above," the lofty region, from 
the Bantu root kulu, gulu, or zulu, the letter I being 



4- 



NATURE 



[July 14, 19 10 



much disliked in many of these East African Bantu 
dialects, and either dropped or changed into a y 
sound. Certainly, according to the traditions of the 
Akikuvu, their upland country was until a hundred 
vears ago (more or less) a region of unbroken forest 
(we may add, West African in its flora and fauna) 
which was nourished by an exceedingly heavy rainfall. 
This great equatorial forest of Africa obviously 
extended at one period right across the continent to 
the shores of the Indian Ocean. It has left traces of 
its peculiar flora and even fauna in the islands of 
Zanzibar and Pemba, and on the north coast of Lake 
Nyasa. This must have been a forest which con- 
tained not only the West African antelopes and pigs, 
birds, spiders, and butterflies, still found in Kikuyu- 
land, but the gorilla and chimpanzee, and other types 
which once ranged uninterruptedly between \\'est 
Africa and Further India. Consequently, Kikuyu- 




lfe?«- 



land, from the point of view of palaeontology, would, 
if thtre were any Tertiary or alluvial deposits (dried- 
up lakes, &c.), probably yield as interesting results in 
its exploration from that point of view as in ethnology 
and botany. 

The book under review, besides giving these in- 
teresting details as to the traditions and chron- 
ology "of the Akikuyu, describes the people 
and their pursuits, their food and cookery, agri- 
culture, domestic animals, arts and crafts, war- 
fare and weapons, blood-drinking, betrothal and 
marriage, and general position of women, dances, 
initiation ceremonies, religion, conceptions of God, 
notions as to life after death, medicine, folk-lore; and 
also the position of this interesting people under the 
new British Administration. The authors have re- 
ceived much assistance from Mr. C. W. Hobley, one 
of the principal officials of East Africa, who is so 

NO. 2134, VOL. 84] 



very well known for his own ethnographical and 
linguistic studies of East African peoples. 

Specially noteworthy are the illustrations and 
description of the Kikuyu "bull-roarer" used in 
various ceremonies, the modelling of fetishes (human 
figures), blacksmith's work, and initiation ceremonies, 
with their appropriate dances and costumes. In the 
interesting article on the medicine-man, the etymology 
of his name — Mundu Mugu — is not quite rightly hit 
ofl (in the quotation from Mr. McGregor). Mugii is 
really a contraction of the prefix and root of the 
widespread Bantu word Mu-logu, or Mu-logo, inean- 
ing magician, either good or bad. This root -logo 
ranges mainly over western Bantu Africa, and assumes 
sometimes very altered forms, such as -doki, -lozi, 
-roho. It is a parallel to the equally widespread root 
nganga; but -logo has to do rather with the evil side 
of magic or of spiritual influence, while nganga may 

well have been in 
its origin applied 
to some new 
wisdom from the 
north, something 
to do with iron- 
working or 
superior k n o w- 
li. dge of a prac- 
tical, material 
Icind. (For in- 
stance, Bu-ngaiiga 
ill some Ba.ncu 
languages means 
" gunpowder.") 

There is an ap- 
pendix to the book 
which gives an in- 
teiesting note by 
the late Colonel 
j. A. Grant on 
iron-smelting in 
East Africa. 

In their biblio- 
graphy dealing 
with the Kikuyu 
and their lan- 
g u a g e, the 

authors omit any 
reference to the 
present writer's 
yocabulary of Ki- 
kuyu in his work 
on the Uganda 
Protectorate. For 
various reasons, 
this vocabulary, 
though short, is 
of interest, as it represents the dialect of the westei^n- 
most part of the Kikuyu range, and is therefore in- 
teresting for comparison with the nearest (but very 
dissimilar) Bantu dialects of the regions immediately 
to the east of the Victoria Nyanza. 

H. H. Johnston. 



TEMPERATURES IN THE 
SPHERED 



FREE ATMO- 



DR. WAGNER has given us a comprehensive dis- 
cussion of the temperature results obtained with 
registering balloons in Europe during the period July, 
1902-June, 1907, and has incidentally furnished an 
excellent practical tribute to the collective publication 



1 "Die Temperatur Verh.iltnisse in der freien 
der internationalen unbemannter Ballonaufstiege].' 
Heilr.ige zur Physik der freien Atmosphare. Bd. 
Verlag" von Otto Nemnich.) 



Atmosphare (Ersebniwe 
By Dr. Artliur W.agner. 
iii. Heft 2-3. (Leipzig: 



July 14, 1910] 



NATURE 



43 



of the international observations under the direction 
of Prof. Hergesell. The author's primary object was 
to deal with the annual variation of temperature, but 
he has found room also for the consideration of many 
associated questions. Altogether 3S0 ascents were 
considered, all of which reached 8 km. and twenty- 
nine of which reached 16 km. Doubtful observations 
were rejected. 

The principal features in the annual variation of 
temperature are as follows. From the surface up to 
3 km. the date of minimum temperature gets later 
and the annual range decreases by about 4° C. 
From 3 to 10 km. the minimum temperature occurs 
at the beginning of March, but at still greater heights 
there is a comparatively sudden jump back to the 
beginning of January. The annual range increases 
from 3 to 7-8 km. by about 4° C, then decreases up 
to 10 km. by about 6° C, and finally re- 
mains nearly constant from 11 to 16 km. 
The results agree, on the whole, with those 
obtained by the present writer and Harwood from a 
slightly dilTerent period of observation. Dr. Wagner 
deduces, from a consideration of the first two terms 
of the Fourier series expressing the variation, that 
the difference betw-een the maximum and the mean 
temperature exceeds that between the mean and ihe 
minimum, and that this asymmetry increases with 
height; it appears doubtful if it is justifiable to 
neglect the third term, which increases with height 
and tends to diminish the asymmetry mentioned. 

The effect of water vapour on the gradient of tem- 
' perature is shown in thf differences between winter 
and summer. The following table gives the gradients 
for summer (June, July, August) and winter (Decem- 
ber, January, February!, (i) from the present paper; 
(2) from the report of the present writer and Har- 
wood ; (3) for ascending saturated air : — 



1-2 . 


• 3-3 ■ 


• 53 


. 2-2 . 


. 5-6 . 


. 5-6 . 


• 51 


2-3 • 


■ 4-5 • 


. 5-0 . 


■ 43 ■ 


. 5-6 . 


■ 6-5 ■ 


• 5-4 


3-4 ■ 


• 57 • 


• 5-6 • 


. 5-6 . 


■ 5-4 • 


. 6-8 . 


• 5'5 


4-5 • 


. 6-2 . 


. 61 . 


. 6-5 . 


. 6-0 . 


• 7-3 ■ 


. 60 


S-6 . 


■ 7-0 . 


. 6-6 . 


. 70 . 


• 6-3 


■ 7-9 . 


6-5 


6-7 • 


. 6-9 . 


. 6-9 . 


• 7-3 ■ 


• 7-1 • 


. 86 


71 


7-8 . 


• 7-0 . 


■ 7-4 . 


• 7-6 . 


• 7-3 • 


. 90 . 


. 8-0 


8-9 . 


■ 59 ■ 


• Ti 


. 6-6 . 


■ 73 ■ 


■ 93 ■ 


■ S-5 


9-10 . 


• 5-0 • 


. 6-1 . 


■ 5-1 ■ 


■ 7-1 • 


. 9-6 


. 90 


lO-II . 


• 3-5 • 


■ 3-9 


■ 3-6 ■ 


• 43 • 


• — . 


• — 



From 3 to 8 km. ihe gradient is less in summer 
than in winter, while the difference between the 
" saturated " adiabatic gradients is greatest from 2 to 
8 km. The approximation to the adiabatic state is 
closer in summer than in winter. 

Dr. Wagner attributes the annual variation to con- 
vection and conduction from the earth's surface, to 
condensation of water vapour, and to radiation, solar 
and terrestrial. A further cause ought to be in- 
cluded, viz. the transference of energy in a horizontal 
direction. The effect of conduction might fairly be 
neglected, since even at 100 m., if conduction alone 
were active, the amplitude of the yearly variation 
would be less than i 'loooth of the amplitude at the 
surface. The decrease of the amplitude up to 3 km. 
appears to be a result of the action typified by 
v. Bezold's law. The increase above 3 km. is probably 
rightly attributed to the effect of the increased water 
vapour on the average gradient in the summer 
months. Condensation of water vapour is, more- 
over, held responsible for the relativelv slow cooling 
of the middle layers from summer to autumn, but it is 
probable that the above-mentioned horizontal trans- 
ference of energy and the radiation also contribute to 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



this effect. The radiation tends to increase the tem- 
perature of the earth and lower atmosphere when the 
amount of water vapour is increased, if the effect is 
not counterbalanced by increased reflection of solar 
radiation from clouds. In this connection it may be 
pointed out that there is no experimental evidence to 
justify the assumption repeatedly made that the air 
between 3-4 and 8 km. may be regarded as diather- 
manous. At 5 km. the average vapour pressure is 
not much below i mm., and the experiments of 
Paschen and Rubens and Aschkinass show that for 
a vapour pressure of i mm. half the radiation of a 
full radiator between 12 and 20/i would be absorbed 
by a path of about 400 m., and half that between 5 
and 8/i by a path of 50 m., while the CO, absorption 
would add slightly to the absorption in 'the former 
region ; and these results are affected but little by the 
later experiments of Scheiner and von Bahr. 

Dr. Wagner finds that the departures of the tem- 
perature in different localities from the general mean 
values are small except for south Europe, where the 
temperature is considerably above the mean in the 
convective region, and for east Europe, where the 
converse is the case. The peculiarity in the latter 
region is largely due to the influence of Pavlovsk, 
lat. 60°, which is the only station in the region 
besides Koutchino, lat. 56°. 

The mean value of H, , the height at which the 
advective region is reached, for different regions is 
as follows : — 



1054 



1018 



11-07 



West Europe 
1062 km. 



Dr. Wagner deduces from these results that the 
value of H^ decreases from ocean to continent, as 
well as from equator to pole. It is true that radiation 
effects alone would tend to make H^ less over a dry 
continental area than over the ocean at the same or 
a higher temperature, but it is doubtful if such an 
effect can be traced in these figures, according to 
which north Europe (Berlin and Hamburg) has a 
lower value than east Europe (Pavlovsk and 
Koutchino). 

In considering the variation of temperature with 
the pressure distribution. Dr. Wagner wisely adopts 
the plan of eliminating the annual variation, and as 
he uses no ascents from east or south Europe, the 
correction for the local variation of temperature is 
inconsiderable. It ought, however, to be remembere,d 
that, although the mean temperatures of the year are 
not far different, say, for Paris and Vienna, the cor- 
rections to be applied to ascents made in the same 
month at those two places are not necessarily the 
same. Dr. Wagner's results corroborate those pre- 
viously found in proving that cyclones are in general 
colder than anticyclones, but a consideration of special 
cases led to the important conclusion that for rapidly 
moving systems these conditions were reversed, a 
result foreshadowed by the work of Hanzlik. 

The mean temperature in October at 2 km. over 
Berlin on p. 05 is wrongly given as o'6° C, and this 
error is mainly responsible for the peculiar change in 
the half-yearly variation at that height. In differen- 
tiating Ab on p. gq the variation of T is not 
negligible. It is simpler to proceed from the funda- 
mental equations, which lead to the result that the 
height at which Ab is a maximum is given by 

/i = RT.,-/T,,= RT„ nearly, 
where 

_i_ _ f/i dh 
T,r~./„ '1^ 

and T,, is the temperature at the height h and T„ 
that at the surface. 



44 



NATURE 



[July m, 1910 



The paper includes useful tables giving the pres- 
sure and the density at different heights, the variation 
of temperature on surfaces of equal pressure, and the 
temperatures in different quadrants of cyclones and 
anticyclones. 

It is full of interest, and stands as an example of 
the "thorough" policy of Prof. Hann, to whom, 
indeed, it would not do discredit. E. Gold. 

THE GULF STREAM DRIFT AND THE 
]VEATHER OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

ALTHOUGH it has been known for very many 
years that the climate of these islands and of 
northern Europe generally is far milder than it would 
otherwise have been owing to a large body of warm 
water flowing past its shores from the south-west, 
it is only within recent years that attempts have been 
made to trace any detailed connection between the 
state of the Gulf Stream Drift ' and the weather. 

Now that systematic hydrographic observations 
have been accumulating for a number of years it is 
becoming possible to attack seriously this interesting 
problem, and the results so far obtained certainly 
look promising. 

The immediate causes of the weather in the British 
Isles are undoubtedly to be sought in the various 
atmospheric disturbances which arrive from the 
Atlantic, but there can be no doubt that another 
very important factor to be considered is the tem- 
perature of the adjacent seas. This is influenced by 
the Gulf Stream Drift. 

The problem is, however, complicated by the fact 
that there is some doubt as to whether the Gulf 
Stream Drift may not be a direct result of the atmo- 
spheric circulation in the huge cyclonic system which 
rests over the North Atlantic, with its centre at Ice- 
land. 

Be that as it may, there is undoubtedly a very 
intimate connection between the oceanic and atmo- 
spheric circulations in the North Atlantic region, so 
that if the atmospheric circulation becomes more 
vigorous, the Gulf Stream Drift moves faster, and 
vice versa. This is well shown in a paper by 
Meinardus in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift, xxii., 
398, 1905. Such a connection was, however, to be 
expected, not only if the Gulf Stream Drift were 
directly due to the atmospheric circulation, but also 
if, as seems more probable, both were due to the same 
cause, namely, the excessive cooling at the poles of 
the earth, coupled with the rotation of the earth about 
its axis. On this view both the oceanic and atmo- 
spheric circulations are of the nature of convection 
currents, and primarily due to the same cause, but 
in the course of ages these two distinct circulations 
have so adjusted themselves that any change in the 
one rapidly causes a corresponding change in the 
other. 

It seems probable, therefore, that the Gulf Stream 
Drift, owing to its inertia and its great heat capacitv, 
should have a similar effect to that of the flywheel 
of an engine, and lend to obliterate the disturbances 
due to the more unstable and variable atmospheric 
circulation. In this case the Gulf Stream Drift should 
have a very considerable regulating influence on the 
aeneral tvpe of weather prevailing in the British 
Isles. 

Let us consider the probable influence on the tem- 
perature and on the rainfall. In the winter the 
temperature of the Gulf Stream Drift is higher than 
that of the land, while in the summer it is lower. 



1 The varm water flowin 
le called the Gulf Stream, 
o extend further east than '. 
) Europe is kr 



! round the British U\, 
The Gulf Stream prop 
ilewfouTidland, while it 
own as the Gulf Streai 



> to Scandinav a used to 
r is now considered not 
fan-like extension which 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



Consequently during the winter time the winds blov;- 
ing from the Atlantic tend to raise the temperature 
of the land, while in the summer they tend to lower 
it, and it is clear that variations in the temperature 
of the Drift must be expected to affect the tempera- 
ture of the winds blowing over it, and consequently 
the temperature on land as well. Such effects on the 
land temperature will probably be far more important 
in the winter than in the summer, owing to the rela- 
tively greater power of the solar radiation during the 
summer. 

The effect on the rainfall will be equally marked, for 
the amount of inoisture carried by the winds and 
available for precipitation as rain depends largely upon 
the temperature of the sea over which they have 
blown. The warmer the sea the more moisture is 
taken up and the more precipitation may be expected 
on the neighbouring land. 

In this way, for instance, it is possible to account 
for the low rainfall last year in the western parts of 
Great Britain and Ireland — parts which are usually 
very wet — for during 1909 the temperature of the Gulf 
Stream Drift was below the normal, and hence the 
winds blowing from it were not so heavily charged 
with moisture as usual. 

The somewhat lower land temperature seems to have 
just about compensated for this by the time the winds 
reached the east of Great Britain, so that the rain fell 
there instead of in the west. The result of this was 
an abnormally high rainfall in the east, and with the 
low one in tlie west the rainfall over the British Isles 
as a whole was exactly equal to the average. 

It will be very interesting to see if this is what may 
be generally expected in years when the Gulf Stream 
Drift is weaker than usual. 

There is clearly a possibility of being able to predict 
the general character of the weather in these islands 
several months in advance from the results of hydro- 
graphic observations. It is, of course, a very complex 
question, and at present one cannot be too confident, 
but I am certainly of the opinion that =.uch predic- 
tions will be possible. 

In another place I have thrown out the suggestion 
that, as the February hydrographic observations made 
in the Irish Sea this year were almost identical with 
those of last year, there was some probability that the 
weather during 1910 would be somewhat similar to 
that of last year. It was never expected that the sug- 
gestion would attract the attention it has done, but it 
is interesting to note that the May hydrographic 
observations are also very similar to those of last 
year — if anything, even less favourable. 

H. Bassett. 



PROF. G. V. SCHIAPARELLI. 

PROF. SCHIAPARELLI, whose death we briefly 
announced last week, for many years occu- 
pied a prominent position in the world of science. 
Half a century has passed since he began his career 
as second assistant in the Brera Observatory of 
Milan, and nearly as many since he was elected to 
fill the position of director. In that position he 
exhibited much energy, and increased the reputation 
of the observatory. But his greatest success came 
to him early, and though he worked long and dili- 
gently, giving evidence of patient industry and prac- 
tical skill as an observer, he will be remembered 
mainly for having satisfactorily established the con- 
nection between meteors and comets. It was a bril- 
liant discovery founded on acute penetration and 
sound reasoning. It was, moreover, a discovery that 
the public were able to appreciate, and by popular 
applause he was lifted at once into the front rank 



July 14, 19 10] 



NATURE 



45 



of astronomers. He was entitled to all the renown 
which he acquired. For though others may have 
entertained similar views and expressed them more 
or le-,s distinctly, they fell short of demonstration. 
Prof. Kirkwood, for e.\aniple, had put the pertinent 
question, " May not our periodic meteors be the debris 
of ancient but now disintegrated comets, whose 
matter has become distributed around their orbits?" 
At a moment when we are remembering with grati- 
tude the eminent services of the distinguished Italian 
astronomer, there is no necessity to stir old con- 
troversies; but when so many, from the time of 
Hallev, have been so near a solution of the puzzle, 
it mav quicken our appreciation of his genius to 
remember that he carried the question one step beyond 
his predecessors, removing it from the grounds of 
conjecture to the certainty of conviction. In this 
connection it is not out of place to recall the remark- 
able series of letters that Schiaparelli addressed to 
Father .Secchi in 1866, models of close reasoning lead- 
ing to a successful result. But as is frequently the 
case when a brilliant discovery is made, it is possible 
to detect a certain amount of luck contributing' to the 
final outcome. 

Schiaparelli 's crowning success was the recognition 
of the similarity of the orbit of the .August meteors 
with that of the comet of 1862. That this particular 
comet of long period should have returned to the 
sun only a few years previously to the discovery, and 
that its path had been well determined, was a most 
fortunate circumstance, and one that not only 
strengthened the evidence of identification, but 
affected the popular estimate of the certainty of the 
result. Similarly, with the near coincidence of the 
return of the comet of 1866 with the great November 
shower, and less conspicuously that of the 1S61 comet 
with the April Lyrids, astronomers had the advantage 
of dealing with trustworthy elements. If these 
comets had passed through perihelion without being 
observed an important link would have been wanting 
in the chain of evidence. .As it is, these earliest cases 
of identification are the most conspicuous and the 
surest examples of a relation, as significant as it was 
unexpected. For his part in the happy result 
Schiaparelli was deservedly awarded the gold medal of 
the Roval .Astronomical Society in 1S72. 

In some other directions the work of Schiaparelli 
has not received the same complete recognition. In 
1877, when Mars was in a favourable position for 
observation, he announced the detection of the 
famous canals which have since been the subject of 
fierce dispute and controversy. Whether these 
"canals," interrupting the continental areas, are 
existent and permanent phenomena has been much 
questioned ; though the doubts expressed do not relate 
so much to the existence as to the interpretation that 
has been placed upon them. Schiaparelli regarded 
the 'gemination" of the canals as a periodical 
phenomenon depending on the seasons, and was 
firmly convinced of their alternate obliteration and 
reappearance. The only point on which we need insist 
here is the effect that his industry and acuteness of 
vision have had on the development of astronomical 
observation. It has been the means of attracting a 
vast amount of attention to the planet, has enormously 
increased the activity of observation, and led to the 
training of a class of observers, who have taken up 
the subject of planetary markings with avidity. 
Schiaparelli has written much on the appearance of 
Mars, and a very lai;ge literature has collected round 
this subject, due largely to his initiative. 

.Another subject with which his name will be con- 
nected is the attempt to derive the times of rotation of 
Mercury and Venus. Our information on this topic 



is vague, and the data uncertain. Notwithstanding 
the care bestowed on the observations, and the 
plausible nature of his deductions, his results have 
been accepted with some hesitation. From his 
patient watching, and from the length of time devoted 
to the study, his conclusion that Mercury turns on 
its axis in the same time that it revolves' round the 
sun is entitled to very great consideration. This result 
was published in 1S82, and it was not until some 
years later, 1S90, that he declared that Venus behaved 
in a similar manner to Mercury. The long interval 
showed that Schiaparelli did not jump to conclusions, 
and the limits he assigned to the rotation, between 
six and nine months, prove that he was not inclined 
to accept a hypothesis, however specious, in fa\our 
of the results of observation. 

These three conclusions, having reference to the 
connection of meteors with comets, to the surface 
markings of Mars, and to the velocity of rotation of 
the interior planets, are no small achievement in the 
life of one astronomer. It need not be said that they 
do not exhaust his scientific activity. A vast amount 
of routine work, of double-star measurement, and of 
the position of planets, stands to his credit. He was 
the author of some 250 papers in various journals, 
and his memory is as much entitled to our respectful 
homage for his industrv as for his originalitv. 

\v: E. p. 



PROF. ]. G. GALLE. 
VY^ITH deep regret we have to announce the death, 
** on July 10, at ninety-eight years of age, of 
the veteran astronomer Prof. J. G. Galle, the doven of 
the .Associates of the Royal .Astronomical Society, into 
which body he was elected in 1848. For nianv vears 
he had been connected with the Berlin Observatory, 
and will be remembered as the last of the little band 
of astronomers who were associated in the discovery 
of Neptune. Galle it was who had the good fortune 
to carry to complete fruition the successful analyses 
of .Adams and of Le A'errier. It was his lucky chance 
to compare Bremiker's map with the sky, to detect 
the planet, and establish its identity by determining 
the motion. He long outlived all his companions and 
associates in that historic scene enacted in the Berlin 
Ooservatory on September 23, 1846, the antecedents of 
which have been told so many times that it is un- 
necessary to refer to them here more particularly. It 
is more pertinent to recall, as more likelv to have 
been forgotten, that he was one of the first to have 
seen the "crape" ring of Saturn. When this dis- 
covery was announced in 1850, simultaneously by 
Bond and Dawes, Galle directed attention to some 
observations he had made twelve years earlier, in 
J838-9, in which he had actually measured the 
diameter of this interior dusk}' ring. The observations 
were communicated at the time to the Berlin 
.Acadeniy, but Galle did not insist on their import- 
ance, as he could not persuade himself that the 
phenomenon was permanent and not due to the eticct 
of contrast. 

From Berlin, Galle went to Breslau, and there he 
proposed that method of determining the solar 
parallax, by observations of small planets, which has 
since proved so successful. His earliest attempts in 
this direction were applied to measures of Phocaea, 
and later, from observations of Flora, he deduced the 
value of 8'87". This was at a time when astronomers 
were beginning to discard Encke's value of 8'58" 
in favour of Le Verrier's 8'95". In another direction 
it is not possible to overlook a very distinct service 
which Galle rendered to astronomy. His catalogue 
of cometarv orbits has long been a standard work 



NO. 2124. VOL. 84] 



46 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



of which many astronomers have proved the uselvil- 
ness. But comets and meteors long had great 
attractions for the aged astronomer. It will be re- 
membered that he was among the first to point out 
a connection between the April meteors and Comet I, 
1S61, and to direct attention to the fact that Biela's 
comet would explain the - appearance of the 
Andromeda shower. 

Galle remained at Breslau in full scientific activity 
until 1897, when he retired to Potsdam after a long 
life earnestly devoted to astronomy, the interests of 
which he did much to forward by his iJeal and 
energy. 

THE HON. CHARLES STEWART ROLLS. 

IT is with deep sorrow that we have to record the 
death of the Hon. C. S. Rolls by an accident on 
Tuesday last, during the aviation meeting at Bourne- 
mouth. It seems that Mr. Rolls went up in his 
biplane for the alighting competition, and during the 
descent the newly fitted tail-piece of his aeroplane 
suddenly broke, and the whole machine collapsed and 
fell to the earth from a height of forty or fifty feet. 
iVIr. Rolls was picked up unconscious and died almost 
immediately from concussion and laceration of the 
brain. 

Charles Stewart Rolls was the third son of Lord 
and Lady Llangattock, and was born in 1877 and 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, _ Cambridge. 
From his early youth he was deeply interested in 
things mechanical, and his brief career, so sadly 
brought to an end, shows how successfully he utilised 
his mechanical capacity. 

Different from many men, Charlie Rolls, as his 
friends called him, when he set about doing anything, 
alwavs entered deeply into the subject in a thoroughly 
scientific manner. Whether the object on hand was 
connected with cycling, ballooning, motoring, or 
aeroplaning, in the last two of which he was a 
pioneer, it was always the same, and his mind was 
continually bent on finding out the " whys " and the 
■' wherefores," and improving the existing state of 
things. The thoroughness with which he was always 
associated was strongly brought to my notice in the 
manv balloon trips that I made with him, and his 
inquiring turn of mind was often displayed when 
perched up aloft in the clouds. Perhaps the best 
example is instanced in the quiet manner in which 
he spent weeks in practising gliding before finally 
mounting the full-sized aeroplane. 

It has been said of Rolls that he was born restless, 
and those who knew him know how true this descrip- 
tion was. Yet he was never flurried, but always calra 
and collected. It was this trait in his character that 
probablv made him so successful in his manifold 
ventures. 

In the death of Rolls, Britain has lost her most 
daring and brilliant aviator, and his friends mourn the 
loss of a dear comrade. William J. S. Lockyer. 



NOTES. 

We congratulate Sir William Crookes, F.R.S., on the 
new honour conferred upon him, namely, that of appoint- 
ment to the Order of Merit, announced in the London 
Gazette of Friday last. 

The death is announced, at the age of forty-eight years, 
of Prof. Hugo Erdman, professor of inorganic chemistry 
in ijii; Berlin Technical High School. 

TiiE annual meeting of the Imperial Cancer Research 
Fund will be held at the Royal College of Surgeons on 
Wednesday, July 20, Mr. A. J. Balfour presiding. 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



The Globe states that Herr Frick, who for many years 
has been engaged in exploration and scientific research, 
particularly in South America, where he studied the habits 
and customs of the Indian tribes, has been murdered by 
Indians in southern Bolivia. 

The death is announced in the Athciutciiin of Prof. T. 
Zona, of the University of, and observatory at, Palermo ; 
also of Prof. A. P. Sokoloff, formerly the holder of the 
chair of geodesy at St. Petersburg, and more recently the 
vice-director of the Pulkowa Observatory. Prof. Sokoloff 
retired from the latter position in 1905 in consequence of 
ill-health. 

The following officers of the Royal Society of Medicine 
were elected last week for the year beginning on October i 
next : — president, Sir Henry Morris, Bart. ; honorary 
treasurers. Sir W. S. Church, Bart., and Sir F. H. 
Champneys, Bart. ; honorary librarians, Mr. R. J. Godlee 
and Dr. Norman Moore ; honorary secretaries. Dr. A. 
Latham and Mr. H. S. Pendlebury. 

At the annual business meeting of the Museums 
Association, held last week in York, .Mr. H. M. Platnauer 
was elected president, and Messrs. C. H. Hunt and Deas 
vice-presidents. .\ resolution was adopted by the meeting 
expressing the desire that, in any revision of the grants- 
in-aid to provincial museums, the Board of Education 
would consider the advisability of continuing assistance 
towards the purchase of science objects. 

Among the communications to be brought before the 
eighth International Physiological Congress at Vienna in 
September ne.xt are the following : — demonstration of 
method of testing colour perception spectrometer and 
demonstration of lantern test for colour-blindness, by Dr. 
Edridge-Green ; the changes produced by radium in normal 
cells, by Dr. A. S. Griinbaum ; and the summation of 
stimuli, by Drs. F. S. Lee and M. Morse. 

The thirty-ninth meeting of the French Association for 
the Advancement of Science will be held at Toulouse on 
.August I to 7. The president for the year is Prof. C. M. 
Gariel. Among the names of the presidents of the 
numerous sections, we notice the following professors of 
the University of Toulouse : — Prof. Emile Mathias, 
physics ; Prof. Victor Paquier, geology ; Prof. M. Leclerc 
du Sablon, botany ; and Prof. Ch. Fabre, agronomy. M. 
Emile Marchand, the director of the Observatory of Pic 
du Midi, is the president of the section of meteorology. 

The annual meeting of the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference will be held at Cambridge on July 26 and 27. In 
his presidential address, Mr. F. Ransome will deal mainly 
with the cultivation of medicinal plants and with medicinal 
plant investigation. .Among the subjects of papers promised 
for the meeting are ; — the bacteriological testing of dis- 
infectants ; an insect pest in belladonna ; the proposed 
essential oil monographs ; phosphoric acid and ammonium 
phosphate ; the limitations of water analyses reports, both 
bacterial and chemical ; and note on the periodicity of the 
properties of the elements : new arrangement. 

We have been favoured with a copy of the preliminary 
programme of the fifth International Congress of Photo- 
graphy, which .is to be held in Brussels on .August i to 6 
next, from which we learn that section i. (organised by 
the Socic!'!^ franijaise de Photographic) will deal with 
photo-chemistry and the scientific applications of photo- 
graphy ; section ii. (organised by the Association beige de 
Photographie), the technique of photography and the in- 
dustrial applications of photography ; and section iii. 



July 14, 1910] 



NATURE 



47 



(organised by the Institut international de Bibliographie), 
photographic documents and legislation relating to docu- 
mentary photograpliy. As has already been stated in these 
columns, the correspondent for the United Kingdom is 
Mr. Chapman Jones, n Eaton Rise, Ealing, W. 

The death occurred at Washington, on June 26, of .Prof. 
Cyrus Thomas, a veteran authority on the diverse subjects 
of ethnology and entomology. He was born in Tennessee 
in 1825, and from 1850 until 1865 he practised law. For 
the next four years he was pastor of a Lutheran Church. 
He was then successively an assistant on the U.S.' geo- 
logical surveys of the territories, professor of natural 
sciences at the Southern Illinois Normal University, State 
entomologist of Illinois, a member of the U.S. Entomo- 
logical Commission, and (since 1882) a member of the 
staff of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology. His earlier 
writings were on entomological topics, but his most 
numerous and best known works were concerned wit-h the 
North .American Indians of prehistoric times. 

\ LIST of the Civil List Pensions granted during the 
year ended March 31, 1910, has just been published as 
a Parliamentary Paper. -Among the pensions granted in 
recognition of scientific work we notice the following : — 
Mr. Thomas Bryant, in recognition of his services towards 
the advancement of surgery, lOoZ. ; Mrs. M. L. Gamgee, 
in consideration of the valuable contributions to physio- 
logical science of her husband, the late Prof. Arthur 
Gamgee, •jal. ; Mrs. E. J. Seeley, in consideration of the 
valuable writings on geology and palaeontology of her 
husband, the late Prof. H. G. Seeley, 70/. ; Miss H. S. 
Murphy, in consideration of the services rendered by her 
father, the late Prof. E. W. Murphy, in furthering the use 
of chloroform, 50/. ; Mr. J. Sully, in recognition of his 
services to psychology, in addition to his existing pension, 
95/. ; Mrs. Joanna Calder Eraser, in consideration of the 
value of the investigations in anatomy and embryology of 
her husband, the late Prof. A. Eraser, 70/. ; Miss Julia 
Dobson, in recognition of the important services rendered 
by her brother, the late Surgeon-Major G. E. Dobson, 
F.R.S., to zoological science, in addition to her existing 
pensions, 15/. 

Prof. T. H. Core, formerly professor of physics in the 
Owens College, Manchester, died on July 9 at Withington, 
near Manchester, in his seventy-fourth year. When the 
late Balfour Stewart was appointed professor of natural 
philosophy in the Owens College in 1870, Mr. Core came 
from Edinburgh to take up the post of professor of physics, 
a post which he held until his retirement in 1905. Up to 
the appointment of a professor of applied mathematics in 
1881, he took charge of the more mathematical parts of 
the physics teaching, but as time went on he withdrew 
from the more advanced work, and for several years before 
his retirement only lectured on e.\perimental mechanics. 
He was an e.xtremely clear lecturer, and many Owens' 
men who have distinguished themselves ' in science owe 
llieir first love of their subject to Prof. Core. He was in 
great demand as a popular lecturer on scientific subjects 
throughout the cotton towns around Manchester, and acted 
as examiner to many of the better schools of the district. 
He was of a retiring disposition, and . never took a 
prominent part in university politics. Outside his teaching 
work, his principal interest lay in astronomy, and he was 
one of the founders, and the first president, of the Northern 
.Astronomical Association. 

It is with regret that we learn of the death of Dr. 
Wilhelm Winkler, who since 1887 made valuable observa- 
tions of sun-spots, double stars, comets, &c., at his 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



private observatory at Jena. Born at Eisenberg in 1842, 
Dr. Winkler studied at Leipzig, and developed a practical, 
as well as mathematical, ability, which displayed. itself in 
the making of watches and clocks. Then in 1875 he set 
up a 4J-inch Steinheil refractor at Gohlis, and made 
position-measures of comets, observations of occultations, 
&c. Later, in 1878, he commenced daily observations of 
the solar surface, communicating his results to Prof. R. 
Wolf and then to Prof. Wolfer. As ill-health prevented 
him from observing regularly, he directed observations 
made by his wife, and so kept up the continuity of the 
records. Removing to Jena in 1887, he employed a 6-inch 
refractor, fitted with clock, circles, and micrometers, for 
the observation of double stars. Unhappily, about two 
and a half years ago, a sarcoma necessitated the removal 
of his left eye, and this, with other serious complaints, 
considerably curtailed his astronomical work and caused 
him much suffering, which lasted until his death on 
June 17. Dr. Winkler's genial presence and devoted 
labours will, however, be sorely missed by his numerous 
friends and fellow workers. 

We notice with regret the announcement of the death, 
on July 9, of Mr. Harry W. Cox, at the age of forty-six. 
Mr. Cox was one of the first in this country to realise the 
importance to the medical profession of Rbntgen's dis- 
covery, and to take up the design and manufacture of 
X-ray apparatus. He commenced at once to manufacture 
coils, interrupters, and accessory apparatus for the applica- 
tion of the X-rays in medical diagnosis, and to import 
X-ray tubes and other adjuncts to enable medical men in 
this country to apply the new discovery. He was always 
ready to work out new ideas and designs, and probably 
his most noteworthy achievement was to place on a prac- 
tical basis the stereoscopic method of localising foreign 
bodies, with its corollary, the cross-thread method of 
localisation. The stereoscopic method also enables a 
picture to be obtained of the position of parts in cases of 
fracture and dislocation. In his investigations he exposed 
himself freely to the action of the X-rays, and, like so many 
of the pioneers in ■ this work, he contracted X-ray 
dermatitis in a severe form. The disease progressed 
slowly but relentlessly, and he died after several years 
of suffering. Now that the danger of undue exposure to 
X-rays is understood, and efficient protective apparatus has 
been constructed, there is no need for an operator to take 
any risks, while patients run no risk whatever ; for the 
exposures necessary for purposes of diagnosis are short, 
while for purposes of treatment the dose can now be 
accurately measured and regulated. There is thus great 
cause for gratitude and honour to those who, at the expense 
of permanent injury to themselves, have enabled their 
successors to work in this field in safety. 

A TABLET in memory of Richard Hakluyt was unveiled 
in Bristol Cathedral on Thursday last. Among those pre- 
sent were Sir Clements Markham, K.C.B., E.R.S. (repre- 
senting the Royal Geographical Society), Sir W. Lee 
Warner (representing the India Office), Admiral Sir Lewis 
Beaumont (of the Navy Records Society), Mr. W. Phillips 
(of the American Embassy), and Mr. A. Gray (of the 
Hakluyt Society). Sir Clements Markham said that West- 
minster Abbey, where Hakluyt was buried, or ' Christ 
Church, Oxford,' where he was a student, would have 
formed a fitting place for that memorial, but, on the 
whole, Bristol had the better right. It was from that 
ancient port that there were sent the first voyages of dis- 
covery which occupied Hakluyt's thoughts and researches. 
.\t Bristol he was canon for niorr- tlian thirtv rears, and 



48 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



there \\f must have conducted his researches and collected 
information. The most important feature in Hakluyt's 
character was his strenuous continuity of aim through life. 
He set himself to remedy two great evils of his time — the 
ignorance of English seamen in matters relating to the 
scientific branches of their profession, and the loss of 
records and stories of ancient voyages and travels. Besides 
writing and lecturing, he travelled a great deal, collecting 
stories and information, and set on foot work such as was 
now carried on by the Royal Geographical Society and 
other organisations. He was one of the founders of our 
Celonial Empire. 

In distributing the prizes last week to the students of 
Guy's Hospital Medical School, Prof. Howard Marsh said 
that medicine had now become a department of biology, 
and it had given a powerful impetus to the study of bio- 
logical science. The result had been the discovery of a 
new world of micro-organisms, of the existence of which 
nothing was known before the days of Pasteur and Lister. 
Bv far the greater number of diseases were due to the 
prtsence of micro-organisms. Who could doubt that in 
the next thirty years tuberculosis, which in England caused 
the death of 70,000 persons every year and the spoiUng of 
the lives of probably twice that number, would be entirely 
swept away? Science was the acquisition of facts, and the 
results of research had been one of the marvels of our 
time. How should research be carried out? Could the 
man in the street tell them that? Was any man who 
knew nothing of biology in a position to save life? How 
was such a man justified in bringing charges of inhumanity 
and cruelty against men of science, and saying that what 
was being done ought to be put down by the strong hand 
of the law? When the public knew what advances had 
been made, and were told by such men as Lister and Paget 
that they had been gained by the only method by which 
they could have been achieved, who was competent to 
contradict them? And when it was understood that what 
was being done was done under Government supervision, 
and that no man could perform an experiment without a 
special licence, would not the public be satisfied that the 
matter was in safe hands? Would they not go further, 
and be grateful to those who, with unending labour, 
rendered such great services, and would they not extend 
to them their full confidence and support? 

The Milan correspondent of the Daily Chronicle states 
that an Italian Royal Commission, appointed to inquire 
into the condition of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, has re- 
ported that the structure is in danger of collapse. The 
tower was begun in 1170, and took nearly a couple of 
centuries to complete. " Our explorations," say the 
members of the commission, " led to the wholly un- 
foreseen and distressing discovery that, instead of being 
founded upon a massive, spacious base, as was gener- 
ally believed since Grassi, in 183 1, and Rohault de Fleury, 
in 1859, published their collections of plans, the 
actual foundation simply consists of ring-shaped masonry 
exactly corresponding in girth to the huge cylindrical mass 
superimposed thereon. In fact, the diameter of the inner 
ring foundations is 7 metres 40 centimetres, which is pre- 
cisely that of the space inside the tower. This discovery, 
taken together with the further astonishing fact that the 
foundations are merely 3 metres (9 feet 9 inches) beneath 
the surface, constitutes henceforth incontrovertible proof 
that the campanile was originally built perpendicularly, and 
that its leaning propensities, which are becoming more and 
more accentuated, are due to other causes than the inten- 
tion of its constructors." It is stated that the tower is 
farther from the vertical than it was eighty years ago. 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



The reasons given for this difference are principally that 
the base of the tower has always been immersed in water, 
and that a deep cistern dug quite near seventy years ago 
with the unsuccessful object of draining a basin around the 
foot of the tower made matters worse. The tower was 
also considerably weakened by earlier excavation for a 
basin for mensuration purposes. 

In a letter to the current issue of the Lancet, Dr. H. W. 
Thomas, of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 
gives an interesting account of the special screening against 
mosquitoes which has been effected on a freight boat of 
the Booth Line sailing from Liverpool to Porto Velho, a 
small place up the Rio Madeiro, a tributary of the Amazon. 
The screening of the ship is so arranged that the living 
quarters of the crew and officers are protected from 
niosquitoes. Each port-hole is provided with a movable 
screened frame, which is so adapted that the port-hole can 
be closed and screwed down without withdrawing the 
screen. The entrances to the main deck are protected by 
wire gauze spring doors, and at each side of the ash- 
shoot, which is of necessity open to the ingress of mosqui- 
toes, extra sets of screened doors are placed. The doors 
and port-holes of the outside bridge deck cabins are also 
screened ; the doctor's quarters and the hospital are 
situated further aft, and are thoroughly screened. The 
interior arrangements permit of no old-fashioned water 
reservoir over the wash-basin in the cabins, and running 
water is supplied everywhere. The slops from the basins 
run into pipes emptying directly over the side. This 
arrangement very satisfactorily deprives the Stegomyia 
larvee of breeding places in the cabins. The ventilator 
pipes in the cabins and along the alleyways are each pro- 
tected by a wire gauze screened frame, which slips into a 
grooved moulding fixed round the shaft, and is kept in 
place by three small buttons. The screening is composed 
of iS-mesh phosphor-bronze wire, a material which is more 
suitable for a moist, humid climate than brass or copper. 

The Journal of Hygiene for April (vol. x., No. i) con- 
tains a report on an investigation of " grouse disease " 
bv Drs. Cobbett and Graham-Smith. It was found that 
the diseased birds generally harbour large numbers of 
intestinal worms, in particular a " strongylus " {Tricho- 
strongylus pergracilis), which may occur in hundreds or 
even thousands. The conclusion is that the disease does 
not appear to be a specific bacterial infection, but that 
those birds which are more or less severely affected by 
strongyli suffer injury, partly by interference with nutri- 
tion, partly by the absorption of irritating or poisonous 
substances, which weakens them, and in bad weather may 
prevent them from gaining a living, and also renders them 
susceptible to various bacterial infections. Messrs. 
Hewlett, ViUar and Revis also contribute a second part 
of their investigations on the nature of the cellular elements 
present in milk. Further evidence is presented showing 
that the cells are not leucocytes, that they may be present 
in enormous numbers in perfectly healthy cows, and that 
they are not necessarily indicative of any inflammatory 
condition. 

In the first part of Folk-lore for the current year Dr. 
W. H. R. Rivers publishes a paper on the position of the 
father's sister in Oceania, particularly with reference to 
Banks' Island. The problem to be explained is the close 
connection between an individual and his father's sister in 
the case of people among whom the rule of matrilinear 
descent prevails. This relation closely resembles that of 
a man with his maternal uncle in patrilinear races, and it 
has therefore been suggested that the relation in Banks' 



JULV 14, 1910] 



NATURE 



49 



Island may be a survival in mother-right of a preceding 
condition of patrilinear descent. This theory Dr. Rivers 
dismisses as quite opposed to all known facts. The theory 
which he finally adopts is that when, for instance, a frag- 
ment of a man's umbilical cord and parings of his nails 
are given to the sister of his father, the intention is to 
entrust them to her as the representative of a group which, 
according to rules of descent, is necessarily foreign, and 
therefore hostile, in the hope that she may be able to pre- 
vent any member of that group from working black magic 
against her nephew. It is also possible that this strange 
relation indicates an increasing recognition of the kinship 
of the father, who deputes his sister to perform certain 
acts as an assertion of his paternity, thus bringing her 
functions into line with those which, according to one 
view, belong to the Couvade. 

The r.^mains of the gigantic extinct .Australian marsupial, 
Diprotodon, have just been re-arranged in a newly con- 
structed wall-case in the Geological Department of the 
British Museum (Natural History). The restored skeleton 
of the animal, for which bones and plaster casts were 
given by the South .Australian Museum, through Dr. E. C. 
Stirling, F.R.S., occupies the greater part of the case. It 
displays especially well the massive carpal and tarsal bones 
and the diminutive toes, which are so characteristic a 
feature. The limb-bones from Queensland, described by 
Owen, are arranged on a shelf above the skeleton, and 
include the first discovered femur, which was originally 
mistaken for that of an elephant. The skull, as described 
by Owen, was purchased in a restored state in a sale- 
room, and has now been carefully divested of all super- 
fluous plaster, proving that the restoration erroneously 
increased its length by 4 inches. With the skull are several 
well-preserved jaws showing all the teeth. Palaeontologists 
are still awaiting with interest the promised complete 
description of Diprotodon by Drs. Stirling and Zietz, of 
the South Australian Museum. 

.Among other additions to the exhibited collection in the 
Geological Department of the British Museum (Natural 
History) may be mentioned a new model of the skull and 
mandible of the gigantic extinct lemur, Megaladapis 
insigiiis, from Madagascar. Thanks to the explorations 
of Dr. H. F. Standing in the swamps, the model is no 
longer in any respect hypothetical. It clearly suggests an 
animal adapted for an aquatic life, and the characters of 
the known limb-bones confirm this suggestion. To the 
table-case near the fossil lemurs has just been added a 
plaster cast of the much-discussed Palaeolithic human skull 
from Galley Hill, in Kent. The original specimen stll' 
; miins in a private collection. 

In the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine for the current 
month, the Rev. F. D. Morice records a male saw-fly from 
Brockenhurst new to the British fauna. Provisionally the 
specimen is referred to Xeurotoma mandibularis, a Con- 
tinental species hitherto known only by the female. A 
detailed description, in Latin and English, is appended. 

British Birds for July opens with an obituary notice, 
accompanied by an excellent portrait, of the late Mr. Boyd 
.Alexander, who, it will be remembered, was murdered on 
April 2 by hostile natives in the heart of Africa to the 
north-west of Abeshr, -in the Wadai. In another article 
Mr. \V. Farren records, with illustrations, the nesting of 
tlie marsh-warbler in Cambridgeshire in June, 1909 ; only 
one previous instance, and that many years ago, is known 
of the species breeding in that county. 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



It has been pointed out by a correspondent that in a 
note upon a paper by Prof. Steinmann on ammonite phylo- 
geny (N.vruKE, vol. Ixxxii., p. 289, January 6) the author 
was somewhat misrepresented. It was stated " that, in 
place of being a member of the ' Circumnodosi ' group, 
Heterotissotia is really related to the Triassic Ceratites, 
of which it is to be regarded as the Cretaceous 
descendant.". It should have read "that Heterotissotia is 
nearly related to the Triassic Ceratites, and especially 
the ' Circumnodosi ' group, of which it is to be regarded 
as the Cretaceous descendant." 

In the May number of SpoUa Zeylanica Mr. T. South- 
well records the capture of a large female saw-fish (Pristis 
cuspidata) on the Ceylon pearl-banks in December last. 
The specimen, which measured 15 feet in length, and 
weighed about 17 lb., was of special interest on account 
of containing twenty-three intra-uterine embryos. All 
these embryos were in a horizontal position ; but while 
some had their beaks close to the aperture of the cloaca, 
others were exactly opposite. They measured 14 inches in 
length, and in each the yolk-sac was united to the abdomen 
by a placental stalk 5 inches long. The teeth, from twenty- 
three to twenty-eight in number on both sides, were 
arranged irregularly, varying between alternation and a 
distribution in pairs. 

In the same issue {Spolia Zeylanica, vol. vi., p. 174) 
Mr. H. O. Barnard states, as the result of personal 
observation, that the alleged partiality of cobras for music 
is a myth. " The sole effect, so far as I could see, was 
to arouse their curiosity, as they would project their heads 
out of their holes equally well for any kind of noise, from 
the shrill piping affected by snake-charmers down to the 
tinkling noise made by dragging a chain past their dwell- 
ing, or even that made by light and repeated tappings with 
a switch close to their holes. It would appear, however, 
that the tone must be high, as grave sounds, such as tom- 
tom beating or deep notes from a flute, had no effect upon 
them." Mr. Barnard likewise confirms the observations, 
made in the London Zoological Gardens, as to the absence 
of a " fascinating " influence of serpents on birds. 

In No. 1745 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National 
Museum Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell discusses the bees of 
the genus Nomia, with the description of several new 
species. All the American members of the group are re- 
ferred to the typical genus, although an alternative classi- 
fication is mentioned, in which Nomia would be excluded 
from the American fauna. If this scheme were adopted, 
there would, however, be difficulties with regard to the 
non-American forms, which are not easy to classify. " The 
group," it is added, " is a peculiar one, and apparently 
its little morphological jokes must not be taken too 
seriously." 

The gipsy moth is so important a pest that a laboratory 
has been established at Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts, 
known as the Gipsy Moth Parasite Laboratory, where a 
complete study may be made of the parasites. Mr. J. 0. 
Crawford has issued a description of several members of 
the families Chalcididee, Perilampidse, Pteromalidse, and 
Eulophidee occurring in the United States or introduced 
from Europe or Japan and known to be parasitic on the 
moth. The paper is published by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. 

The Agricultural Journal of British East Africa does not 
confine itself entirely to agriculture, but includes papers 
on other subjects connected with the Protectorate. Part iv. 
of vol. ii. contains, as special agricultural papers, accounts 



50 



NATURE 



[July 14, 19 10 



of the Guayule rubber industry and of Ceara rubber in 
German East Africa, in addition to papers on tea cultiva- 
tion at Limoru. Among the more general papers is an 
interesting diary of a journey made by Mr. E. Battis- 
combe down the Tana River ; photographs are reproduced 
showing typical views and native huts. 

The current issue of the West Indian Bulletin (No. 4, 
vol. -x.) contains a description by Mr. Josepfi Jones of 
some cacaos grown at the Dominica Botanic Station. The 
root disease of sugar-cane (^Marasmius sacchari) is also 
discussed, and found to be prevalent in all districts of 
Antigua, although planters do not readily recognise it, and 
therefore cannot apply remedial treatment as early as is 
desirable. There is an interesting paper by Mr. G. Moody 
Stuart on implemental cultivation, in which attention is 
directed to the necessity for using the best and most 
efficient tillage implements, some suitable types of which 
are described. 

The theoretically ideal method of dealing with insect 
pests is to encourage their natural enemies, but it is of 
limited application, because complications invariably set 
in sooner or later. The natural enemies of the sugar-cane 
pests were recently described in the Agricultural News 
(No. 209). Several parasites are known of the sugar-cane 
borer {Sphenophorus obscurus), one being a Tachinid fly, 
one a Histerid beetle, and one a beetle of the family 
Elateridse. Attempts are being made in Hawaii to intro- 
duce the natural enemies of the pests occurring there. 

We have received a little booklet, " How to Use Nitrate 
of Soda," with a preface by Dr. Bernard Dyer, in which 
summaries are given of various field trials with this 
fertiliser. Several old misconceptions are dealt with ; it is 
shown that nitrate of soda is not a mere stimulant, but a 
true plant food, and that it does not exhaust the soil. The 
necessity for potassic and phosphatic manuring and for 
periodical liming is also emphasised. Whilst primarily 
intended for practical men, the pamphlet is also of interest 
as showing what has been done with artificial manures. 

A REPORT describing the experiments made during 1909 
at the Harper Adams Agricultural College, and in the 
counties of Staffordshire and Shropshire, has lately been 
issued. One of the most notable features is the cropping 
power of a wheat, Browick grey chaff, recently introduced 
to the district by the college authorities ; other wheats 
selected from Fife are also under investigation. We have 
also received the report on experiments with potatoes made 
in 1909 by Mr. Stewart, of the Edinburgh and East of 
Scotland Agricultural College. The effect of a change of 
locality on the vigour of the plant was well marked ; 
apparently the best change is from a later or colder dis- 
trict to one earlier or warmer. Thus in the south-east of 
Scotland it was found advantageous to procure seed from 
the north, just as in England it is found profitable to 
procure seed from Scotland or Ireland. 

Reference is made in the Kew BuUeiin (No. 5) to the 
flowering of the Burmese rose, Rosa gigantea, in the 
Himalayan section of the temperate house, this being the 
first record for the gardens. Another interesting item is 
the production of carpophylls on a plant of Cycas 
MichoJitzii, which is being cultivated in the water-lily 
house. 

The current number of the Keiv Bulletin (No. 5) opens 
with a report, by Dr. J. M. Dalziel, on the botanical 
resources of Yola province, northern Nigeria. Shea 
kernels {Buiyrospermum Parkii) and gum are the chief 
commercial vegetable products. The author was not able 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



to trace the sources of the gum beyond recognising that it 
is obtained from species of Acacia and Combretum, notably 
Acacia Senegal and Combretum verticillatum, with 
admixtures of inferior gum from such sources as 
Anogeissus leiocarpa and species of Albizzia. Odorous 
resin is obtained from two species of Boswellia — new to 
science — and Daniella thurifera. Diagnoses of new 
LauraceEE from the Malayan region, by Dr. J. S. Gamble, 
include a dozen species of Cryptocarya and ten of the 
genus Beilschmiedia. 

In the first issue of the meteorological chart of the 
North Atlantic for July, published by the Meteorological 
Committee, the synchronous weather charts show that from 
June 9-12 inclusive an area of high barometric pressure 
remained nearly stationary in the neighbourhood of the 
Azores, and afterwards travelled slowly eastward and 
north-eastward, causing a gradual improvement in the 
weather over the British Isles. Icebergs have been sighted 
with increasing frequency on the Banks of Newfoundland, 
drifting south, but the total number is below the normal. 
It is stated that navigation opened earlier this year than 
for some years past, owing to the exceptionally favourable 
conditions of the ice, not only in the St. Lawrence; but 
also in the White Sea and the Baltic. The first steamer 
reached St. Petersburg on April 18, only a week later than 
the earliest date of arrival there on record. 

The Bulletin of the Manila Weather Bureau for 
November, 1909 (recently received), contains particulars of 
two notable typhoons which crossed the Philippine Archi- 
pelago during that month. The first, on November 6-7, 
was remarkable for the unusual violence which it dis- 
played in the Visayas and the China Sea, and for the 
changes in direction of the track while traversing the 
China Sea. Attention is directed to the occurrence at two 
stations of ball-lightning, which is said to be extremely 
rare in the neighbourhood of a cyclonic vortex. The 
second storm, November 12-23, ^^^ distinguished by the 
extraordinary development which it acquired in the China 
Sea, and especially by the fact that for several days it 
remained practically stationary to the east of the Paracel 
Islands ; from November 18 to 21 the mean velocity of 
translation was only about 1-5 miles per hour. The tracks 
of the typhoons are laid down, and isobaric charts drawn 
from all available observations and reports ; much credit 
is due to the Weather Bureau for its persistent efforts 
to throw light on the behaviour of these destructive 
storms. 

The present summer has so far proved cool and un- 
settled, and to the present it has given cause for 
suspicion that the season may prove as unfavourable as 
that of last year. The summary just issued by the 
Meteorological Office for the five weeks ended July 9 shows 
the mean temperature for the period to be in fair agree- 
ment with the average, but there has so far been a marked 
absence of high day temperatures. The rainfall has been 
in excess of the average over the whole of England and 
Ireland, but there has been a slight deficiency of rain in 
Scotland. The greatest excess for the five weeks is 
1-69 inches in the south-east of England and 1-54 inches 
in the Midland counties, whilst in nearly all districts the 
excess is more than an inch. The duration of bright sun- 
shine is deficient in England and Ireland, but there was 
a slight excess in Scotland. At Greenwich, the mean con- 
ditions for June were for the most part in fair agreement 
with the normal, but the weather was by no means agree- 
able. The rain fell at the commencement and end of the 
month, the aggregate measurement being 2-11 inches, 



July 14, 19 10] 



NATURE 



51 



wliich is only 0-07 inch more than the average, but rain 
(ell on sixteen days. The mean temperature was about 
1° above the normal, and the duration of bright sunshine 
was twelve hours less than usual. 

Messrs. R. \V. Paul have issued a pamphlet entitled 
" The Equipment of a Modern Elementary Electrical 
Laboratory," in which a standardisation of instruments is 
advocated with the view of attaining an interchangeabi'ity 
of instruments, shunts, and multipliers so that any one 
instrument may be easily adapted for measuring a wide 
range of currents and voltages. The instrument recom- 
mended for the use of elementary students is the unipivot 
galvanometer, which has a range of 240 microamperes 
unshunted, and may therefore be used instead of a mirror 
galvanometer for many experiments. An appendix gives 
a list of experiments suggested for an elementary course 
in electrical engineering and the apparatus required for 
cairving them out. We think that Messrs. Paul advocate 
too strongly the advisability of making the carrying out 
of experiments easy to the student. A great part of the 
benefit to be derived from an experimental course lies in 
learning to overcome practical difficulties, and students 
brought up on experiments that are so carefully prepared 
as to eliminate such difficulties do not, as a rule, become 
skilful experimenters in the more advanced stages. 

Vol. vii. of Contributions from the Jefferson Physical 
Laboratory of Harvard University contains 463 pages of 
reprints of fifteen papers which have appeared in the 
American scientific periodicals during the past year. Of 
these papers, we have already noticed one in these columns, 
th'at on certain thermal properties of steam, by Mr. H. N. 
Davis. Another of exceptional interest, by Mr. H. W. 
Morse, deals with the evaporation from a solid sphere. 
The spheres experimented on were of iodine, and had radii 
between 0-2 and i millimetre. They were supported on a 
thin lamina of glass attached to the end of a thin fibre of 
glass, the other end of which was clamped firmly in a 
horizontal position, i.e. the micro-balance of Salvioni. The 
evaporation took place in a large box with glass sides, 
through which the deflection of the micro-balance was 
measured by means of a microscope. The rate of evapora- 
tion proved to be proportional to the radius of the drop, 
and not to its surface. 

An advance copy has reached us of the catalogue of 
mathematical and scientific instruments to be on view 
at the International Exhibition at Brussels this year. This 
catalogue has been prepared under the auspices of the 
Board of Trade by the National Physical Laboratory ; it 
refers only to the exhibits of British manufacturers. It 
includes detailed descriptions and illustrations of many of 
the instruments. A glance through this catalogue gives a 
very good idea of the rapid advances that are being made 
in the design of physical apparatus. It is invidious to 
select any names of exhibitors ; it is enough to say that 
most of the leading makers of electrical, optical, survey- 
ing, navigational, and meteorological instruments are 
amongst them, and that the addition of historical refer- 
ences and lists of original publications makes the book a 
valuable one for reference. The price is only sixpence post 
free on application to the director. Exhibitions Branch, 
Board of Trade, Broadway, Westminster. We may add 
that the catalogue has been compiled free of cost to the 
exhibitors, and it is Tioped that the prospect of the publica- 
tion of a similar catalogue for the International Exhibition 
It Turin next year wfll induce other firms to avail them- 
- Ives of the many facilities which the new Board of Trade 
<l ;iirlni<>nt now affords to exhibitors. 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



We have received from Messrs. Baird and Tatlock 
(London), Ltd., a copy of the gas-calculator designed by 
Dr. R. C. Farmer. The diagram consist's of four vertical 
lines ; the two on the left are graduated in temperatures 
for wet and dry gas respectively ; the line on the right is 
graduated in pressures (mm.). A celluloid strip bearing 
a black ruled line is laid across the observed pressure and 
temperature of the gas, and the corrected volume of i c.c. 
of gas is read off directly on the middle line. The latter 
is also graduated to read the logarithm of the weight of 
I c.c. of nitrogen. It is claimed to give the volume with 
an accuracy of i part in 5000, and this we have found to 
be the case if 0-00367 be taken as the coefficient of ex- 
pansion of the gas in question. The diagram is extremely 
rapid and convenient in use, but it should not be lost 
sight of that an accuracy of i in 5000 is not possible with 
the more expansible gases. 

The synthesis of camphoric acid, as announced by 
Komppa in 1903, is adversely criticised by M. Blanc (of 
the Sorbonne, Paris) and Dr. J. F. Thorpe in a recent 
communication to the Journal of the Chemical Society. 
One of the critical stages in the synthesis consists in the 
methylation of a diketoapocamphoric acid with the view of 
completing the total of ten carbon atoms present in the 
molecules of camphor and of camphoric acid. Using the 
ester of the acid, the methylation-product is a crystalline 
substance melting at 85° to 88°, and was supposed by 
Komppa to have the new methyl-group attached to carbon ; 
it is now shown that the methyl-group is easily removed 
by cold caustic potash, and is undoubtedly attached to 
oxygen and not to carbon ; the reduction of the compound 
to camphoric acid would therefore involve an important 
molecular re-arrangement, and even if it were effected 
could scarcely be regarded as a direct building up of the 
camphor molecule. 

We have received from the Thermal Syndicate, Ltd. 
(Wallsend-on-Tyne), its list of pure fused silica ware. 
The manufacture of articles from fused silica has engaged 
the attention of experimenters for a long time ; but, owing 
to the high fusing point of quartz, the difficulties met with 
in manufacturing articles were very considerable. The 
Thermal Syndicate has developed a most successful 
process for fusing and working silica in an electric furnace. 
Only in 1904, a basin of 25 cubic centimetres capacity was 
considered an achievement ; but at the present time, pipes 
12 inches in diameter and 30 inches long, and vessels of 
50 litres capacity, are being manufactured. The articles 
manufactured by the Thermal Syndicate which are placed 
on the market under the trade name " Vitreosil " are of 
very varied character. The ware is used in the manufacture 
of sulphuric acid, for nitre pot pipes, and for the basins 
for cascade concentrators, of which there are more 
than 600 in use in the British Isles, representing an 
output of about 22,000 tons of acid. It is also used to a 
smaller extent in the manufacture of nitric acid, and for 
making the pipes which carry the gases from the roasters 
in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid. It can be used 
for making condenser worms, small electrolytic tanks 
where the process requires the maintenance of a high 
temperature, and so on. The great advantage of 
" Vitreosil " is that it is practically unaffected by tempera- 
ture changes, the coefficient of expansion being about one- 
seventeenth that of glass. Owing to this property, its high 
fusibility and its resistance to acids, quartz is now being 
very largely used for the manufacture of laboratory 
apparatus. 



52 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



The issue of the " Statesman's Year-book " for 1910 has 
been published by Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Ltd. This 
is the forty-seventh annual publication of an invaluable 
work of reference. The information throughout the 1500 
pages has been corrected to the latest available date, and 
the changes made necessary by the death of King 
Edward VIL and the accession of King George V., as 
well as those arising out of the Union of South Africa, 
have been recorded. The proposed changes in the adminis- 
tration of the Belgian Congo are indicated ; the sections 
on China and on the .^nglo-Egyptian Sudan have been 
improved. Among matters of current interest, reference 
may be made to the articles on " Second Chambers " and 
the results of the census of production. hs usual, the 
annual provides a number of new maps, and among them 
may be mentioned those showing the development of the 
Congo, the proposed Central Scotland and Georgian Bay 
Ship Canals, the United South Africa and South African 
railways, and South America, showing the railways. 
.Altogether,- this edition of the " Year-book " is well up to 
tine high standard one associates with Dr. Scott Keltic's 
editorship. The price of the book is 105. 6d. net. 

Messrs. Reem.4N, Ltd., hope to publish during the pre- 
sent month a new book by Dr. Bernard Hollander entitled 
" The Mental Symptoms of Brain Disease," with a preface 
by Dr. J. Morel, Belgian State Commissioner in Lunacy. 

K second edition of Dr. Washington's " Manual of the 
Chemical Analysis of Rocks " has been published by 
Messrs. John Wiley and Sons in New Y'ork and Messrs. 
Chapman and Hall, Ltd., in this country. The first 
edition appeared in 1904, and was reviewed in these 
columns on January 5, 1905 (vol. Ixxi., p. 219). The pre- 
sent issue has been revised and somewhat enlarged. 



OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. 

H.illey's Comet. — Dr. Ebell's ephemeris for Halley's 
comet is continued in No. 4423 of the Astronotnische 
NacJxricbten, and gives the positions, &c., up to Sep- 
tember 18. On July 16 the comet will be in R.A. 
loh. 59-4m., dec — 4° 2'7', and its estimated magnitude 
will be 6'3, so that further observations in these latitudes 
are impossible. The distances from the earth and sun, on 
that date, will be 197 and 162 million miles respectively. 

Owing to its apparent proximity to the sun, the comet 
could not be extensively photographed at any one observa- 
tory, but it is hoped that when the results from various 
observatories come to be compared, there will be a fairh' 
continuous record which will enable the changes in the 
tail to be closely followed. An example of such change is 
afforded by the negatives secured at Johannesburg on 
April 21 and Kodaikanal on April 22, the latter showing, 
among other changes, a large contorted streamer on one 
side ; the similarity to the tail of Morehouse's comet is 
thus emphasised. 

A spectrum of the comet, taken at Mount Wilson, was 
described by Prof. Fowler, at the last meeting of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, as being of the usual type. 
Dark Fraunhoferic lines, due to reflected sunlight, are 
shown in the narrow strip of the spectrum due to the 
nucleus, and in that of the coma the bands at \\ 473, 
421, and 3S8 are seen. Prof. Fowler suggested that the 
unequal intensities of the five heads in the cyanogen, 388, 
tiand were, possibly, indications of a rather low pressure 
condition. A comparison of this spectrum with that of 
Daniel's comet (1907), taken by Prof. Campbell, shows 
that they are practically identical. 

In the Comptes rendus (No. i) for July 4 Prof. Eginitis 
describes the appearance of the comet at .Athens since its 
inferior conjunction. -An increased activity of the nucleus 
ejected large masses of matter to great distances, and on 
May 31 an aigrette was seen, which was brighter than the 
nucleus itself and turned away from the sun ; this was 
made up of straight streamers 50" long diverging to form 



an angle of 60°. It was also noticed that, after the 
passage, the tail became much more brilliant than before, 
an effect which the author ascribes, in great part, to the 
change in the relative positions of the comet, the sun, and 
the observer. From this he deduces that the brilliancy of 
the tail is largely due to reflected sunlight, and suggests 
that it affords further evidence that the tail is, to an 
appreciable extent, made up of fine, solid particles. 

Photographic and visual observations of the spectrum, 
made at the Madrid Observatory since the conjunction, 
are described by Father Iniguez. Photographs taken on 
June I, 3, and 6 show the continuous spectrum and seven 
superposed monochromatic images of the coma. The three 
least refrangible of these were Observed in May, and of 
the four new ones the two brightest are in the extreme 
ultra-violet, beyond the continuous spectrum. The plate 
taken on June i shows each of the three less refrangible 
bands doubled. Three of the four more refrangible bands 
are well defined, and their wave-lengths are given as 437, 
425, and 391 ; the other is broad, extending from A 399 
to \ 407. The visual observations indicate an intrinsic 
change in the band recorded as X 567 on May 27 and as 
A 559 on May 30 ; on the former date the red edge was 
sharp, whereas on the latter it was diffuse, and was not 
the most intense part of the band. The green band at 
A 512 on May 27 and A 516 on May 30 was sharp and 
apparently composite, and the difference of wave-length 
is attributed to a relative change in the intensities of the 
components inter se. .Apparently the band at A 472 did 
not change. The visual and photographic observations 
of the tail showed various, although not pronounced, 
changes, which are discussed in the note ; until May 6 
the tail was of the first type, but from then until the 
passage of the comet it was of the second, reverting to 
type i. after the passage. 

Prevention of Dew Deposit upon Lens Slrf.aces. — In 
a paper published in No. 7, vol. l.\x., of the Monthly 
-Notices, Mr. Franklin Adams states that the Mervel Hill 
photography of the northern hemisphere stars could have 
been completed in two years instead of nearly six if some 
means had been devised for preventing the deposition of 
dew on the lens surfaces. 

He then describes a method by which the difficulty has 
now been overcome. .An air-pump, driven by a motor, 
delivers a current of dried air on the lens surfaces, inside 
the camera, and on the film of the plate, thus preventing 
the dew deposits. The air is dried by forcing it over 
pumice stone soaked in sulphuric acid and then over glass 
wool. 

-A Varlable Star as a Time Constant. — Having regu- 
larly observed a variable star. No. 33 in the Harvard list, 
in the cluster M. 5 (Libra), Prof. Barnard discusses its 
light-changes in No. 4409 of the Astronomische Nach- 
richten. This star was compared with a neighbouring 
star, which is designated k, and for ten years its period 
has apparently remained unchanged. Therefore Prof. 
Barnard suggests that it, and other similar variables, 
might prove useful for providing a check on the constancy 
of the earth's rotation, or any other possibly variable 
elements of the solar system. It rises sharply to a maxi- 
mum, at which it seems to remain for only a few minutes, 
and then declines quickly until it is as bright as k ; after 
that the decline is more leisurely. At minimum the magni- 
tude is 14-6, and the increase is rather more than i-2 
magnitudes, the period being 0-50147 -f-d. To facilitate 
observations of this interesting time-standard. Prof. 
Barnard gives an ephemeris which is useful up to the 
year 19 iS. 

Radiation and Absorption. — In discussing various 
astronomical phenomena, the observer often has to study 
numerous laws concerning radiation and absorption, and 
this frequently necessitates looking them up especially. 
To obviate waste of time in this direction, Prof. Humphreys 
brings together, in No. 4, vol. xxxi., of the Astrophysical 
Journal, the chief laws, and discusses the general formulae 
by which they are expressed. Thus the equations for the 
Doppler, Maxwell-Bartoli, Zeeman, and other effects are 
explained, and the most convenient formulae for general 
use are collected in an invaluable summary which should 
prove of great convenience. 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



July 14, 19 ro] 



NATURE 



THE FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF 
ORNITHOLOGISTS. 

T^HE fifth International Congress of Ornithologists took 
place in Berlin from May 30 to June 4. Like 
all the former congresses of its kind, it was well 
attended, although only a single American and compara- 
tively few English ornithologists were present. 

The opening address of the president, Prof. Anton 
Reichcnow, of Berlin, was a lucid, though necessarily 
short, review of the progress of ornithology within the last 
150 years and its present status. 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild delivered a lecture on the 
former and present distribution of the so-called Ratitse, em- 
bracing also some very interesting recent investigations by 
Mr. C. W. Andrews on the egg-shells of certain ostriches, 
especially some pieces of the egg of a fossil ostrich, found 
last year by Messrs. Rothschild and Hartert in the Algerian 
Sahara. Baron Loudon gave descriptions of the bird-life 
in Talysch and Transcaspia ; Prof. Koenig narrated his 
journey up the Nile to llado and Gondokoro ; Dr. Otto 
Hermann explained the activity of the Royal Hungarian 
Central Bureau of Ornithology ; Dr. Thienemann that of 
the '■ Vogelwarte Rossitten," especially the method and 
results of his experiments with " ringed birds"; while the 
other lectures held in the general meetings were about 
bird-protection and the preservation of " nature's monu- 
ments " as connected with bird-life. Numerous communi- 
cations were made and lectures delivered in the various 
sections, their number being so great that in some of the 
sections the time available was hardly sufficient, and dis- 
cussions had sometimes to be cut short. Of the lectures in 
the sections, mention can only be made of a few, as most 
of them were only of interest to specialists. 

The proceedings of section i. (systematic, palaeontology, 
anatomy, and geographical distribution) were opened with 
a lecture by Dr. Hartert, on " what we ought to do and 
what we ought not to do." The speaker pointed out many 
.evils and shortcomings in the technical treatment of modern 
bird-study ; he specially urged greater care to avoid new 
synonyms, demanded better descriptions, more cooperation, 
&c. He pointed out the necessity of liberality in lending 
specimens to competent persons and institutions, and re- 
garded museums which did not lend material to others as 
behind the times. He also made clear the necessity of 
greater care in preparing and preserving the material for 
study, especially bird-skins, held that they should be more 
exactly and more securely labelled, and discussed various 
other technical details. 

Mr. Friedrich Rosenberg spoke- about the development of 
the Colymbida?, Prof. Jacobi discussed the development and 
systematic position of the "' Impennes," and Geheimrat 
Prof. N'irchow gave the results of his study on the mobihty 
of the nuchal vertebrx in the Spheniscidae. 

Prof. Neumann discussed zoogeographical problems, 
specially referring to the necessity of careful geographical 
study in connection with the description of subspecies of 
birds, and their distribution. 

In section ii. (migrationi a number of lectures were 
given, of which that of Rittmeister von Lucanus, about 
the height at which birds migrate, appeared to be of special 
interest. 

In section iii. (biology, oology, acclimatisation), Mr. 
Lucanus also made very important statements regarding 
the psychology of birds. Dr. and Mrs. Heinroth lectured 
on the biology of certain .Anatidse, and on the breeding in 
captivity of Caprimulgus and Locustella. 

Graf Zedlilz dealt with the breeding-seasons of .African 
birds. 

Dr. Weigold gave interesting details about the former 
and present status of bird-life on Heligoland, and recom- 
mended the continuation of regular observations on that 
island "before it would be too late." 

In section iv. (bird-protection) the necessity for the pro- 
hibition of the introduction of feathers and bird-skins for 
millinery purposes was urged, and the question of inter- 
national bird laws discussed. 

Section v. was devoted to poultry and other domesticated 
birds, and appeared to be well attended. 

At the mcetinir of the International Ornithological Com- 
mittee it was decided that the Ornis should not be con- 



tinued in the form of a regular periodical, but of irregular 
volumes containing the proceedings of the various ornitho- 
logical congresses, and special scientific treatises, in the 
event of material and means being available for the pur- 
pose. 

In every town a congress has its peculiar features. While 
some of the characteristics of the fourth Congress of 
Ornithologists in London were the excursions to Tring and 
Woburn Abbey, and the visit to the Bempton Cliffs, with 
their breeding-colonies of sea-fowl, the congress at Berlin 
was rentarkable for the various liberal entertainments 
in the town. The city gave a dinner in the famous Town 
Hall, the Zoological Garden Society a luncheon, the 
Ornithological Society a supper, and one evening was 
pleasantly spent in the natural history theatre, called 
" Urania." 

An illustrated guide and excellent map of Berlin were 
presented to every member, also a reprint of Lichtenstein's 
very rare " Verzeichniss einer Sammlung von Saugethieren 
und N'ogeln aus dem Kaffernlande, " of 1S42, a description 
of the " Vogelwarte Rossitten," and various other 
pamphlets and booklets. E. H. 

THE DANGERS OF FERRO-SILICON.^ 
■pERRO-SILICON, averaging about 13 per cent, silicon 
'^ and made in the blast-furnace, has been used in steel 
works, and to a certain extent in iron foundries, for many 
years. Steel castings were made with about 0-3 per cent, 
silicon to help in the prevention of blow-holes, and at the 
same time to aid in giving the properties required by 
engineers ; and in foundries the ferro-silicon is used to 
add to mixtures of iron, such as those containing large 
percentages of scrap, that would otherwise yield a hard 
casting, as the added silicon has the effect of changing 
the combined to free or graphitic carbon on cooling. 
Within the last few years much richer ferro-silicons have 
been made in electric furnaces, and have found a ready 
sale. They are useful for special crucible steels and for , 
certain steels for electrical work, and also for adding 
silicon in the ladle in the case of basic open-hearth practice, 
as there it is impossible to do this efficiently on the hearth, 
though it is easily done in the acid process. 

With the electrically produced high-grade ferro-siUcon 
came trouble. The present writer remembers the great 
interest taken in the earliest recorded case of this trouble 
as given by Dr. Dupr^ and Captain Lloyd at the Iron and 
Steel Institute in May, 1904. Owing to a fire having 
occurred on a vessel, the cargo, including 50 per cent, 
grade ferro-silicon brought from Trieste, was discharged 
on December 17, 1903. On January 12, 1904, the forty- 
eight drums containing the ferro-silicon were removed to 
a warehouse in Bootle, and v;hilst being rolled from the 
truck on to the concrete floor one drum exploded. Dr. 
Dupr^ and Captain Lloyd, after careful investigation, pro- 
nounced the explosion to be due to PH, evolved owing 
to the action of damp air, and gave a weighty and serious 
warning with regard to the handling and storing of this 
comparatively new product. 

So explosions and spontaneous ignition came in the 
train of the new material ; but it was to make its powers 
felt in another way. On the S.S. Vaderland, .-Antwerp to 
New York, over a hold in which ferro-silicon was stored, 
fifty steerage passengers were made ill and eleven died, 
of whom nine were buried at sea, and two corpses landed 
at New York, as plague was feared. In March, 1906, two 
children died on a Rhine boat. On October 21, 1905, two 
children died on board a "keel" on the Keadby Canal; 
the father and mother were taken seriously ill, but re- 
covered on deck. In February, 1907, on the Olaf Wyjk, 
Gothenburg to .Antwerp, four passengers died. In May, 
1908, on the S.S. Uleaborg, Stockholm to St. Petersburg, the 
crew and second-class passengers were taken ill, and two 
died. On October 29, 1908, on the keel Harry, Captain 
Bamfield and the mate, his grandson, started from Goole 
with ferro-silicon on board, apparently consigned as " scrap 
iron." On the night of Friday, October 30, the mate was 

1 "On the Nature. Use?, art! Manufacture of Ferro-silicon, with Special 
Reference to possible d.inger arising <r m its Transport and Storage." Local 
Government Board Report, 1900 By Pr. S. M. Copeman. F.R S , .S. R. 
Bennett, and Dr. H. Wilson Hake. Pp. viii+115. (Cd. 4958.) Price 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



54 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



taken seriously ill and removed. The captain took his 
wife and grandson on board and proceeded, but all three 
were talcen ill. Bamfield died on November 6 and his 
grandson on the previous day. The cause of death was 
certified under that convenient term " ptomaine poison- 
ing," but was afterwards proved to be due to fumes from 
the ferro-silicon of 50 per cent, grade (actual analysis, 
53c) per cent, silicon). 

It required, however, yet another tragedy, with the 
added scare of cholera, to compel investigation, and this 
was provided by the case of the S.S. Ashton in December, 
1908, on which, after a voyage of twenty-four hours only, 
from Antwerp to Grimsby, all the occupants of the 
emigrant quarters, fortunately only five in number, died 
between 6 p.m. on December 12 and 12.30 p.m. on the 
following day. This time cholera was feared, but examina- 
tion by the Government bacteriologist at once negatived 
this view. Mrs. Bamfield wrote on December 17, 1908 :• — 
" It has occurred to me since reading the account of this 
poisoning that there may be some of this (scrap) in the 
S.S. Ashion." Immediately these deaths were reported in 
the newspapers, Mr. Hodgson, Mrs. Bamfield's son-in-law, 
wrote to Dr. Simpson, medical ofificer of health for 
Grimsby, making a similar suggestion, and that this was 
the cause of the deaths (p. 20) : — " It was apparently in 
consequence of this letter that attention came to be 
directed to the possibility of the deaths on the S.S. Ashion 
having been due to the presence of the ferro-silicon on 
board, suspicion having arisen, in the first instance, that 
the fatal illness of the passengers was due to cholera." 
This was abundantly proved, and resulted in the elaborate 
investigations of which this report is the record. 

The report is a valuable one, showing that the authors 
have recognised the difficulties and grappled with them. 
The original should be in the hands of all interested in 
ferro-silicon from a medical, a shipping, or a metallurgical 
aspect. As the authors themselves state, further investiga- 
tion is yet required, although rules that will almost ensure 
. safety have been found. 

Ferro-silicons of low grade, containing not more than 
15 per cent, silicon and made in the blast-furnace, are 
beyond suspicion, and as safe to handle and to store as 
ordinary pig iron. The high-grades, 25 to 95 per cent, 
silicon, made in the electric furnace, and imported to the 
extent of about 4000 tons per annum, mostly from France, 
but to a less e.xtent from Austria, Scandinavia, &c., include 
the dangerous varieties. The bulk has been made to 50 
per cent, grade for little apparent reason other than ease in 
calculation of mixtures, a matter that may excite surprise 
until it is remembered that a manager, with his hundred 
w^orries per day, tries to avoid the hundred-and-first, in case 
it might prove " the last straw." The gases given off may 
at first have included acetylene, owing to the ferro-silicon 
being made in calcium carbide furnaces, but as that is never 
done now the poisonous gases given off are phosphoretted 
h)'drogen and arseniuretted hydrogen, roughly 90 to 95 per 
cent, of the former to 10 to 5 per cent, of the latter. .All 
are agreed that until more is known of the fundamental 
causes, those varieties around 50 per cent, silicon are most 
dangerous, and should neither be made nor bought. La 
Chambre Syndicate des Forces hydrauliques states that 30 
to 40 per cent, and 47 to 65 per cent, grades should "be 
avoided, but the remarkable omission of 40 to 47 per cent, 
grades is not supported by any experimental proof. The 
authors recommend the manufacture or use of only those 
varieties below 30 per cent, or above 70 per cent, silicon 
content for the present. 

The section on the functions of ferro-silicon in steel 
manufacture hardly gets to the root of the real idea some- 
times, but is near enough for general readers ; and technical 
men are not likely to refer to this section of the report. 
It will be read for the results of the experiments and general 
investigations carried out and the opinions formed on the 
results, and these can be recommended. The report con- 
tains, besides matter already indicated, reports of confer- 
ences w-ith Sheffield firms using ferro-silicon, investigations 
at places of manufacture, a description of the manufacture 
of ferro-silicon, conclusions and recommendations. Dr. W. 
Hake's chemical investigations, and Mr. Bennett's report 
on the composition and structure of ferro-silicon. 

.As the PH, is only formed in contact with moisture, the 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



material used to be packed in sealed drums, and some- 
times was coated with paraffin wax ; but this does not 
deal with the gas present in the cavities, and only transfers 
the danger, for drums exploded on opening and men re- 
moving the paraffin were made ill, so that these methods 
should be abandoned. 

The report recognises an important point that is still 
obscure (p. 109) : — " Dr. Heroult e.xpressed himself as 
decidedly of opinion that the specially undesirable quali- 
ties exhibited by this particular grade (50 per cent.) — 
tendency to spontaneous disintegration and evolution of 
poisonous gases — were related to the amount of aXuminMm 
present in the alloy. He was unable ... to advance any 
definite reasons for the opinion he had formed." Mr. 
Bennett later expressed the same opinion, and suggested 
that, as the heat of formation of Al^O, is very great, the 
presence of a large percentage of aluminium is indicative 
of very high temperature reactions in the furnace, and 
that these reactions are favourable to the formation of 
compounds which readily break up into poisonous and 
explosive gases." 

This can hardly be so, for Prof. Arnold, who, it is 
understood, will present a report later, has had one lot 
of ferro-silicon divided into two portions and melted in two 
crucibles. When molten, to one only was added 3 per cent, 
aluminium, and the two portions were cast into separate 
ingots. The present writer, being interested in the experi- 
ment, broke a piece off each ingot, and, dipping them in 
water, noticed that one had no particular odour, but the 
other smelt very strongly, the latter proving to be that to 
which aluminium had been added. A too enthusiastic repeti- 
tion of the experiment as a test produced just a feeling of 
discomfort which the fresh air soon dispelled, this last 
being a point of much importance, as where lives were 
saved it was practically the governing remedy. " Two of 
the passengers also left their cabins and, although very 
weak, succeeded in getting on deck. These two survived " 
(p. 15). No. 5 of suggested regulations may be quoted : — 
" Storage places at docks or at works where ferro-silicon 
is used should have provision for free access of air, and 
should be situated at a distance from work-rooms, mess- 
rooms, offices, &c." (p. 115). 

The main conclusions of the report have been mentioned, 
but all interested in the subject should obtain a copy, as 
the details of the investigations are well worthy of study. 

A. McWiLLIAM. 



THE POSITION OF THE NEGRO AND PYGMY 
AMONGST HUMAN RACES.' 
A FULL analysis of the structural features of the negro 
shows that in many points he is more highly 
specialised than the less pigmented races of mankind, 
while in other characters he has remained more primitive. 
Although on the Continent there is a decided tendency 
amongst anthropologists to trace the descent of the human 
race through a non-anthropoid stock, yet those most 
familiar with the anatomy of the Primates still agree 
with Huxley's doctrine that the community of structure 
shared by man and anthropoids pointed to a direct com- 
munity of origin. The deeply pigmented skin was a 
primitive feature ; the gorilla was the negro amongst 
anthropoids ; the three species of chimpanzee varied as the 
period of life at which pigmentation appeared. .All avail- 
able evidence points to a pigmentation of the early human 
stock, but speculations are handicapped by an ignorance 
of the functional value of pigment. It appears to protect 
the deeper tissues from certain injurious rays which are 
intermediate to heat and light. The skulls of Paleeolithic 
Europeans show so many resemblances to those of 
Australian aborigines that a legitimate suspicion may be 
raised as to whether or not they did not also share some 
degree of the aboriginal pigmentation. The Palfeolithic 
Gibraltar woman, whose skull is preserved, in the Museum 
of the College of Surgeons, shows no community with 
the negro in the characters of her nose. The nose of that 
skull is altogether unlike that of any human race now 
known ; it shares some features with the gorilla, while 
1 Ab^lra-tsof four Hiinterian Lectures on "The Anatrmy .ind Relation- 
ships of the Negro .-ind Negroid R.-ices," given at the Royal College of 
Surgeons, England, by Prof. Arthur Keith. 



July 14, 19 10] 



NATURE 



.ID 



in otiiois it appears to foreshadow the prominent nose of 
the modern European. 

The evidence of the nose of Palaeolithic man leaves the 
question of pigmentation of the early European open. 
The distribution of pigmentation among modern races 
could be e.xplained be.U by supposing that the appearance 
of the fairer races — the Caucasian and Mongolian — was 
one of the more recent events of human evolution, and 
that the site of their evolution was in the central popula- 
tions of the more northern parts of the Old World. The 
frizzled hair of the negro was a highly specialised feature. 
Their thick everted lips, unlike the thin anthropoid lips, 
at first sight seem also to be so, but when the arrange- 
ment of the labial musculature is examined, it is seen that 
the negro's lips are more anthropoid than the European's; 
but the European form, notwithstanding their apparent 
thinness, appears to be a modification of the negro form. 
The high and prominent cheek-bones of the negro are due, 
not to an absolute greater breadth of the face, but to the 
fact that the muscles of mastication have become specialised 
in different directions in the negro and European ; in the 
negro the masseter muscle, which arises from the cheek- 
bone, is particularly large, whereas in the European it is 
the temporal muscle, which has its fixed basis on the side 
of the skull, that retains the greatest relative develop- 
ment. 

The apparent breadth of the negro's face is largely 
owing to the fact that the basal part of the skull, to which 
the neck muscles are attached, is small. The small attach- 
ment of neck is a feature of the young of all Prim.ntes, 
and also one in which the negro has assumed a less 
anthropoid form than the European. The prognathism of 
the negro is due to several factors ; it is chiefly due, 
not so much to a larger, but to a healthier dental develop- 
ment, which ensures a due forward revolution of the jaws 
during the eruption of the permanent teeth, thus providing 
an ample air-way in the pharynx. In Europeans the 
revolution forwards of the jaws showed a distinct tendency 
to become arrested prematurely, thus contracting the 
pharynx. The negro condition was the more Simian, but 
it is also one which modern Europeans would willingly 
share with him, because of its functional merits. Sir 
William Flower's method of estimating prognathism gave 
misleading results. The most accurate method of stating 
the development of the jaws was to give the area of the 
palate and the total size of the teeth. 

Some of the most characteristic features of the negro 
race were to be seen in their foreheads. While Palaeolithic 
Europeans showed the Simian beetling brows and receding 
forehead, features still shown in some degree by modern 
white races, the great majority of African negroes were 
characterised by prominent foreheads and a complete 
absence of that condition which might be described as 
supra-orbitalism. It is true that some tribes on the west 
coast, the oceanic negroes, and the Tasmanians still re- 
tain this primitive character. Indeed, the outstanding 
feature of the negro's skull is a tendency to retain 
characters of the immature skull of other races. Those 
who know the psychology of the negro best ascribe to his 
brain the boyish nature here ascribed to his skull. 

The pygmies, usually described as Negritos, are true 
negroes in which the tendency to assume immature 
characters has become hereditary to an extreme degree. 
They are widely distributed. Sir Harry H. Johnston has 
shown how they are scattered amongst the forest tribes 
from the west coast almost to the east coast of Equatorial 
Africa ; they stretch southwards almost to the Cape, and 
isolated communities are found as far eastwards as the 
Philippines and New Guinea. Two explanations may be 
offered for their distribution : — (i) they are remnants of 
a race that was spread formerly throughout the southern 
half of the Old World ; (2) they are modifications produced 
locally from the larger negro. The second explanation is 
apparently the correct one, for the Congo pygmies share 
all the physical features of the Bantu except size ; the 
Bushman has the characters of the Hottentot, while the 
pygmies of the far east find their nearest representatives 
in the negroes of the .Oceania. Recent advances in our 
knowledge of human pathology make this supposition of 
the origin of pygmies more probable. Disturbances in the 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



secretion of certain glands, such as the pituitary and thyroid, 
lead to the production of the characters of Palaeolithic 
features in some individuals and true dwarfism in others. 
In the Miocene period the large-bodied Primates had 
already appeared ; primitive men were certainly not 
pygmies in size. 

An analysis of the cranial features of the aborigines of 
Tasmania and of Australia shows that we have in these 
two races an early stage in the differentiation of the 
negro and negroid races of mankind. The Tasmanian is 
the most primitive type of negro yet discovered ; the 
Australian, on the other hand, although deeply pigmented 
and less Simian in some features than the Palaeolithic 
European, is the most primitive representative of the 
negroid race. Negroid as he is, the native Australian 
represents a stage in the evolution of the dominant non- 
negroids of the northern hemisphere. It is a remarkable 
fact that the negro and negroid races occur side by side, 
not only in Austral-Asia, but in Asia proper and in Africa. 
The negro Semangs of the Malay Peninsula live with the 
negroid Sakai as neighbours ; the Veddahs of Ceylon are 
not far from the negro of the Andamans ; even m 
Quaternary Europe the negro race discovered by Dr. 
Verneau in the caves of Grimaldi were early successors, if 
not contemporaries, of Palaeolithic man. The Grimaldi 
negroes find their nearest modern representatives in the 
Oceanic, not the African, negro; equatorial Africa and 
northern Europe were the probable centre in which the 
black and white races had reached their present degree of 
structural evolution. The two centres were linked together, 
and always had been linked, by racial zones which showed 
intermediate characters. Modern anthropologists are in- 
clined to ascribe the characters of intermediate races to 
intermarriage. Interbreeding had certainly played a part, 
but probably a small one. The truer explanation seems 
rather to lie in regarding intermediate races as represent- 
ing intermediate stages of physical and mental evolution. 



TREES AND FORESTS. 
T^HE botanical gardens at Peradeniya, Ceylon, are 
■'- celebrated for their vegetation splendour, so that a 
list of beautiful flowering trees recommended by the 
curator, Mr. H. F. Macmillan, will appeal to many out- 
side the range of those for whom the Circular (vol. iv.. 
No. 20) of the gardens is immediately intended. In the 
author's opinion, the leguminous tree Amherstia nobths 
is not to be excelled, although Lagerstroemia flos-reginae 
passes under the name of " pride of India," and Poinciana 
regia is the famous "flame-tree." The Amherstia was 
introduced to Ceylon from Burma, and it is remarkable 
how manv of the plants mentioned have been imported 
from the 'tropics of the New and Old World._ Gliricidia 
niaculata is a recent introduction from the West Indies; 
Solaiiiim macranthum, the " potato-tree " from Brazil, is 
noteworthy as the only species of the order that grows to 
the size of a tree. 

A description of the indigenous trees of southern 
Rhodesia, together with their vernacular names and pro- 
ducts, is provided by Mr. C. F. H. Monro in the Proceed- 
ings of the Rhodesia Scientific Association (vol. viu., 
part ii.). An important matter is the production of timber 
suitable for mining, construction, and agricultural purposes. 
The most useful timbers are yielded by Copaifera nwpam, 
Pterocarpiis angolensis, Photinia mahohohobo, and Pari- 
ttarium mobola. Baikiaea plurijuga is known as Rhodesian 
teak ; Afzelia cuanensis supplies the local mahogany, while 
a somewhat similar, handsome wood is furnished by Fatirea 
saligiia. a species of Proteaceae. The woods of some of 
these, as also of Callitris Whytei and Terminalia sertcea, 
are said to be ant- and borer-proof. 

Two forest pamphlets (Nos. 12 and 14) recently issued 
bv the Government of India relate to Berrya Ammomlla, 
a' tree, belonging to the family Tiliacea;, that 15 
found principally in Burma, and Pterocarpus macro- 
carpus, a leguminous tree yielding Burma padauk timber. 
Regarding the former, logs up to 20 feet in length, and 
measuring 4' feet in girth, can ordinarily be obtained. 
The timber 'is tough, elastic, and straight-grained ; it 



56 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



works and finishes well, so that it would appear to be 
suitable for export ; but the annual outturn is only com- 
puted at 1500 tons, and there is a good local demand for 
construction work, for carriage shafts, draught poles and 
various agricultural implements. Burma padauk must be 
distinguished from Andaman padauk, obtained from Ptero- 
carpus dalbergioides, which is noted for the brilliant red 
colour of select logs. Although inferior in colour, Burma 
padauk is much superior in strength and durability, and 
is regularly supplied to the Ordnance Department for 
spokes and felloes of wheels, poles, yokes, and other pur- 
poses. Timber which does not comply with the stringent 
requirements of the Ordnance Department is quite suitable 
for wheel work, furniture, and interior decorations. Both 
kinds of padauk have been imported to England and 
.America, but various causes have miUtated against their 
successful exploitation in this country. 

.\ forest pamphlet (No. i6) issued by the Government of 
India is devoted to an account of experiments conducted 
by Mr. R. S. Hole with the view of determining the best 
season for coppice fellings of teak. The rainy season — mid- 
.'\ugust to October — is frequently selected for felling, 
although it might be expected that, vegetative activity 
being then at its height, the development of coppice shoots 
would be poor. However, the trials carried out, with 
many precautions, indicate that the worst period for the 
fellings is from the time, .April to August, when vegetative 
activity commences, up to and for a short time after the 
full development of the foliage, and that reproduction is 
most vigorous in the months of March and September. 
Incidentally, the author notes that good fertile seed has 
been obtained from nine-year-old coppice shoots of teak. 

It is a coincidence that information regarding the 
importance of trees belonging to the Dipterocarpace<e 
should be forthcoming simultaneously from Burma and the 
Philippines. In the Philippine Journal of Science (Botany, 
vol_. _iv., part vi.) Mr. H. N. Whitford presents some 
striking estimates regarding the preponderance of the 
family in the Philippine forests, according to which 
Dipterocarp trees may be expected to yield three-quarters 
of the total volume of merchantable timber growing in a 
virgin forest area computed at 30,000 square miles. He 
directs special attention to the value of the woods known 
locally as " lauan," yielded by species of Pentacme, Shorea, 
and Parashorea, and " apitong," yielded by species of 
Dipterocarpus ; the former are slightly harder but similar 
to white pine, while the latter compare with the hard 
pines. 

\ paper on Indian State forestry, by Mr. S. Eardley- 
Wilmot, late Inspector-General of Forests, is published in 
the Journal of the Society of .Arts (.April 1). He mentions 
that the forest department has control over an area of 
240,000 square miles — about one-fifth part of British India — 
from which 4^ million tons of timber and iSo million tons 
of bamboos are extracted annually. A rough demarcation 
of the forests is indicated as follows. They range from 
a height of 14,000 feet, where birch and firs supplv the 
chief constituents, to the mangrove belts situated at sea- 
level. .At an altitude of 8000 feet rhododendrons, oaks, 
cedars, and pines flourish in different regions. Dalbcrgia 
Sissoo and Acacia Catechu grow in the submontane forests. 
The deciduous forests at a lower elevation supply teak, 
s.il, ebony, and ironwood, while important evergreen 
forests are found near the coast or further inland. 

.A number of interesting problems receiving attention at 
the Swedish Royal Forestry Institute are detailed in the 
Proceedings (Meddclandcn iran Statens Skogsfdrsoks- 
aiistalt, part vi., iqog), such as the examination of the 
native forests from an ecological standpoint, the best trees 
to plant on heath or sw-amp land, and the improvement of 
regeneration by the selection of seed. In connection with 
the last problem. Dr. N. Sylven communicates the results 
of his attempt to identify different races or types of the 
spruce; ho distinguishes five types, according to their 
mode of branching, of which the so-called " kamm " tvpe 
is recomp/ended as the best seed-bearer. .An extensive 
paper by Mr. E. Wibcck deals with the extent of the 
beech forests in Sweden, showing that the area has de- 
creased greatly in a period of 200 years, having been 
reduced partly by human- agencv, by fires, for the manu- 



facture of potash, and by excessive cutting, and partly by 
natural causes, such as the intrusion of the spruce. 

Tw'O articles by Mr. R. Thomson on the Jequi(5 Mani- 
coba rubber tree, Manihot dichotoma, published in the 
Indian Forester (vol. xxxvi., Nos. 1-3), contain suggestions 
which appear to be worthy of careful consideration. This 
species, indigenous to the State of Bahia, in Brazil, forms 
a tree about 20 feet in height, and develops a stem 20 inches 
in circumference. The author contends that, being much 
smaller than the Para rubber tree, there is less production 
of useless material, and that it could be planted more 
closely, so that by planting 1200 specimens to the acre he 
estimates a production of 600 lb. of rubber per acre in the 
fifth year. It is further suggested that climatic difficulties 
might be overcome by a system of cultivation in rough 
sheds, such as is adopted in California for growing pine- 
apples. 



TINCTORIAL CHEMISTRY, ANCIENT AND 
MODERN. 

T N his recent presidential address to the Society of Dyers 
and Colourists Prof. Meldola touched upon several 
matters of general interest and importance. Referring to 
the substitution of synthetical for natural dyes, which has 
entailed great changes in the dyer's methods, he said : — 
" Such a revolution in an industry of venerable antiquity 
as has been effected in about half a century has, perhaps, 
never before been witnessed in the history of applied 
science. Scientific discovery has, it is true, called new 
branches of industry into existence, and has thus opened 
up new fields of human enterprise and outlets for capital 
and labour. But in this case there has been no new 
creation ; an ancient industry at the touch of science has 
become transformed. 

" If it be asked to what cause or causes this rapid 
development is due, there can be only one answer — the 
development of the science of organic chemistry. From 
the time of Perkin's discovery of mauve in 1S56, down to 
the very latest patents for new dyestuffs, it has been 
science, and nothing but science, all along the line." 

It is, of course, equally true, as Prof. Meldola has him- 
self pointed out elsewhere, that the development of the 
science of organic chemistry has been greatly accelerated 
by the large amount of research work carried out in the 
laboratories of the large German colour manufactories. 
In regard to the general question of the interdependence 
of science and industry, he has been one of the chief pro- 
pagandists for the last twenty-five years, on the platform 
and in the Press ; and on this matter he said : — " It has 
long been familiar to students of economics — whether we 
in this country recognise the doctrine or not — that industrial 
development is ultimately dependent upon scientific develop- 
ment. Fiscal considerations may have some influence in 
promoting or retarding an industry, but primarily the 
financial economist, as well as the political economist, is 
dependent upon the materials supplied by productive indus- 
try, and the production of these materials in the most 
advantageous way and the addition of new materials to 
the resources of civilisation is the business of scientific 
research, and it is, therefore, scientific activity which is the 
real and solid basis of national prosperity. The nation 
which fails to realise this principle is bound to go under 
in the long run in that industrial struggle wOiich is certain 
to become keener with the progress of science and the 
severity of competition arising therefrom." 

This primarily important matter cannot be too often 
brought forward, but, at the same time, although we have 
much leeway to make up before we come abreast with 
our chief industrial competitors, there are signs that at 
last the nation is " waking up " to realise the position. 
The daily Press, as reflecting the average interests of the 
public, is now paying an increasing amount of attention 
to scientific matters. It is no doubt an easy matter to 
be adversely critical in regard to the quality of the science 
which is served up in our morning paper, but that is 
easily remedied, and the all-important matter is that science 
is fast achieving a prominent place as a current newspaper 
topic. 



NO. 



1124, VOL. 84] 



July 14, 1910] 



NATURE 



57 



An adequate historical survey of the modern science of 
tinctorial chemistry has yet to be written. In his address 
Prof. Meldola supplied one chapter of such history by 
relating his personal experiences during the fifteen years 
(1870-S5) he was directly connected with the manufacture 
of synthetical dyestuffs. It is not possible to summarise 
this historical survey in the space now at disposal, but 
the hope may be e.xpressed that Prof. Meldola will find 
opportunity to write the complete story of the art of dye- 
ing. It would be equally as fascinating as his well-known 
contributions to Darwinism. 

Having given his persona! reminiscences of the most 
prolific period during the rapid modern development of the 
industry, Prof. Meldola reverted to remote antiquity, and 
summarised the ancient industrial history of dyeing as 
described by the elder Pliny in his " History of Nature," 
written about the beginning of the Christian era. Indigo 
has probably been used by the natives of India for at least 
3000 years, and by processes essentially the same as those 
used to-day; in fact, until Perkin's discovery of the first 
coal-tar dye in 1856, the art of dyeing has made com- 
paratively little progress since the ancient Briton stained 
his body with woad. 

The most important dye in ancient times was the 
Tyrian purple, the use of which was at first confined by 
law to the Imperial House — hence the e.xpression " born in 
the purple." 

" The modern sequel to this ancient chapter of tinc- 
torial art," said Prof. Meldola, " has been supplied by 
P. Friedlander, who has extracted the colouring matter 
from the Mediterranean Uurex brandaris, and has proved 
it to be dibromindigo.' .And thus ancient observation, 
which found practical application in the utilisation of a 
certain mollusc as a source of colour, has led to a remark- 
able biochemical discovery ; but we have had to wait some 
2000 years for the answer to the question. What was the 
purple dye of the ancients? Shall we have to wait another 
2000 years for the answer to the question. How does 
the living shell-fish synthesise the generator of dibrom- 
indigo? " 

Much has been written, and many diverse opinions have 
been expressed, as to the cause or causes of the loss of the 
coal-tar colour industry to England. This has been variously 
attributed to defects in our Patent Laws, to our heavy 
excise duty on alcohol, and to our unsuitable industrial 
conditions. In this matter Prof. Meldola sounded no un- 
certain note. " The answer to this last question has been 
staring us broadly in the face for over thirty years. It 
is amazing that there should have ever been any doubt 
about, or any other cause suggested than the true cause, 
which is research — writ large ! The foreign manufacturers 
knew what it meant and realised its importance, and they 
tapped the universities and technical high schools, and they 
added research departments and research chemists to their 
factories, while cur manufacturers were taking no steps at 
all, or were calmly hugging themselves into a state of 
false security, based on the belief that the old order under 
which they had been prosperous was imperishable. It is 
true that when the effects of the new discoveries began to 
make themselves felt, one or two factories did add a re- 
search chemist to the staff, but the number and the means 
of work were totally inadequate. I happened to be one 
of them, and so I speak with some practical knowledge of 
the conditions. We were but as a handful of light 
skirmishers against an army of trained legionaries. What 
could three or four — say half a dozen at a liberal estimate 
— research chemists, working under every disadvantage, do 
against scores, increasing to hundreds, of highly trained 
university chemists, equipped with all the facilities for 
research, encouraged and paid to devote their whole time 
to research, and backed up by technological skill of the 
highest order? The cause of the decline of our supremacy 
in this colour industry is no mystery — it is transparently 
nnd painfully obvious. In the early stages of its decadence 
it had little or nothing to do with faulty patent legislation 

1 Btfl Bcr,, TQC9, vol. xlii., p. 765. For this research 12,000 molluscs 
were extracted, the total yield of pure colour being o'4 grms. The dibromin- 
digo is formed from its colourless generator, which is a vital pioduct of the 
organism, by the action of lignt. The actual compound is shown — ^" •*" 
€ :61-dibromindigo, but the nature of the intermediate generate 
yet been determined. 



be the 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



or excise restrictions with respect to alcohol. The decay of 
the British industry set in from the time when the Con- 
tinental factories allied themselves with pure science and 
the British manufacturers neglected such aid, or secured 
it to an absurdly inadequate extent in view of the strength 
of the competing forces." 

It still remains to inquire the reason for this different 
attitude towards chemical research which was, and is still, 
though in lesser degree, adopted by our manufacturers. 
At the time we lost the industry the skill of the British 
workman and the enterprise of the British manufacturer 
were the admiration of the world, but the colour industry 
did not develop here because our industrial leaders did not 
lay the foundation of success by subsidising and cultivating 
chemical research. Why? The answer to this question is 
to be ultimately found in the utter lack of appreciation 
of the value and importance of scientific method which 
existed at that time amongst the public in this country. 
It would then have been impossible to convince any body 
of shareholders that it was a sound business proposition 
to expend yearly many thousands of pounds in research 
work the outcome of which was problematical. It would, 
indeed, not be an easy task even in these more enlightened 
davs. 

Walter M. Gardner. 



THE MEDICAL INSPECTION OF SCHOOL 
CHILDREN.' 

T ESS than three years ago there did not exist a medical 
-'-' department of the Board of Education. To-day there 
lies before us a Blue-book, of 170 pages, detailing, with 
much substance, the work undertaken or done to establish 
and regulate the vast system of medical inspection of 
schools and school children now operative over the length 
and breadth of England. In modern social history no 
movement has come so rapidly to maturity as the system 
of inspection here, for the first time, placed in a con- 
nected way before the general and official public. In a 
lucid preliminary section Dr. Newman briefly sketches the 
relation of our present developments to the efforts, both 
here and on the Continent, towards a systematic medical 
supervision of school children. " In the latter year (1865), 
the report of the School Commission in Norway did some- 
thing to bring the importance of school hygiene once more 
before the general public, and in 1866 Hermann Cohn 
undertook his classic researches into the eyesight of over 
10,000 children at Breslau " (p. 2). Cohn, now dead, 
was one of the venerable figures at the first International 
Congress of School Hygiene at Nuremberg. He was still 
full of energy and enthusiasm. Much occasional and dis- 
connected local work followed, but " the Wiesbaden system 
marks the introduction of a new conception and under- 
standing of the problem. This system, which has been 
widely adopted in Germany, treats the child as the centre 
of interest and his well-being as the end of reform, to 
which even the most satisfactory school environment is 
only a means. . . . Throughout the German Empire a 
large number of school doctors have been appointed, and 
so some 350 towns and communities have undertaken in a 
greater or less degree the work of medical supervision of 
school life " (p. 4)— a good result since the first appomt- 
ments in Wiesbaden in 1896. 

The English movement, though prepared for by many 
workers in personal and public hygiene, dates from_ the 
report of the Royal Commission on Physical Training 
(Scotland) in 1903. Dr. Newman does not make it per- 
fectly clea? why, at this particular juncture in British 
history, such a report should have been called for ; blit 
there is no doubt that the Commission arose out of the 
revelations of physical inefficiency made during the great 
South African war, particularly at the recruiting stations. 
There was then a rising wave of opinion on the need 
for better physical training in the early stages of hfe 
Incidentallv, and, as it were, casually, the supreme need 
for medical inspection was revealed, and, up to date, tiin. 

1 Board of Education. Annual Report for 1908 of the Chief Met'ical 
Officer of the Board of Education. Pp. 170- Cd. 4986. (London : Eyre 
and Spottiswoode, 1910.) Price S^if. 



58 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



is the chief result of the Scotch Commission and the many 
further inquiries set going by it. Physical training has 
shared in the benefits of more scientific direction. The 
rest of the history is written in the statutes and adminis- 
trative orders and circulars now current in Great Britain. 
A movement so wide and so costly could have emerged 
only from a great national awakening, and this report, 
the first of the new medical department, shows how far 
advanced the organisation already is. The report contains 
all the administrative detail necessary to enable the 
interested sociologist to grasp the significance of the 
movement. 

Naturally, in a first report, questions of organisation and 
administration bulk relatively large. Dr. Newman makes 
very clear the relation of the new school medical officers 
to the public health service. This was a matter of great 
concern at the outset, but the solution of difficulties seems 
to have gone forward smoothly, and to-day any dissociation 
of services is the exception, not the rule. Subordination 
of the school medical officer to the medical oflScer of health, 
or some, definite form of cooperation, seems to have been 
established practically in every educational area. " There 
is an interdependence and solidarity in these matters which 
can only be ignored or neglected at the price of inefficiency 
and failure " (p. 17). 

Whole-time medical assistants are the rule, part-time 
assistants the exception. " There fiave been no cases of 
Authorities commencing with a few whole-time assistants 
and changing to many part-time assistants " (p. 19). This 
is a very significant fact. Of the 307 educational areas, 
160 have been provided with one school medical officer 
each — the minimum necessary under the Code. In the 
other 147 areas, "there are in all 616 assistant medical 
officers " — 122 whole-time, 494 part-time. The arrange- 
ments for twenty-one other areas have not yet been finally 
approved, but, approximately, 1084 medical officers are at 
work "in the school medical service in England and 
Wales " (p. 18). This is certainly a splendid record. The 
qualifications of officers, the part played by the teacher, 
the school nurse, the general scope of the work, all are 
discussed with quantitative references. It is estimated 
that, for England and Wales, not fewer than 1,328,000 
children were medically inspected during 1907-8, and when 
to these are added 250,000 " specials," that is, children 
specially brought under the medical inspector's notice as 
needing attention, the total amounts to not less than 
ij million children. The general experience with parents 
is that they have appreciated the work warmly, and some- 
tim»s enthusiastically, there being a few, but only a few, 
complainers. 

As to treatment, the facts are, of course, very meagre 
as yet, but not discouraging. So far as facts are avail- 
able, the number medically attended to through the 
parents themselves runs from 20 to 60 per cent, of those 
brought to their notice by the education authorities. There 
is here abundant room for organisation and propaganda. 
The cost of medical inspection, so far as salaries go, runs 
from 4'7q<i. per child in average attendance in the counties 
to 7-64(i. in the municipal boroughs and 7-5611. in the 
urban districts, or, in the same order, from 0-15^. of rate 
to o-23d. and o-28(l. — no great outlay for so great a 
service. 

The rest of the volume is taken up with details of the 
results of medical inspection in the discovery of defects or 
diseases. The results are necessarily " tentative and frag- 
mentary " (p. 39), but more than enough to justify the 
institution of the system and to indicate the immense 
amount of administrative energy now directed to the 
amelioration of evil conditions, both environmental and 
personal. Cleanliness is steadily improving under the 
pressure of definite administrative direction. For instance, 
in 124 London schools Dr. Kerr found, of 92,185 children 
examined, 16,060 verminous, and 222S were excluded for 
prosecution^the parents of 255 children being prosecuted, 
and fined in sums varying from \s. 6d. to 20s. As a rule, 
the first " notice " is enough to secure cleansing. Ring- 
worm is diminishing. Teeth are beginning to be treated, 
as, for instance, in Cambridge. Many other diseases now 
familiar to the general public are here recorded — adenoidal 
growths, ear discharges, short sight, &-c. There is a good 
series of piragraphs dealing with tuberculosis, in particular 



with phthisis. The results in percentages for phthisis vary 
widely — from well below i to well above 4. Obviously 
there are differences both in the localities and in the 
methods of diagnosis. This is a disease that has not yet 
found its " level " in the professional mind. There are 
sections dealing with the new syllabus of hygiene, with 
schools for defective children, open-air schools, and many 
other matters of current importance. 

The report, as a whole, reflects every credit on the 
system of medical inspection and on the Board of Educa- 
tion itself. Only the experienced administrator can read 
from these records the enormous difiSculties to be over- 
come and the skill shown in overcoming them. 



NOTES OX THE ORIGIN OF THE HAUSAS.' 

IM^EXT to the Filani, the most important race in northern 
Nigeria is the Hausa, whose origin is undetermined. 
These people occupy at present most of the land between 
the ninth and fourteenth parallels north latitude, and the 
fourteenth and • eleventh ■ meridians east longitude. Their 
number is variously estimated ; perhaps 4,000,000 is fairly 
accurate. They are the traders and soldiers of West 
Africa, and are very good agriculturists, and workers in 
brass and leather, but seem to have been unable to conquer 
under their own leaders. 

The Hausas have not the fine features of the Filani, nor 
yet the very thick lips and flat noses of the coast negro ; 
they are rather short and stumpy, with woolly hair. Their 
original country in northern Nigeria consisted of seven 
States, the " Hausa Bokkoi," to which an equal number, 
" Banza Bokkoi," were afterwards added. These States 
were independent of — though dependent on — one another. 
There are two principal theories as to their origin, viz. 
(i) that they were indigenous, and (2) that they came from 
Egypt or Ethiopia. I cannot see why these two appar- 
ently opposite ideas cannot be modified and reconciled. 

It would seem that the following statements are per- 
missible : — 

(i) The religion is in too many points similar to that 
of the ancient Egyptians to imagine that it was formed 
quite independently. 

(2) The Hausas have the trading and wandering instincts 
of the Semites, and have travelled voluntarily and without 
external pressure, ■ whereas the people of most West African 
negro tribes have kept together, unless conquered and 
driven out of their countr_v. 

(3) The cephalic index is one which we would naturally 
expect in the descendants of a mixture of races, some 
having a greater, some a less, index. Because the ."Vrabic 
element was in the minority, and because of the influence 
of environment, the Hausa cephalic index is nearer to 
that of the Egyptian Copts and mixed races than to that 
of the Arabs. The present Hausa race is a further mix- 
ture of the . people who came, in a.d. iooo, with the 
aborigines. 

(4) Arabic has had some, influence in the formation of 
the Hausa grammar, as wellas supplying about one-third 
of the words, and so some of the people who formed the 
Hausa vocabulary must have known Arabic. ."Vgain, since 
two-thirds of . the words present no similarity to any 
Semitic language, it is evident that other elements are 
present, and some of these are related to Coptic. The 
word Habeshi was a term of contempt applied by .\rabs to 
mixed races, and Hausa (Ba-haushe) is a modification. 

. (5) The people came, from the East (ancient Ethiopia) 
and brought the horse. . Arabs had horses at this time 
(1000 A.D.), and. the mixture which arrived no doubt spoke 
a certain- amount of ..Arabic. They may have been 
Hamites, but it is much more likely that they were a 
mixture of Hamites and Semites, together with elements 
of local populations encountered en route, and the original 
inhabitants of the country now forming the Hausa States. 
There is probably a little Berber blood also, and even a 
further addition of .'\rabic. Being ashamed of their humble 
origin, they invented one for themselves, and called their 
mythical ancestor Babushe, w^hich is really Ba-(ha)beshi 
and Ba-hab(e)shi or Ba-haushe. 

1 From a paper hy Capt. A.J.N. Treme-ne in the Journal o' the Royal 
Society of Arts, July 8 



!I24, VOL. 84] 



July 14, 19 10] 



NATURE 



59 




■lesponding with ^° C. 
i-speclively. The arro\ 



MODELS OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDI- 
TIONS IN THE FREE AIR. 

THE photographs of which Figs, i and 2 are reproduC' 
tions are views of two glass models constructed ai 
the Meteorological Office 
to represent the tempera- 
tures and pressures in a 
block of atmosphere fifteen 
miles thick over a tri- 
angular portion of the 
British Isles on July 27 
and 29, 1908. 

Records of pressure and 
temperature were obtained 
by means of balloons 
carrying small meteoro- 
graphs, designed bv Mr. 
W. H. Dines, F.R.S. 
Corresponding values of 
pressure, temperature, and 
height were computed 
from the records. 

Balloons were liberated 
at Ditcham Park, Peters- 
field ; Pyrton Hill, Oxford- 
shire ; Glossop, Derby- 
shire ; Crinan, -'\rgyil- 
shire ; and Birdhill, Co. 
Limerick. The courses of 
the balloons were in some 
cases traced for part of 
the way by means of 
theodolite observations. 

The purpose of the 
models is to give a repre- 
sentation of the informa- 
tion thus obtained, and to 
exhibit the meteorological 
variations in three dimen- 
sions. Each model con- 
sists of a rectangular base, 
upon which is drawn an 
outline map of a portion 
of the British Isles on the 
scale of 25 miles to an 
inch, together with iso- 
bars and winds for 6 p.m. 
on one or other of the 
two days. Upon the base 
are erected vertical glass 
plates, secured at the top 
bv a horizontal plate. In 
F'ig. I (July 27) the 
vertical edges of the pris- 
matic shell thus formed, 
from left to right, stand 
over the above-named 
stations in order, Birdhill 
being the corner shown at 
the back. In Fig. 2 
(July 29) Ditcham is re- 
presented only by a 
standard bearing arrows 
to show wind direction. 
The recording instrument 
sent up from that station 
on that day has not been 
found. 

Distances measured ver- 
tically along the glass 
sides of the models repre- 
sent heights above sea- 
level on the scale of 5 
miles to 4 inches. Tlie 
vertical scale of the model 
is therefore twenty times 
the horizontal scale of th% 
map. The total height represented is 24 kilometres (15 
miles). 

The observations from each station are plotted on the 
edge? of the models. Isotherms (full lines) are drawn on 

NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



the glass sides for every 5° C, the temperature being ex- 
pressed in absolute measure. The space between the 
isotherms of 270° and 275° is filled in to indicate the posi- 
tion of the freezing point. 

Both models show clearlv the two main divisions of the 



July :?7, 190S. Block seen from the 
pace between the isotherms o 
overed. The beaded lines in t 
1 the standards face the wind i 



n. Isotherms are shown for each 5' 
d 275" is tilled in ; for other isotherms 
phere are isobars for 02 megabar and 
ined by observations with theodolites. 




,-en on July 
.Absolute from 285° A. to 205° A. The 
a thickness corresponding with i° C. is 
o'l megabar respectively. The arrows ( 



Isotherms are shown for each 5 
of 270° and 273° is filled in ; for other isotherms 
overed. The beaded lines in the stratosphere are isobars for o;2 megabar and 
1 the standards face the wind as determined by observations with theodolites. 

atmosphere, viz. : — (i) " troposphere," or lower portion, in 
which temperature diminishes with height at a nearly 
uniform rate and the isothermal surfaces are approxi- 
mately horizontal, and (2) "isothermal region," or 



6o 



NATURE 



[July 14, 1910 



" stratosphere," above the troposphere, in which tempera- 
ture is nearly constant or increases slowly with height, and 
thfl isothermal planes tend to become vertical. 

Isobars for one-tenth and one-fifth of an atmosphere 
(o-i megabar and o-2 megabar according to the nomen- 
clature of the Paris Conference of Physicists, 1900) are 
shown by beaded lines in the upper parts of the figures. 

Wind-direction observations are indicated by arrows 
facing the wind, carried on standards. 

The chief points of difference between the two models 
are the foUowina : — 





Fig. I. 


Fig. 2. 


(1) Surface temperature ... 

(2) Sea-level pressure 


From 280" to 285° 

From I "016 to I'ozs 

megabar 


From 285° to 290° 

From I '026 to i'o33 

megabar 


(3) Height cf lower surface 

of stratosphere 

(4) Lowest temperature in 

stratosphere 

(5) Wind direction at south- 

east angle 


(30-0 to 30-2 in.) 

9 km. 

About 215° 

Nearly S. throughout 


(30*3 to 30*5 in.) 

TO km. 

Ahout 205" 

Nearly N. throughout 



Both figures show that the position of the coldest air 
was at a height of lo-ii kilometres over the most southern 
portion represented. 



VKlVERSny AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 

Birmingham. — The chair of accounting vacated bv Prof. 
.Sidney Dawson has been filled by the election of Mr. 
Charles E. Martineau. 

Mr. W. B. Grove has been appointed honorary curator 
of the fungus herbarium in the Botanical Department. 

Prof. R. Saundby has been appointed to represent the 
University on the General Medical Council for a further 
period of five years. 

Prof. Bostock Hill is to represent the University at the 
Conference on School Hygiene to be held in Paris in 
August. 

The Pro-Vice-Chancellor (.\lderman F. C. Clayton) is 
presentingto the University a statue of His Majesty King 
Edward \TI., in commemoration of the opening of the 
new buildings by the late Sovereign. It is understood 
that the statue is to stand in the entrance hall of the main 
building. 

Leeds. — .Arrangements have now been completed for the 
establishment of a professorship of coal gas and fuel indus- 
tries at the University as a memorial to the late Sir 
George Livesey, upwards of 10,500/. having been subscribed 
to the fund initiated for the purpose by the Institution of 
Gas Engineers, and an advisory committee has been formed 
in connection with the work to' be carried out by the holder 
of the chair. 

Dr. J. K. Jamieson, hitherto chief demonstrator of 
anatomy, has been appointed professor of anatomy in the 
University. 

London. — Sir Henry Roscoe has resigned his member- 
ship as a Crown nominee, and Mr. F. D. Acland has been 
appointed in his place. 

Mr. F. L. Golla has been appointed honorary demon- 
strator of chemical pathology and pharmacology in the 
physiological laboratory of the University, and Mr. A. D. 
Mitchell, of Sheffield University, has been appointed 
scientific assistant in chemistry in the University. 

Dr. J. D. CoALEs has been appointed principal of the 
Wolverhampton Technical School. 

Mr. J. A. Jenkins, for fifteen years registrar of the 
University College of South Wales,' Cardiff, has resigned 
that position. 

On July 8, the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws of 
tlip University of Edinburgh was conferred upon Prof. John 
Chlpne, emeritus professor of surgery in the University ; 
Prof. Matthew Hay, professor of forensic medicine. Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen ; and Prof. W. H. Perkin, F.R.S., 
professor of organic chemistry. University of Manchester. 
NO. 2124, VOL. 84I 



The increasing popularity of holidaty courses for teachers 
is an excellent indication of .the growing desire of school- 
masters and schoolmistresses to acquaint themselves with 
improved methods of instruction, and to bring their know- 
ledge up to date by attending during their holidays lectures 
by experts. The County Council of the West Riding of 
Yorkshire has arranged a series of vacation courses for 
teachers, to be held at the Municipal Secondary School, 
Scarborough, during August next. Among the items in a 
very attractive programme, we notice a course of ten 
lectures by Prof. A. Smithells, F.R.S., on solution, and 
the physics and chemistry of cleansing processes ; twelve 
lectures on the teaching of general elementary science, by 
Mr. W. Mayhowe Heller ; and eight lectures on nature- 
study, by Mr. O. H. Latter. Laboratory work and 
excursions have been arranged in connection with these 
courses. There will also be a course in educational hand- 
work, organised by the Educational Handwork Association, 
during July and August at the same place, and it is 
possible for students to take a joint West Riding and 
handwork course. 

On December 21, 1909, the London County Council 
decided to make a maintenance grant of Soooi. to the 
Imperial College of Science and Technology, South 
Kensington. In return for this grant it secures the 
privilege of nominating twenty-five students for one year's 
free instruction at the Imperial College. These are now to 
be nominated for tlie first time. The instruction will be of 
an advanced nature, and therefore only advanced students 
who are qualified to enter on the fourth year of the course 
should apply. There is no restriction as to income, but 
intending candidates must be ordinarily resident in the 
Administrative County of London, and must be students 
at an institution aided, maintained, or approved by the 
council. The free studentships do not entitle the holders 
to any maintenance grants, but cover all ordinary tuition 
fees. No examination will be adopted for the final selec- 
tion of the students from the applications received. The 
free studentships will be awarded on consideration of the 
past records of the candidates, the recommendations of their 
teachers, the course of study they intend to follow, and 
generally upon their fitness for advanced study in science 
applied to industry. It is quite possible that, in special 
cases, the free places may be extended to two or more 
years. AppHcation should be made without delay, as 
entries will not be considered after July 23. Application 
forms (T. 2/268) can be obtained from the Education 
Officer, London County Council, Victoria Embankment, 
London, W.C. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 

I-ONDON. 
Royal Society, June 30. — Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B., 
president, in the chair. — Prof. .\. D. Waller : A new 
method for the quantitative estimation of hydrocyanic acid 
in vegetable and animal tissues. The method is colori- 
metric, and depends on the reaction between potassium 
cyanide and picric acid, first studied by Hlasiwetz 
(Liebig's Annaleii, ex., p. 2S9 [1S59]), and recently applied 
by Guignard to the detection of minute quantities of 
hydrocyanic acid [Aniiales Sci. Pharmacol., iqob, p. 415) 
and by H. E. Armstrong to the rapid detection of emulsin 
(Proceedings, March 10). The colour-scale is prepared by 
mixing equal volumes of a recently titrated solution of 
I'loooo hydrocyanic acid and of picrate mixture (equal 
volumes of O'S/ioo picric acid and 5/100 sodium carbonate). 
From this stock solution (T50), after twenty-four hours 
in an incubator at 40°, a colour-scale is prepared by further 
dilution with picrate mixture, to contain, e.g., 1, 2, 3, &c., 
parts of HON per million, of tints T i, T2, T3, &c. The 
estimation is made by matching the colour of the given 
fluid or of its distillate into picrate mixture (after suitable 
dilution if required), with that of the colour-scale. Thus, 
e.g., if the tint of a distillate from 10 c.c. of blood (dil. X5) 
into 25 c.c. of picrate is found = T5, and the volume of 
picrate-l-distillate is 40 c.c, the amount of HCN in the 
distillate = 5 X 40 millionths gram, i.e. 0-000200. .\ second 
distillation shows whether or no the whole of the HCN 
present has been taken over in the first distillate. Results 



July 14, 19 10] 



NATURE 



61 



of the application of the method to (i) a leaf of Prunus 
Laitrocerasus ; {2) the blood and tissues of a cat after 
death by a known amount of HCN ; (3) the blood and 
tissues of a person " found dead." — Prof. A. Dendy : 
The structure, development, and morphological interpreta- 
tion of the pineal organs and adjacent parts of the brain 
in the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus). The " pineal com- 
plex " consists of the dorsal sac, the paraphysis, the pineal 
sac (" epiphysis "), the pineal eye, the pineal nerves and 
their central connections. There is a well-developed 
choroid ple.xus, with special blood-supply, on the roof of 
the dorsal sac, possessing histological features of consider- 
able interest. The paraphysis is a compound tubular 
gland, with special blood-supply, differing markedly in 
histological character from the choroid plexuses. Its lining 
epithelium forms a syncytium, and its opening, which, in 
the embryo, lies just in front of the commissura aberrans, 
becomes shifted upwards in the adult on to the anterior 
wall of the dorsal sac, by the formation of a " supra- 
commissural canal," the original opening being blocked up 
by the anterior choroidal blood-vessels. The histological 
structure of the pineal sac points to a sensory rather than 
a glandular function. Its wall is essentially similar in 
structure to the retina of the pineal eye, consisting of 
radial supporting fibres, sense-cells, and ganglion-cells and 
nerve-fibres, and pigment may occasionally be deposited 
in it. The retina of the pineal eye consists of the same 
histological elements arranged in essentially the same way, 
with the sense-cells on the inside and the nervous elements 
in the middle. The pigment is not lodged either in the 
sense-cells or in the supporting fibres, but is brought into 
the retina by wandering pigment-cells. The pigment 
granules escape from these wandering cells on entering the 
retina, and stream inwards between the radially arranged 
elements. The inner ends of the sense-cells project into 
the cavity of the eye, and are covered each by a little 
cap, formed apparently by the internal limiting membrane 
of the retina. The developing lens of the pineal eye 
increases in size partly as a result of mitotic divisions in 
a marginal zone of undifferentiated cells. As they approach 
the centre the cells elongate, and some of them degenerate 
into a kind of mucus, which is secreted from the inner 
surface of the lens into the cavit/ of the eye, w'here it 
takes part in the formation of the vitreous body. This 
process of secretion continues in the adult. The nerve of 
the pineal sac is from its first appearance median. It 
joins the roof of the brain between the posterior and 
superior commissures. The nerve of the pineal eye is 
shown, especially by its development, to be primarily con- 
nected with the left habenular ganglion, which even in 
the adult has a different shape from that of its fellow of 
the opposite side. Both nerves persist in a well-developed 
condition throughout life. The view that the pineal sac 
and pineal eye are respectively the right and left members 
of a primitive pair of sense-organs, serially homologous 
with the lateral eyes, is strongly supported. Altogether six 
pairs of diverticula are given off from the fore- and mid- 
brain, viz. the cerebral hemispheres, the optic vesicles of 
the lateral eyes, the recessus thalami prenucleares, the 
pineal sense-organs, the recessus geniculi, and the optic 
lobes. These may all be serially homologous with one 
another, and each may possibly indicate a separate neuro- 
mere. There is no commissura mollis and no unpaired 
plexus medianus in the third ventricle. Reissner's fibre 
and the sub-commissural organ are very well developed. — 
J. A. Crowther : The scattering of homogeneous $ rays, 
and the number of electrons in the atom, (i) The scatter- 
ing of a homogeneous pencil of $ rays has been measured 
for various substances and for rays of different velocity. 
It has been shown to obey the following statistical laws : — 
(i) for rays of given velocity the intensity I of the radia- 
tion contained within a given cone may be expressed by 
the equation I/I„=i — c~'", where t is the thickness of 
material passed through, and k a constant depending upon 
the angle of the cone ; (ii) for rays of given velocity the 
most probable angle of emergence is proportional to the 
square root of the thickness of material traversed by the 
rays : (iii) for rays of different velocities, the probable angle 
of emergence divided by the square root of the thickness 
traversed is inversely proportional to the product of the 
mas? of the incident /3 particle into the square of its 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



velocity. (2) From equations given by Sir J. J. Thomson, 
the number of electrons contained in atoms of different 
elements is deduced. It is thus found : — (i) that the ratio 
of the number of electrons per atom to the atomic weight 
is constant, the ratio being very nearly 3-0 for all the 
elements examined ; (ii) that the positive electricity within 
the atom is not in an electronic condition, but is distributed 
fairly uniformly over the space occupied by the atom. 
(3) Experiments are described on the absorption of homo- 
geneous 3 rays. It is shown that the first stage in the 
absorption of a pencil of homogeneous P rays consists in 
the scattering of the rays according to the laws already 
considered. The absorption of the completely scattered 
radiation is then shown to take place according to an 
exponential law. — F. Isaac : The spontaneous crystallisa- 
tion and the melting- and freezing-point curves of mixtures 
of two substances which form mixed crystals and possess 
a minimum or eutectic freezing point. — Mixtures of azo- 
benzene and benzylaniline. The results obtained in this 
research may be thus summarised : — (i) The freezing- and 
melting-point curves for mixtures of azobenzene and benzyl- 
aniline have been determined, and it has been shown that 
these substances possess a minimum or eutectic point at 
26° for the mi.xture containing 19 per cent, azobenzene 
and 81 per cent, benzylaniline, and form a series of mixed 
crystals on one side only of the eutectic, viz. that with 
excess of azobenzene. This is, therefore, a limiting case 
of Roozeboom's Type 5, in which two substances, A and 
B, possess freezing- and melting-point curves which exhibit 
a minimum eutectic point, and form two series of mixed 
crystals, i.e. mixed crystals containing excess of A, and 
mixed crystals containing excess of B. (2) The melting- 
point curve has been confirmed by actual analysis of the 
mixed crystals. (3) The supersolubility curve, or curve of 
spontaneous crystallisation, has been determined for these 
mixtures by two methods : — (i) by noting the temperature 
at which a liquid mixture of known composition crystallises 
spontaneously in a sealed tube ; (ii) by noting the tempera- 
ture at which a known liquid mixture attains its highest 
refractive index and gives a dense labile shower when 
placed in the trough of the inverted goniometer. It has 
been shown that each mixture possesses a definite tempera- 
ture of spontaneous crystallisation. The supersolubility 
curve shows a minimum for liquids having approximately 
the eutectic composition, and runs approximately parallel 
to the freezing-point curve. It crosses the melting-point 
curve three times. The nature of the mixed crystals which 
first separate spontaneously from any liquid mixture on 
the supersolubility curve has been investigated. The com- 
position of such crystals has been determined by separating 
them from their mother liquor and finding their melting 
points. (5) A few thin sections have been ground from 
the solid mixtures in the neighbourhood of the eutectic, 
and their structures examined. These structures do not 
appear to be permanent. After the lapse of some months 
they completely changed, new crystal needles appearing all 
over the sections. These changes, however, appear to be 
very gradual, and to take place with change of tempera- 
ture. — E. C. Snow : The determination of the chief corre- 
lations between collaterals in the case of a simple 
Mendelian population mating at random. This paper 
investigates the values which should hold for the correla- 
tions between (a) siblings, (b) uncle and nephew, and (c) 
first cousins, on the Mendelian hypothesis of " unit- 
characters." The correlations both for gametic and 
somatic characters are found. For the former, values in- 
dependent of the distribution of the dominant and recedant 
characters among the population are obtained. These are 
(a) o-soo, (b) 0-250, and (c) 0250. In the case of the 
somatic correlations, however, the results depend upon the 
relative numbers of the population possessing the dominant 
and recedant attributes before crossing. By varying this 
proportion, different values of the correlations can he 
obtained, but these are always less than the corresponding 
gametic ones stated above. .The investigation brings out 
the important point that, on the Mendelian theory of 
heredity, the similarity between first cousins is quite as 
close as, or closer than, those between uncle and nephew. 
Biometric results previously reached have pointed to the 
same conclusions. This is of great interest from the 
medical point of view. In medical diagnosis, a man's 



NATURE 



[July 14, 19 10 



uncles and aunts, but not his cousins, are generally con- 
sidered ; but the results of the present paper show that 
his cousins, usually more numerous, give just as good a 
knowledge of his constitutional tendencies as do his uncles 
and aunts. — C. J. T. Sevwell : The propagation of sound 
In a fog. This paper is intended as a sequel to the author's 
previous paper on " The Extinction of Sound in a Viscous 
Atmosphere by Small Obstacles of Cylindrical and Spherical 
torm," in which the loss of energy from the primary 
waves owing to viscosity was investigated. In the present 
paper the author has included the additional loss of energy 
due to heat conduction. The work proceeds on much the 
same lines as before, and the results obtained are of the 
same order of magnitude. The chief interest consists in 
the application of the results to the effect of atmospheric 
log upon the propagation and audibility of sound. Waves 
of high frequency suffer most. If the diameter of the 
drops of water in a dense fog is assumed to be 002 mm., 
and the density of the fog amounts to 45 grams per cubic 
metre, the intensity of sound of wave-length 100 cm. is 
reduced in the ratio of i to « before the sound has travelled 
a distance of 100 metres. If the wave-length is 1000 cm., 
this distance is increased to about 350 metres. In any 
case, the results seem to show that the presence of fog 
at sea must diminish quite appreciably the audibility of 
sound. — L. Southerns : A determination of the ratio of 
mass to weight for a radio-active substance. A determina- 
tion has been made of the ratio of mass to weight for 
uranium oxide by comparison with the known value for 
a normal substance (lead oxide). It had been supposed 
by Sir J. J. Thomson that a radio-active substance might 
possess greater mass than the same weight of a non- 
radio-active substance, on account of the greater store of 
potential energy which is associated with the former. In 
the case of uranium oxide, the increase in the ratio of 
mass to weight would be about i in 16,000. The investi- 
gation has been made by means of a rigid pendulum fitted 
with two knife-edges and a hollow bob, into which could 
be packed either of the substances used. Special means 
have been employed in order to eliminate errors due to 
slight variations in the position of the centre of gravity 
of the pendulum, and to other causes. The results show 
that the ratio for the uranium oxide does not differ from 
the normal value by more than i in 200,000, and thus 
that the contemplated effect is absent. — F. P. Burt and 
F. L. Usher : The relative atomic weights of nitrogen 
and sulphur. The object of the research was to determine 
the combining weights of nitrogen and sulphur by the 
analysis of nitrogen sulphide. The method adopted was 
briefly as follows : — A weighed quantity of nitrogen 
sulphide, purified by sublimation in -vacuo over silver at 
100° C, was decomposed by subliming over red-hot quartz 
wool contained in a quartz tube. The sulphur was de- 
posited a few inches beyond the wool, and the nitrogen 
was pumped off and estimated in a constant-volume gas 
burette. .Assuming the density of nitrogen, the relative 
weights of nitrogen and sulphur could be calculated, the 
sulphur being obtained by difference. The problem was 
complicated by the impossibility of starting an experiment 
with_ the quartz wool in the reaction tube in a gas-free 
condition. The difficulty was overcome by measuring in 
blank experiments the quantity of air removable from the 
hot wool in vacuo, and by estimating traces of more con- 
densable gas present by exposing the nitrogen to potash 
and re-mcasuring it. the final corrected N/S ratios are 
as follows, the weight of a " normal litre " of nitrogen in 
London being taken as 1-25144 grm. : — 0-436847, 0-436875, 
0-436839, 0.436S57, 0-436S97, 0-436878, 0-436898. The mean 
is 0-436870, and the greatest deviation from the mean is 
I in 14,000. From this ratio the atomic weight of sulphur 
becomes 2067. if nitrogen be given the very probable value 
14-009.-— Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green : The 'relation of light 
perception to colour perception. It may be easilv shown 
that light perception and colour perception are quite 
distinct. In fact, we can divide cases of colour-blindness 
into two classes, according as the defect is (a) one of light 
perception, or (b) one of colour perception or differentia- 
tion without any defect in light perception. Of course, 
both defects may be present in the same individual. The in- 
vestigation of these two classes of defective vision is much 
facilitated by the use of a spectrometer which the author 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



has devised for the purpose. This instrument is a spectro- 
meter so arranged as to make it possible to expose to 
view in the eye-piece the portion of a spectrum between 
any two desired wave-lengths. Tested with this instru- 
ment, a normal individual will, as a rule, name six 
distinct colours, namely, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, 
and violet, and will mark out by means of the shutters 
about eighteen monochromatic patches. Occasionally we 
come across individuals with a greater power of differ- 
entiating hues, to whom, as to Newton, there is a distinct 
colour between the blue and violet, which Newton called 
indigo. Such individuals will mark out a greater number 
of monochromatic patches, from twenty-two up to twenty- 
nine. Those who have defective light perception for 
certain rays, with normal hue perception, behave exactly 
in the same way as a normal-sighted person with those 
rays removed or reduced to the same intensity, and not as 
if a light-perceiving substance which was sensitive to rays 
from a considerable range of the spectrum had been re- 
moved. Those with defective hue perception mark out 
with the spectrometer a smaller number of monochromatic 
patches than the normal, and say that there are five, four, 
three, two, or one colour instead of the normal six. They 
behave in every way as if their colour sensations were 
correspondingly limited. Therefore, if the normal be 
designated hexachromic, then pentachromic, tetrachromic, 
trichromic, dichromic, or monochromic correctly describes 
their colour-vision. — M. G. Sykes : The anatomy and 
morphology of the leaves and inflorescences of Weliuitschia 
mirahilis. An account is given of the anatomy of the 
leaves, and of the inflorescence axes, cones, bracts, and 
flowers of both sexes. It is shown that the male and 
female inflorescences are essentially similar in their method 
of vascular supply and in their detailed anatomy, and it is 
concluded that they are homologous. Various characters 
suggest comparison with the Cycads and the MeduUoseae. 
From the position of the embryo-sac relatively to the two 
coverings of the ovule at various stages of development, 
they are regarded as two integuments. The seed can be 
closely compared with that of Lagenostoma ; its differences 
from this primitive type are referable to changes dependent 
on the evolution of siphonogamy and possibly insect 
fertilisation. In both these seeds the free outer integu- 
ment is regarded as a primitive character, in contrast with 
the fused integuments of Cycas and Cardiocarpus. In 
all these cases the entire vascular system appears to be 
integumental. The connection between Welwitschia and 
the Cycads, the Bennettitales and the Angiosperms, is 
discussed. — Colonel Sir David Bruce, C.B., Captains 
A. E. Hamerton and H. R. Bateman, and Captain 
F. P. Mackie : (i) The natural food of Glossina palpalis ; 
(2) mechanical transmission of sleeping sickness by the 
tsetse-fly. — V. H. Veley and Prof. A. D. Waller : The 
comparative toxicity of theobromine and caffeine as 
measured by their direct effects upon the contractility of 
isolated muscle. It is shown by measurements of the 
contractility of isolated muscle that the toxicity of theo- 
bromine, the base of cocoa, is greater than that of caffeine, 
the base of coffee and tea, in the proportion of 3 : 2. The 
introduction of a second methyl group into the oxy-purine 
residue, namely, the formation of caffeine from theo- 
bromine, thus diminishes the toxic value, a result which is 
the converse of that observed in the case of the parafiinoid 
alcohols. The toxic effects of coffee and tea extracts are 
also studied, and it is shown that the effect of the former 
is mainly due to the caffeine contents, and not to the 
tannic acid. — Prof. W. B. Bottomley : The assimilation 
of nitrogen by certain nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil. 
— Prof. A. B. Macallum : The inorganic composition of 
the blood in vertebrates and invertebrates and its origin. 
• — Mary T. Fraser and J. A. Gardner : The origin and 
destiny of cholesterol in the animal organism. Part vii. — 
The quantity of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in the 
blood of rabbits fed on diets containing varying amounts 
of cholesterol. 

Cambridge. 
Philosophical Societv. lunc 6. — Mr. W. Pateson, presi- 
dent, in the chair. — H. H. Brindley : Further notes on 
the procession of Cnethocampa pinivora. Lantern-slides 
were shown illustrating observations on the procession of 
the caterpillar of this Eupterotid moth, which infests the 



July 14, 1910] 



NATURE 



63 



pines of the Landes. The caterpillars march in single file 
from the nest tree over the sand on fine days in late 
March and early April, ending the last day's procession by 
burrowing for pupation. The general impression left by 
observation of processions is that the larvae in head-to-tail 
contact act as one individual, and as such their course of 
action is very difficult to disturb by artificial interference 
in respect both of direction of march and general behaviour. 
Though removal of the leader hardly, if at all, checks the 
progress of a procession (in a procession of six, for 
instance, the leaders were removed successively and placed 
at the rear of the procession si.K times in fourteen minutes 
without the procession stopping), the " circulating mass " 
seems invariably formed on the initiative of the leader. 
The reason for this frequently occurring event, as, indeed, 
also the stimuli which determine the behaviour of a pro- 
cession, remains obscure, while no explanation is forth- 
coming of the remarkable temporary independence of some 
larvse. As in the observations by T. G. Edwards, no 
irritation of the skin by the poison hairs of the larvae, in 
spite of frequent handling, was experienced (Fabre lays 
much stress on the inconvenience he suffered from this 
source, so the liability to irritation probably varies in 
different individuals). — Dr. Graham-Smith : The habits 
of Musca domestica. — Dr. N. H. Swiellengrebel and 
C. Strickland : The development of Trypanosoma leivisi 
in the rat flea (Ceratophyllus fasciatus). A development 
of T. lewisi was found to take place first in the mid- 
gut, later in the hind-gut and rectum of the flea. The 
forms observed resembled very much the forms of T. 
lewisi in an artificial culture, except that the later stages 
in the flea, a return to a trypanosome form (" small 
trypanosomes "), are never found in culture. No such 
developmental forms were found in a large number of 
control fleas. — Dr. F. Ransom : The absorption of tetanus 
toxin. — H. Aclcroyd : The fate of uric acid in the dog. — 
Dr. Cobbett : The absence of living tubercle bacilli from 
old tuberculous lesions. The author has on several 
occasions, while working for the Tuberculosis Commission 
at Stansted, as well as in Sheffield and Cambridge, found 
that old caseous and calcareous deposits, which were un- 
doubtedly of a tuberculous nature, might contain no 
tubercle bacilli capable of infecting the guinea-pig. — W. E. 
Oixon : The action of potash salts taken by the mouth. 
The non-toxicity of potash salts taken by the mouth was 
shown to be due to the very easy excretion of these salts 
tiy the kidneys, so that their concentration in the blood 
was but slightly increased. — Prof. Sims Woodhead : The 
results of steriUsation experiments on the Cambridge water. 
Sterilisation by chlorine and chlorine compounds had given 
most startling results. In a series of preliminary experi- 
ments, carried out in the laboratory, it had been found 
that one part of available chlorine to two million parts of 
water was sufficient to kill all non-spore-bearing bacteria 
cf the Bacillus coli type, and therefore of the typhoid 
bacillus type, and probably also of the cholera bacillus 
type, within half an hour even in the presence of the 
appreciable amount of organic matter that was necessarily 
added along with the cultures of Bacillus coli. Water to 
which had been added some hundreds of the Bacillus coli 
per c.c. was found after treatment to contain not a single 
living colon bacillus in 50, 60, and 100 c.c. (The un- 
important spore-bearing organisms were not killed.) 
Having obtained these results in the laboratory, a large 
experimental plant capable of sterilising more than 
80,000 gallons of water per twelve hours, erected at 
Fulbourn, was used, and three sets of experiments were 
carried out, one a preliminary series in which the 
apparatus was run at intervals as required, and then two 
series of experiments in which the apparatus was run for 
twelve hours daily for more than a fortnight in each series. 
The standard of the London Water Board, that there shall 
be no Bacillus coli in quantities of water less than 200 c.c, 
was taken as the one to be aimed at. In every case, 
however, quantities of 500 c.c. were examined, and after 
certain preliminary difficulties had been surmounted, water 
was obtained in which none of the observers could find 
the Bacillus coli in 500 c.c. The amount of chlorine used 
in these experiments varied from one part in a million to 
one in six million parts of water. In the earlier experi- 
ments, where up to one part of chlorine in four million 

NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



parts of water was used, it was thought necessary^ to 
neutralise any remaining chlorine by the addition of sodium 
bisulphite. After further experiments, where smaller 
quantities of chlorine were used, this addition was dis- 
pensed with, as the water treated, though sterile, did not 
retain the slightest taste of chlorine. It was suggested, 
of course, that water so treated might have some effect 
upon the human organism. All those who were working 
at Fulbourn drank considerable quantities of this water, 
and everyone who tried it accepted it as a first-class drink- 
ing water. — F. J. M. Stratton and R. H. Compton : 
Accident in heredity, with special reference to right- and 
left-handedness. An examination of the manner in which 
the inheritance of Mendelian characters would be affected 
by the action of a constant environmental factor. The 
assumption is made that a certain proportion of individuals 
have their characters inverted in appearance by accidenta' 
causes, and an application is made to the statistics dealing 
with the inheritance of the mode of clasping the hands. 
— R. H. Compton : Right- and left-handedness in barley. 
A study of the two kinds of seedlings of barley, the folded 
first leaves of which are related to one another as an 
object to its mirror image. A considerable numerical 
e.xcess of one kind is found in all the varieties studied. 
The dimorphism in question is not found to be hereditary, 
and it appears to be governed neither by the direction of 
twist of the last foliage leaf below the spike nor by the 
position of the seed on the spike. — F. T. Brooks : The 
development of Gnomonia erythrostoma, the cause of the 
cherry-leaf scorch disease. The present investigation con- 
cerns an examination of the life-history of this fungus 
from the cytological standpoint, very little work on the 
Pyrenomycetes having hitherto been done from this point 
of view. — Dr. A. C. Dixon : Jacobi's double-residue 
theorem in relation to the theory of point-groups. — N. R. 
Campbell : Discontinuities in light emission, ii. The 
paper is a continuation of one recently presented to the 
society under the same title. The main object of the 
research has remained impossible to attain. The sub- 
sidiary results do not lend themselves to summary. 

Paris. 
Academy of Sciences, June 27.— M. fimile Picard in the 
Lhair. — Ph. van Tieghem : A new classification of the 
Inovuleae group. — J. Boussinesq : The conservation of 
true masses in different phenomena, principally luminous, 
where there appear fictitious variable masses. — Armand 
Gautler : The action of a red heat on formaldehyde. 
Experiments show products of decomposition to be carbon 
monoxide, and hydrogen, with a trace of methane.-^B. 
Galitzine : A new type of seismograph for the vertical 
component.— Charles Nordmann : The brightness of 
Halley's comet, and the composition of its light. — Jules 
Bailiaud : Photographic observations of a small planet. 
— L. Letombe : A geometrical study of distribution in 
machines with separate distributors. — H. Larose: The 
propagation of a discontinuity on a telegraphic line 
furnished with a transmitter.— A. Debierne : The atomic 
weight of the radium emanation. The author shows that 
by the loss of an a particle, and consequent departure of 
an atom of helium of atomic weight 4, the radium of 
atomic weight 2265 becomes the emanation of atomic 
weight 222-5. — G. A. Hemsalech : The duration of the 
emission of spectral rays by luminous vapours in the 
electric spark.— Gabriel Sizes and G. Massoi : A photo- 
graphic record of the vibrations of a diapason. — Edmond 
Bauer : The emission of gases. — E. Henriot : The rays 
of potassium. — A. Besson and L. Fournier : The action 
of hydrogen on sulphur chloride and thionyl chloride 
under the influence of an electric discharge.— Witold 
Broniewski : The electrical properties of aluminium-silver 
alloys.— M. Kohn-Abrest : The nitrides and oxides 
obtained from aluminium heated in air. — G. Urbain, 
M. Blondei, and M. ObiedofT : The extraction of 
germanium from blende.— L. J. Simon: The acid 
character of oxalacetic ether.— M. Lespieau : The hydro- 
genation of acetylene compounds. — A. B£hal : A new 
tertiary menthol, and the passage of pinene into menthene. 
— Andri Meyer : The condensation of phenyl-isoxazolone 
with mesoxalic ester.— Ren6 Maire and Adrien Tison : 
Some Plasmodiophoracesc.- C. Gessard : Blood fibrin.— 



64 



NATURE 



[July 14, 19 10 



Maurice Nicloux : The products of decomposition of 
chloroform in the organism. ^ — M. Caullery and A. 
Lavallee : Experimental investigation on the initial 
phases of infection of Amphiura sqtiamata by Rhopalura 
ophiocomac. — Alfred Angot : The earth tremor of June 24, 
1910. — P. Vialla and P. Pacottet : The culture of the 
Roesleria of the vine. — A. Marie : The neutralising proper- 
ties of a substance isolated from a normal brain. 

July 4. — M. nmile Picard in the chair. — J. Boussinesq : 
The probable applicability, to rays or kathode currents, of 
the principle of mass constancy. — Ch. Lallemand : The 
probable exactness of different evaluations of the altitude 
of Lake Chad. Taking all accounts into consideration, a 
shore of 240 metres, in round numbers, seems nearest the 
truth. — D. Gernez : The nature of the product called by 
the name of black phosphorus. — Armand Gautier and P. 
Clausmann : The action of iron and its oxides, at a red 
heat, on carbonic oxide. Application to some geological 
data. The resulting products are carbides of iron, free 
carbon, and carbon dioxide, together with certain iron 
oxides. — Th. Schloesing-, fils : The production of nicotine 
by the cultivation of tobacco.- — E. L. Bouvier : The 
pycnogonids with five pairs of paws collected by the Jean 
Charcot expedition on board the Pourquoi-Pas? — A. 
Calmette and C. Guerin : The re-absorption of tubercu- 
lous bacilli by cattle following on the injection of mixtures 
of serum of animals rendered hyper-immune, and bacilli 
cultivated in series on beef bile. — A. Perot : A study of 
the variation of the wave-length of solar light at the sun's 
circumference. — D. Eginitis : Some phenomena shown by 
Halley's comet after its passage across the sun. It seems 
evident that much of the shortening of the tail was due to 
the angle under which the comet was seen, besides it being 
not unlikely that some disintegration was brought about 
by the earth itself. — Fr. Iniguez : Physical observations on 
Halley's comet. — Serge Bernstein : Mechanical equations 
and the calculus of variations. — F. Ducretet and E. 
Roger : An apparatus for receiving time on land and on 
board ship by wireless telegraphy. — P. Beaulard : The 
electric absorption exercised by some alcohols. — Mdlle. L. 
Blanquies : The constituents of radio-activity induced from 
actinium. — A. Dufour : The rotation of a mercuric arc 
in a magnetic field. Observations on Doppler's pheno- 
menon. — Louis Maicies : The appearance of certain 
dielectric anomalies by changing the state of the insulating 
medium. Pure vaseline, an insulator at ordinary tempera- 
tures, but a conductor in the liquid state, acts as a medium 
charged with free ions of both signs, the mobility of which, 
while non-existent when the substance is semi-fluid, only 
shows itself on the attainment of a clearly liquid state. — 
Jean Viliey : An electrometric micromanometer. — Maurice 
de Brogrlie : The exclusive presence in the gases evolved 
from some hydrogenated flames of ions altogether 
analogous to those produced by Rontgen rays. It was 
observed, notably in the case of hydrogen, ether, aldehyde, 
acetone, &c., that the flames of combustion gave ions 
closely agreeing with Rontgen radiation in velocity.— V. 
Augrer : Manganate of sodium and its hydrates. It is 
possible to obtain manganate of sodium by the decomposi- 
tion of the corresponding permanganate by means of 
excess of soda. — M. Barre : The decomposition of thorium 
sulphate by water. — Li5o Vignon ; The adsorption of 
certain colouring matters. — E. Andre : Acetylenic ketones. 
The author gives the various physical constants for acetyl, 
propionyl, butyryl, isovaleryl, and caproyl-phenyl-acetylene. 
— A. Backe : Researches on I'so-maltol. The author 
considers the probable formula of this substance to be 
CH-0— CH 
II II 

CH3— C— CO— C— OH. 

— Em. Bourquelot and Mdlle. A. Fichtenhoiz : The 

presence of a glucoside in the leaves of a pear tree, and 
its extraction. — Paul Becquerei : The abiotic action of 
ultra-violet rays, and the hypothesis of the cosmic origin 
of life. Although the effect of dryness, low temperature, 
and_ cold may serve to retain the vitality of living spores 
in inter-stellar space, yet the fact that this space is full 
of ultra-violet radiation, which is shown to have a most 
destructive effect on spore life, goes far to discredit any 
theory of the cosmic origin of life. — Maurice Arthus : 



Cobra poison and curare. — M. Szreter : The oxidation of 
pure o.xyhaemoglobin by pure oxygenated water. — Pierre 
Girard : The electrostatic mechanism of osmosis. — C. 
Viguier : The very rapid maturity of a Spionid larva. — 
Edmond Hitzel : A double bend in the south wall at the 
base of the peak of Plat^, near Chedde (Haute-Savoie). — 
L. Cayeux : The existence of calcareous phosphates in 
diatoms from Senegal. — L. De Launay and G. Urbain : 
The formation of blende, and minerals derived from it. — 
M. Ferret : Some oscillations of the sea observed at 
Bonifacio. 

New South Wales. 
Linnean Society. May 25. — Mr. C. Hedley, president, 
in the chair. — E. C. Grey : The fatty acids of brain 
lipoids, part i. — E. Meyrick, F.R.S. : Revision of 
Australian Tortricina. The author dealt with the Tortri- 
cina of Australia (and New Zealand) in two papers con- 
tributed to the society's Proceedings for 1881 (vol. vi., 
pp. 410 and 629), the number of Australian species therein 
recorded being 132. The revision increases the number to 
434 species,- of which about 232 are described as new; 
the present paper, the first instalment of the revision, is 
concerned with 290 species, comprised in the Carposinidae, 
Phaloniad;e, and Tortricidae. For this result the author is 
greatly indebted to the aid of a number of Australian 
correspondents who forwarded collections ; these, together 
with the material which he had himself accumulated, were 
taken to the British Museum, and a close comparison 
instituted with Walker's types, with the result, it is 
believed, that every one of these was identified satis- 
factorily. The Tortricina are considered to have originated 
fiom the Hilarographa group of the Plutellidoe. 

CONTENTS. PAGE 

Totemism Unveiled. By A. E. Crawley 31 

A Theory of Prehistoric Rhodesia 32 

The Marine Fauna of Japan. By S. J. H 34 

The Cambridge Public Orator. By Dr. R. Y. Tyrrell 35 

Psychical Research. ByJ. A. H 36 

Pseudocytology 36 

Biology and Human Life. ByJ. A. T 37 

Alpine Flowers 37 

Our Book Shelf 38 

Letters to the Editor :— 

Ooze and Irrigation. — Rev. Hilderic Friend ; A. R. 

Horwood .... 39 

A Singular Mammal called "Orocoma." — Kumagusu 

Minakata 40 

Pwdre Ser. — F. M. Burton 40 

Curve Tracing and Curve Analysis. — A. P. Trotter . 40 
The Akikuyu of East Africa. (Illustrated.) Sir H. H. 

Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B 41 

Temperatures in the Free Atmosphere. By E. Gold 42 
The Gulf Stream Drift and the Weather of the 

British Isles. By Dr. H. Bassett 44 

Prof. G. V. Schiaparelli. By W. E. P 44 

Prof. J. G. Galle 45 

The Hon. Charles Stewart Rolls. By Dr. William 

J. S. Lockyer 46 

Notes 46 

Our Astronomical Column : — 

Halley's Comet • 52 

Prevention of Dew Deposit upon Lens Surfaces ... 52 

A Variable Star as a Time Constant 52 

Radiation and Absorption 52 

The Fifth International Congress of Ornithologists. 

By E. H S3 

The Dangers of Ferro-silicon. By Prof. A. McWilliam 53 
The Position of the Negro and Pygmy amongst 

Human Races. By Prof. Arthur Keith 54 

Trees and Forests .55 

Tinctorial Chemistry, Ancient and Modern. By 

Prof. Walter M. Gardner 56 

The Medical Inspection of School Children ... 57 
Notes on the Origin of the Hausas. By Capt. 

A.J. N. Tremearne sS 

Models of Meteorological Conditions in the Free 

Air. (IlliisiratiJ.) 59 

University and Educational Intelligence 60 

Societies and Academies 60 



NO. 2124, VOL. 84] 



NATURE 



65 



THURSDAY, JULY 21, 1910. 



.4 STANDARD TREATISE ON PHYSICS. 
Traitt' de Physique. By O. D. Chwolson. Trans- 
lated from the Russian and German editions by E. 
Davaux. Second volume, fourth fascicule. Pp. 
641-1188. Third volume, first fascicule. Pp. vii + 
408. Fourth volume, first fascicule. Pp. vii + 430. 
Figures in text. (Paris : Hermann et Fils, igog.) 
Price 17, 13 and 12 francs respectively. 

SINCE this is a French translation of a work 
which has already been reviewed in part 
as a German translation (from the Russian), we will 
not do more than examine those parts in which it 
differs from its previous forms or which have not 
previously been reviewed here. It is by no means a 
mere translation. Extensive additions have been 
made under Prof. Chwolson 's supervision with the 
object of maintaining the book level with the rapid 
advances in physics that have taken place. These 
have been made with the author's usual discriminative 
ability. If there is one quali'ty more than another 
which strikes us about this te.Kt-book it is the rare 
combination of knowledge and good judgment 
which everywhere characterises it. Other volumes 
which we know may be more encyclopaedic. If our 
object is to find out all that has been done on any 
special subject we may be disappointed if we turn up 
the subject here. But if our object is to find a judi- 
cious selection of the best that has been thought and 
written on physical questions, then we know of no 
better source from which our object can be attained. 
In other words, this is a text-book of a preeminent 
order, written by one who has a unique command 
over all branches of physical science, and who is as 
alive to the most recent developments as to those 
portions which have now become classical. 

Of the additions to the fourth fascicule, which deal> 
with diffraction, double refraction, and polarisation of 
light, we may point out the account of recent work 
by Dufet on the remarkable anomalous dispersion of 
the optic axes in the case of the sulphates of neo- 
dymium and praseodymium which is exhibited in the 
region of optical absorption. Several additional pages 
are devoted to an account of the optical properties of 
liquid crystals as studied by Lehmann and others. 
Two lengthy paragraphs are added by the translator 
dealing with the reflection and refraction of polarised 
light according to Green, and with the gyrostatic 
theory of light. These paragraphs certainly supple- 
ment the rest of the chapter into which they are 
inserted, and, as many readers will be glad to have 
them, no exception can be taken in regard to their 
insertion. But it may be intimated that they are 
considerably more mathematical than the greater part 
of the book, and they therefore do not harmonise verv 
well with the rest. 

We are certainly surprised to find that wh.ni is 
essentially a distinct treatise is bound up with this 
fascicule, and constitutes the end of the second 
volume. This consists of a note on the theorv of 
deforniable bodies, by MM. E. and F. Cosserat. This 
XO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



note is 220 pages long, and it does not in any sense 
harmonise with the work with which it is incorpor- 
ated. Prof. Chwolson 's work is emphatically experi- 
mental in character; the note is as strikingly mathe- 
matical. We do not wish in the slightest degree to 
discredit either the matter or the manner of the note 
taken by itself. But there does not seem to be any 
justification for loading a text-book which is neces- 
sarily very bulky by matter which will probably never 
be consulted at the same time as the body of the book 
itself. The MM. Cosserat's note is a distinct and 
useful treatise, and should be quite able to stand on 
its own feet. 

The changes in the first fascicule of the third 
volume are not so considerable. This part deals with 
thermometry, specific heats, thermochemistry, and 
thermal conductivity. So far as we can find, there 
is only one additional section, which treats in a 
general way of the problem of Fourier, and gives a 
short account of the allied researches of M. Poincare. 
This is a verv useful addition. 

The first part of the fourth volume has not yet 
been reviewed in these columns, and it deserves a 
more extended notice. Its subject-matter is the 
stationary electric field. The introduction to this part 
is specially noteworthy. It has seemed to Prof. 
Chwolson necessary to commence by giving a sum- 
mary of the singular and exceptional situation in 
which the science of electrical and magnetic pheno- 
mena now is. At the present time one may distin- 
guish no fewer than three various points of view from 
which these subjects are regarded. We have, in the 
first place, to deal with the external structure of a 
very great number of different phenomena which, per- 
ceived by our senses, awaken in us a representation 
more or less definite of what is proceeding, or, more 
exactly, of what seems to us to proceed in a given 
direction and under given conditions. Thence arises 
a description of phenomena and of the laws and rules 
by which those phenomena are regulated. Secondly, 
we may place ourselves at another point of 
view, and consider the practical applications ; or, 
thirdly, we may endeavour to explain these phenomena 
by showing that they are the necessary consequence 
of the existence of a certain substratum to which the 
laws of mechanics and thermodynamics are applicable. 
In regard to this third point of view. Prof. Chwolson 
declares that — 

" Without wishing to exaggerate, we may say, after 
having glanced rapidly over the facts, that there does 
not exist at this moment in the part of this science 
which has for its object the explanation of phenomena, 
any theory which is firmly established upon which we 
may rely in a manner free from all possible doubt to 
give an account of all phenomena." 

He recognises, however, three fundamental concep- 
tions which excite three distinct images or pictures 
which give a more or less exact representation of the 
intimate cause of phenomena. These he designates 
by the letters A, B, and C. The image A, adopted 
in a general manner up to the year 1870, was con- 
structed on the notion of two electricities, enjoying 
the propertv of acting instantaneously at a distance. 

D 



66 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



Though retained in elementary expositions, serious 
science has abandoned it for ever. 

The image B (1870 to i8go) left entirely on one 
side the conception of a special electrical substance, 
and sought to explain electrical phenomena by the 
properties of the aether alone. But although this pic- 
ture enabled one to form a representation of radiant 
electrical energy, it, too, has been found insufficient 
to explain a great number of phenomena. 

The image C is based on the notion of electrons, 
and forms, to some extent, a combination of A and B. 
It supposes the existence of a special substratum, and 
preserves the idea of modifications produced in the body 
of the aether; but the electrical substance is now con- 
sidered as the origin of these modifications in the sether. 

We have summarised these distinctions because thev 
characterise the entire fascicule. Prof. Chwolson 
adheres to these distinctions throughout, and the re- 
sult is that he is able to produce a final picture which 
is more free from confusion than if he had attempted 
to remove the dividing lines between them. Again, 
the student will leave his perusal of these pages with 
a far wider conception of the general lie of the land 
than if one or other of these points of view had been 
purposely blocked out. We do not wish to disparage 
any recent books which emphasise one of these pic- 
tures to the practical exclusion of others. They serve 
their purpose. The pioneer is necessarily preoccupied 
with his own line of march. But there is a danger 
that, in the enthusiasm created by recent discoveries 
and the success attending the contemplation of picture 
C, the rest of the landscape will be forgotten. 
We can wish for no better training for a student than 
a perusal of Prof. Chwolson 's treatise. 

Of the general character of the book in its French 
form we may say that we do not like it quite so well 
as the German. The illustrations, which are taken 
from the German translation, do not show up as satis- 
factorily on the paper selected. But the production 
of a French translation will be welcomed by many 
to whom German is not intelligible; and it may be 
said without any hesitation that, in the form in which 
it now aooears, we have a text-book of physics which 
is second to none in the French language.' It should 
be in the library of every physical laboratory, and 
students who are taking up the subject of physics 
seriously will find it one of the best text-books of 
which to obtain private possession. 



FLOWER POLLINATION. 
Handbook of Flower Pollination. By Dr. P. Knuth. 
Based upon Hermann Muller's work, "The Fer- 
tilisation of Flowers by Insects." Translated by 
Prof. J. R. Ainsworth Davis. Vol. iii. (Band ii.', 
Teil ii., of the German edition). Observations ori 
Flower Pollination made in Europe and the Arctic 
Regions on Species belonging to the Natural 
Orders. Goodenovieee to Cycadeje. Pp. iv + 644. 
(Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1909.) Price 28^. net. 
"W"OL. III. of the English translation, which has 
V now appeared, concludes that portion of Knuth's 
handbook for which that author was himself respon- 
sible. The later volumes, issued afler Knuth's death 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



by Dr. E. Loew, deal with observations on flower 
pollination made beyond the confines of Europe, while 
the earlier volumes contain the observations made in 
Europe and the Arctic regions, vol. iii. dealing with 
species belonging to the orders Goodenovieae to 
Cycadaceas. 

The English translation, appearing, as it does, ten 
years after the publication of the original German 
edition, has been brought up to date in many respects. 
The arrangement of the Natural Orders has been 
altered in consonance with more recent classification, 
and some Orders have been merged as Sub-orders in 
the larger Families. In many instances new observa- 
tions have been added, and additional literature is 
referred to, as, for instance, in the case of the prim- 
rose, the pollination of which has been much disputed, 
and also in the case of Pentstemon, of which genus 
Loew has latterly made a very considerable study. 

This volume, like its predecessor, must be regarded 
as a most valuable book of reference, yet here and 
there are points of more general interest to 
which, perhaps, reference should be made. On p. 434, 
when dealing with the flower of the snowflake 
(Leucojum), Knuth gives an interesting summary of 
the method he has adopted to detect the presence of 
a nectary, when the position of that organ is not 
obvious at first sight. By suitable treatment of 
flowers with Fehling's solution or Hoppe-Seyler's 
sugar reagent he was able to detect the nectar- 
secreting part of most flowers. Sometimes even fairly 
conspicuous flowers, as, for instance, those of 
Pyrola iiniflora, were found to be nectarless, and in 
this case, though the flower is otherwise obviously 
adapted to insect pollination, no insect visitors are 
recorded in the handbook. Indeed, this volume, like 
the preceding one, would yield much valuable infor- 
mation to anyone in search of opportunities of enrich- 
ing botanical science by accurate observations in the 
field, for a number of plants, some of them quite 
common, still require their insect visitors to be re- 
corded. 

Some of the orders, like the Ericaceae, are of 
interest, because in some genera, e.g. Calluna, Erica, 
and Cyclamen, the flowers, though adapted to insect 
pollination, and very eagerly visited by insects, are 
during their later stages anemophilous, the pollen 
becoming dry and powdery, and being readily carried 
by wind. On the other hand, some flowers normally 
adapted to wind pollination, like the sweet chestnut 
(Castanea), also attract insects, and are no doubt 
pollinated by them. 

The translator has omitted to note the observations 
made recently on the dog's mercury (Mercurialis), 
which indicate that this plant is provided both with 
nectaries and sticky pollen, so that though apparently 
anemophilous, and probably at times wind pollinated, 
it is adapted to the visits of insects, and, as Knuth 
records, is often visited by them. 

The anemophilous Graminese, too, ofl'er many 
points of interest in connection willi the frequent 
occurrence of cleistogamy and self-pollination of their 
flowers. Insect visits are occasionally observed in 
this group. Ludwig considered that the succulent 
shining lodicules of many grasses sometimes 



July 21, 19 10] 



NATURE 



67 



attract flies, which are often imprisoned by th-e 
rapid closing of the glumes. These flies seem often 
affected by the entomophthora disease, and it is sug- 
gested that when so suffering they are often compelled 
by thirst to seek the juice of the lodicules. In other 
cases, no doubt, they visit the flowers for the purpose 
of collecting pollen. 

A very valuable appendix, occupying about loo 
pages, is added to the volume, and gives a systematic 
list of the various insects which have been observed 
visiting flowers and the flowers which they usually 
frequent. This carefully compiled list will be as in- 
forming to the entomologist as to the botanist. The 
index of plants described in the volume which figures 
in the German edition has not been added in the 
translation, but is probably held over for the final 
volume. 

The style of the English rendering is fluent, and 
generally free from the flaws that mark some trans- 
lations, though the volume opens with a serious 
blunder in describing the flowers of Lobelia as actino- 
morphous. Halftig-symmetrisch is, of course, bi- 
laterally symmetrical or zygomorphic, as is, indeed, 
indicated by the concluding portion of the sentence 
which describes the bifid upper and the trifid lower 
lip. It is unfortunate that the translator has retained 
the use of the word oecology as a synonym for 
biology, in dealing with observations on flower pol- 
lination. Though formerly used in that sense, oecologv 
has of late years been so definitely and much more 
correctly applied to the study of plant-life in relation 
to environment that it seems out of place when used 
for floral biology. 

-Apart from such minor defects, the translation will 
be welcomed as rendering Knuth's monumental work 
accessible to a wider circle of readers and students of 
plant biology. 

PRACTICAL WORK FOR ELECTRICAL 
LABORATORIES. 
Lcitfaden ziim elektrolfchnischen Praktikiim. By Dr. 

G. Rrion. Pp. xiv + 404. (Leipzig and Berli--. : 

B. G. Teubner, 1910.) Price 11 marks. 
'T'HE laboratory has always been regarded as a 
-»- necessary complement to the class-room so far 
as physics and chemistry are concerned, but lor 
engineering subjects it is a comparatively modern 
institution. There are still engineers amongst us who 
have had to go through their university training with- 
out enjoying the use of a laboratory, but within the 
last generation all technical universities and colleges 
have recognised the immense importance of laboratory 
work, and have fitted up hydraulic, heat, mechanical, 
and electrical laboratories on a more or less extensive 
scale. Teachers, as well as engineers in practice, are 
agreed on the necessity of supplementing the theo- 
retical work of the class-room by e.xperiment, and 
there is keen competition between the different institu- 
tions as regards the best equipment, each trving to 
profit by the experience of the others, and to adapt 
the plant to the special industrial requirements of its 
district. 

The best equipped laboratory would, however, be 
of little value without good organisation in its use 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



and scientific instruction in the way of carrying out 
experiments. The book under review is an attempt, 
and, let us hasten to say, a very successful attempt, 
to supply such instruction. Of all Continental tech- 
nical high schools, Dresden has at the present moment 
the best equipped electrical engineering laboratory, 
and since its head, Prof. Goerges, is not only an 
accomplished teacher, but also an engineer of high 
reputation, we may expect that a book, treating of 
laboratory work as carried on under him, will prove 
a most useful publication. The author is lecturer at 
Dresden, and in the preface says that the methods 
described have been worked out from time to time 
bv various members of the staff. This does not mean 
that the methods described, or even a majority of 
them, are new, but simply that all the methods 
described have actually been used in that laboratory, 
and that in this w-ay the educational value of each 
has been put to the test. 

If an author describes the equipment of and work 
done in the laboratory in which he works himself, 
there is danger that he will produce a somewhat one- 
sided account, but from such a reproach Mr. Brion 
is entirely free. All the author has to say on testing 
applies to any well-equipped laboratory, and there is 
a remarkable absence of references to special appara- 
tus. He evidently does not hold with the custom 
of giving the student cut-and-dried instructions, such 
as "take Messrs. So and So's testing set, connect in 
such a manner, then turn the handle and read off the 
result." Wherever possible he not only lets the 
student build up his apparatus, but he gives him also 
a short theory of the test. The object of the student's 
work in the laboratory is primarily to verify by experi- 
ment certain physical relations of which he has heard 
the theory in the class-room. Since, however, the 
simple and fundamental physical relations are in prac- 
tical machinery often overshadowed by secondary dis- 
turbing causes, it is important that these should be 
pointed out to the student, and that he should thus 
be trained to scrutinise his results so as to separate 
that which is important from that which is merely 
accidental or disturbing. In this direction, Mr. Brion 
has given us good advice in suflicient detail. To 
give such advice it is, however, necessary to intro- 
duce a certain amount of theoretical matter on a 
mathematical basis. 

.-\ casual glance through the pages of this book 
gives one more the impression of a text-book than 
of a laboratory manual, but on closer inspection one 
finds that only as much theory is introduced as is 
necessary for intelligent working. Among the good 
features of the book are the diagrammatic representa- 
tions of circuits, machines, and apparatus. With a 
correct appreciation of the probability that the 
students who work now in the laboratory will in a 
year or two be working in practice, Mr. Brion has 
adopted in his diagrams the symbolic representatioi* 
recommended by the Verband Deutscher Elektrotcch- 
niker. He also uses, thick lines to represent wires 
which carry main currents and thin lines for wires 
carrying shunt currents or for voltmeter wires. This 
is apparently a small matter, but anyone who has to 
trace out the circuits in some complicated electrical 



NATURE 



[July 21, 19 10 



connection will appreciate the advantage of making 
the distinction. It is, however, to be regretted that 
in the matter of notation the author is too intensely 
German. He puts P for force, A for energy, L for 
power, D for torque, and so on, all letters which have 
internationally already a significance. The reader is 
thus put unnecessarily to the trouble and mental strain 
to substitute for symbols he is accustomed to use (and 
which, to a certain degree, have already received the 
sanction of the International Electrotechnical Commis- 
pion) others which are unfamiliar to him. 

It is not necessary to enumerate the contents of this 
book in detail ; suffice it to say that it broadly covers 
the subject of la-boratory tests such as are necessary 
for students. As to the question of which tests are 
necessary and which may be omitted, opinions will 
always differ. Tt would be easy to give a list of 
tests which, in the reviewer's opinion, ought to have 
been included, but such criticism would hardly be 
fair, for a book on testing cannot contain every pos- 
sible test, but only a selection of those which the 
author himself has found suitable. On the whole, the 
author has given us a very representative and useful 
selection, covering a wide field. His book will be 
found to be a most helpful guide to electrical laboratorv 
work generally. Gisbert Kapp. 

ANCIENT HINDU CHEMISTRY. 
A History of Hindu Chemistry from the Earliest 
Times to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century A.D., 
uiitli Sanskrit Texts, <5>-e. By Prof. Praphulla 
Chandra Ray. Vol. ii. Pp. xcvi + 293 + 152 + xxi. 
(Calcutta : The Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceu- 
tical Works, Ltd. ; London : Williams and Norgate, 
1909.) Price los. 6d. net. 

IN the first volume of this book, which was pub- 
lished in 1902, and reviewed in these columns on 
May 21, 1903, Prof. Ray dealt with all the oldest (pre- 
Buddha) Hindu MSS., and many of the later ones. 
A number of MSS. remained untouched, and now 
that these have been examined, the concluding volume 
has been issued. It has been a labour of love which 
has occupied all Prof. Ray's spare time for the last 
fifteen years, and the great value of the results of 
his patient and laborious researches will be fully appre- 
ciated by all students of the history of chemistrv. 

The difficulties of determining the extent of Indian 
chemical lore in ancient times are profound. There is 
no doubt that at a very early period the .'\rians 
attained great proficiency in the manufacturing indus- 
tries, which must have rested on a good practical 
knowledge of chemical reactions. The famous sword- 
blades, called by the Greeks "marvellous swords," 
and by the Western world "Damascened blades," were 
brought to Europe by way of Damascus, but were 
made in India. The making and polishing of glass in 
India, including lenses and mirrors of various kinds, 
spherical, oval, &c., was a well-known industry. Plinv 
mentions that the best glass ever made was Indian 
glass. In pharmacy, in dyeing, in the manufacture 
of perfumery and cosmetics, complicated chemical 
operations must have been carried out even before th€ 
time of Buddha, which is placed ^bout B.C. 500. 

There is, however, little or no trace of these things 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



in the literature of the period. The caste system was 
radicallv opposed to the formation of a science in 
which practice is based on theory. The chemical in- 
dustries were exercised by a despised caste, that of 
the fitdras, and their labours were no doubt deemed 
unworthy of being described by the caste of the 
Brahmins, or priests, who alone understood the art 
of writing. Thus Hoefer, for example, remarks that 
amongst the Sanskrit manuscripts in the Bibliothfeque 
Imperiale, of Paris, no document occurs which can 
be of interest to the historian of chemistry, and 
Berthelot in his " Origines de I'Alchemie " practically 
ignores India. 

The MSS. patiently examined by Prof. Ray appear 
to consist largely of religious or philosophical reflec- 
tions, with occasional somewhat obscure references to 
chemical subjects made for the purpose of illustration. 
Thus in a document called " Rasaratnakara," written 
by Nagarjuna, who was the High Priest of Buddha 
about A.D. 150, such texts as the following occur : — 

"What wonder is it that cinnabar digested several 
times with the milk of the ewe and the [vegetable] 
acids imparts to silver the lustre of gold glowing as 
saffron? " 
And a little further on : — 

"Silver alloyed with lead and fused with ashes 
becomes purified," 
which is a clear allusion to cupellation. 

It is probable that the pundits, when referring to 
metal-working, often knew very little of the subjects 
thev mentioned, but Nagarjuna was celebrated as an 
alchemist. Prof. Ray argues at some length in 
favour of the indigenous origin of Indian alchemy, 
and, however degrading it may have been to work, it 
does not appear to have been derogatory to the dignity 
of the sages to discuss the manufacture of gold or 
silver. Thus — 

"Tin is to be melted and one-hundredth part its 
weight of mercury to be amalgamated with it. This 
[fraudulent substitute for] silver can be used for pur- 
poses of exchange, and one can thus amass wealth." 

The last 150 pages of the book consist of a repro- 
duction of original Sanskrit texts, taken from many 
different MSS. T. K. R. 

AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF THE SCIENCES. 
Instruments optiques d'Observation et de Mesiire. 
By Jules Raibaud. Pp. 380. (Paris : O. Doin et 
Fils, 1909.) Price 5 francs. 

THIS volume is a unit in a somewhat extensive 
undertaking, no less than an encyclopaedia of 
all the sciences, pure and applied, physical and 
biological, material, mental, and moral. The scheme 
is of a somewhat novel character; its magnitude may 
be judged from the fact that it involves a total of some 
thousand volumes, arranged in forty sections or 
"bibliothfeques," the whole to rival, we are told, the 
largest entyclopsedias of this or any other country — 
and not only in size. The novelty lies mainly in the 
fact that each volume is to be independent, and have 
its own individuality ; each will be a monograph 
dealing with a special branch of the particular section 
to which it belongs. The size and price will be 
uniform, the number of pages approximately so. One 



July 21, 1910] 



NATURE 



69 



iiiiTiong the advantages of the scheme will be that each 
-volume can be brought up to date independently of the 
rest. 

The forty sections are classified in the two main 
divisions of "pure sciences" and "applied sciences." 
Each of these is again subdivided into mathematical, 
inorsjanic, and biological sciences. Each subdivision 
comprises a certain number of sections, and each 
section has its own editor. The general editor is Dr. 
Toulouse, of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, and 
among the editors of sections are included such names 
as Painlev^, Mascart, Leduc, Lacroix, Bertrand. 

The volume under review belongs to the section of 
" Industries physiques " in the division of applied 
sciences — subdivision, inorganic. The section is to 
include volumes on such subjects as " Industrial Elec- 
tricity " (two vols.), " Electric Motors," " Electric 
Traction," "Electric Lighting," "Rheostats," "Wire- 
less Telegraphy," "The Liquefaction of Gases," "The 
Industrial Production of High Temperatures," &c. 
This volume on "Optical Instruments for Observation 
and for Measurement" would seem to be the first 
volume of the section to be issued. 

Judged from its position in this hierarchy of scien- 
tific knowledge, Captain Raibaud's volume is perhaps 
a little disappointing. One might expect to find de- 
tails of the most recent technical advances, of such a 
character that the skilled optician might there find 
help, -whether as regards difficulties of design, or of 
construction, or. methods of ensuring accuracy. In 
the present instance, however, questions not only 
as to calculation of the optical system, but as to con- 
struction and methods of test, are definitely excluded ; 
the aim is thus only to give a general account of the 
optical properties of various types of instrument, with 
brief particulars of individual instruments and designs. 
Expressed shortly, the work is rather an educational 
text-book than a technical handbook. 

From this point of view, however, and for the 
general reader who wishes to obtain an intelligent 
knowledge of the more essential optical properties and 
possible defects of an instrument which he may be 
in the habit of using, the book can be cordially recom- 
mended. More especially, the general conditions 
governing the formation of satisfactory images by an 
optical instrument are carefully and clearly discussed. 
Thus the first part of the work, more than one-third 
of the whole, deals with the general properties of 
instruments, definition and resolving power, bright- 
ness of the image, extent of field of view in breadth 
and depth, distortion, magnification — subordinate, as 
is rightly emphasised, to resolving power and defini- 
tion — and the functions and limitations of the eye in 
conjunction with an optical instrument. The char- 
acteristics of binocular vision and of vision through a 
binocular instrument are also examined, and, in regard 
to measuring instruments, the general conditions 
affecting accuracy. 

In the second part of the book the instruments 
considered are those of the telescope class, the micro- 
-scope, the photograpjiic objective, instruments for 
measuring angles, surveying instruments and tele- 
meters, and, finally, instruments based on the prin- 
ciple of auto-collimation. The list, of course, is by no 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84I 



means exhaustive; laboratory instruments, the spectro- 
scope, interferometer, &c., and photometric apparatus 
generally are not included, nor does space admit of 
detailed consideration of any one type. The book 
is, however, written by one who has had experience 
in handling the instruments he describes, and 
thoroughly familiar, not only with the optical theory, 
but also with the practical points affecting their 
performance. 

OUR BOOK SHELF. 

Methods used in the Examination of Milk and Dairy 
Products. By Dr. Chr. Barthel. Translation by 
W. Goodwin. Pp. xii + 260. (London : Macmillan 
and Co., Ltd., igio.) Price 7s. 6d. net. 
This edition contains several additions to the original 
work of Dr. Barthel, and it will be found very useful 
to those engaged in examining milk and dairy prcN 
ducts on a large scale. The general remarks in it 
apply more exacth' to milk of German or Swedish 
origin than to milk from some British breeds of cows. 
In the notes on the physical examination of milk 
are useful hints as to the estimation of dirt. For the 
determination of fat Soxhlet's araeometer method is 
still given a prominent place, though in most places 
it is superseded by less complicated and more certain 
methods. Wollny's refractometer method for the fat 
estimation, if carried out under exact conditions, 
seems to give very accurate results, but it is so sensi- 
tive that the least departure from the necessary condi- 
tions influences the results seriously; one advantage 
it possesses is that as many as 150 determinations may 
be made in an hour with the proper appliances and 
accommodation. The Rose-Gottlieb method, and 
various modifications of centrifuge methods, includ- 
ing some not requiring the use of strong sulphuric 
acid, are described. Tests for adulterations, artificial 
colouring matters, and preservatives are given. 
Saccharate of lime is said to be one of the latest 
adulterations of milk and cream ; it increases their 
viscosity and gives them the appearance of being 
richer in fat; a method for its detection is given. 

Methods for the analysis of butter, cheese, preserved 
milk — including Buddised milk, that is, milk treated 
with a small quantity of hydrogen peroxide — con- 
densed milk, and desiccated milk are given. We find 
also some account of the decomposition products of 
milk, butter, and cheese; and, in an appendix, several 
tables of figures useful in calculating the results of 
analyses. 

Norwegian and Other Fish Talcs. By Bradnock 
Hall. Pp. x + 243. (London : Smith, Elder and 
Co., 1910.) Price 55. net. 
This is ft frankly trivial book with a quite unin- 
telligible dedication in place of a preface. The illus- 
trations are excellent, and the text makes good holiday 
reading, notwithstanding its somewhat strained 
humour, .-^s the author says, "the diaries of anglers 
are not as a rule interesting, even to sympathetic 
brethren of the craft," but we think that many of 
the author's own experiences at least come near to 
proving exceptions to his own generalisation. Inci- 
dentally, we are told of certain Norwegian fish : — 
" Evervone thought they were salmon, but both turned 
out tn'be sea-trout when the shape of the gill coveiis 
and the tail bones were examined." It seems a pity 
that the precise differences between salmon and sea- 
trout in the shape of the gill covers and tail bones are 
not divulged for the benefit of fishermen and natural- 
ists; the counting of scales in a transverse series is 
none too easv, and an alternative method of diagnosis 
(if such really exists) would be welcome. 



70 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 
[Ihe Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions 
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake 
to return, or to correspond with the -writers of, rejected 
tnanuscripts intended for this or any other part 0/ Nature. 
No notice is taken of anonymous communicatiotis.] 

Expeiimental Study of Fulgurites. 

Fulgurites, or the tubes of fused sand which are some- 
times formed when heavy discharges of hghtning strike on 
sandy soil, are not common enough to mal^e their study 
very easy. It has been frequently remarlced that they 
usually have a spiral or cork-screw form, but, so far as I 
know, it has not been decided whether or not this is 
accidental, and whether the direction of rotation of the 
spiral remains constant in the same fulgurite, or whether 
it is always the same in the case of various discharges. 
Through a fortunate accident I recently hit upon a way of 
extending our knowledge of these curious autographs of 
thunderbolts. The accident referred to was the circum- 
stance that I was standing within about 50 feet of the spot 
on our lawn where a rather heavy discharge struck a day 
or two ago. I was about to walk across the lawn at the 
time, but was delayed a moment to reply to a question, 
when the bolt fell. The report was not deafening, re- 
sembling the explosion of one of the modern dynamite 
cannon crackers with which we have become familiar. 
There was a distinct flash of fire at the surface of the 
ground, and a column of steam or smoke 6 or 8 feet high. 
On examining the spot I found three patches of withered 
clover in a line about 18 inches apart. At the centre of 
one was a hole about an inch in diameter, and in the 
neighbouring one a smaller hole ol perhaps a quarter 
the size. It had been raining hard for a hour or more, and 
we had had much rain for the past week, which made the 
ground an excellent conductor, and I was surprised to find 
that I could pass a straw down the larger hole a con- 
siderablp distance. 

I mrrll-il :il>uLil 15 lb. of solilrr in an iron pot anil pound 




Photcgraph of th^ 



ground by a lightning 



it into the hole until it was full, and then carefully 
excavated the cast. In digging it out, I found a lateral 
tube several inches below the surface joining the two holes, 
and one or two lateral branches to the large tube, into 
which the solder had not penetrated. The cast obtained 
wa« nearly 4 feet in length, and the ground was soaking 
wet, which surprised me a good deal, for I imagined that 
the discharge would spread out and become dissipated long 
before reaching a depth of 4 feet in wet soil. The edges 
of the tubes were lined with small patches of white grains 
of sand fused together. The metal cast had an unmistak- 
able spiral form, which could be followed for its entire 
length, and was especially conspicuous at the lower or 
smaller end. The diameter of the artificial fulgurite in- 
creased to a depth of about 2 feet, after which it diminished 
gradually. The spiral form can be seen in the accompany- 
ing photograph of the cast. It was clock-wise in the down- 
ward direction, that is, it was similar to that of a cork- 
screw. The surface was covered with small buds, which 
were arranged in straight lines along its length, some of 
the lines 7 or 8 inches long. One of these lines can be 
seen m the photograph immediately to the right of the 
label. These lines may be due to cracks in the tube, result- 
ing from the explosive action of the steam. The localisa- 
tion of a bright light at the surface of the ground is 
extremely interesting. Several members of my family, who 
wf>re not looking at the spot at the moment the flash struck, 
turned round at the report, and said that thev saw a 
bright light and a cloud of smoke. It will be interesting 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



to hear if others have noticed this phenomenon. It may pos- 
sibly be due to the combustion of a blast of gas generated 
by the passage of the discharge through the soil. 

On the day after the storm I found another and 
much larger hole on the golf links, where a very heavy 
discharge had struck and demolished a wooden bo.\ of 
sand on the top of a banked-up tee, leaving no mark, 
however, on an iron cylindrical can of water standing 
beside and in contact with the sand box. Lateral branches 
had spread out in all directions over the top of the tee, 
making furrows similar to mole tunnels. I have not yet 
made a cast of this hole, which is probably 6 or 8 feet 
deep, pending the decision of the golf committee. Similar 
holes must be of very frequent occurrence, and their study 
liy this method should prove interesting. 

East Hampton, Long Island. R. W. Wood. 

Ooze and lirigation. 

The valuable contribution to this subject contained in the 
letter of Mr. Horwood (July 14, p. 40) shows the import- 
ance of communicating the results of research. I am, in 
consequence, submitting a few further facts which have 
not heretofore been made public. Up till the present time 
it has been assumed that our British Annelids were limited 
to a few species of earthworms, and a few aquatic forms 
usually lumped together as Tubifex. So far is this from 
being the case that we have at least four distinct groups 
of indigenous worms, to say nothing of the many foreign 
species found at Kew, Chelsea, Oxford, and elsewhere. 
These are, first, the true earthw-orms, of which we have 
nearly forty species, now ranged under upwards of half a 
dozen genera. Secondly, certain species of semiaquatic 
worms, including not only the well-known Allurus 
(Eiseniella), but two species of Helodrilus. Of these, H. 
oculatus, Hoffmeister, is now known to be British, while a 
second species, H. clcngatus. Friend, new to science, is at 
present known to occur in Cornwall in streams and lily 
ponds. These are of peculiar interest, both because they 
necessitate a revision of nomenclature and because they 
link on tlie earthworms with the aquatic forms. 

Next come the ooze formers, which, 
are exceedingly numerous, and occur in 
almost all our lakes and ponds, our 
livers, streams, ditches, and pools, 
doing an immense work as scavengers 
;ind inould-makers. Lastly, we have 
to notice another series, which may 
be conveniently spoken of as white 
worms, (Enchytra?ids). It is in rela- 
discharge. tion to these that I wish especially to 

make one or two observations. Some 
years ago 1 carefully examined the banks of the Eden 
near Carlisle. I then found, not only a large series of 
water worms engaged in making ooze, but, at particular 
seasons of the year, an equally varied assortment of 
Enchytraeids (Fridericia, Heulea, Enchytrajus, and others) 
at the roots of grasses. By careful observation I found 
that these were most abundant at the time when decaying 
vegetable matter was in a state of fermentation, and that 
they were apparently engaged in clearing off this fermenting 
matter. 

I have recently further observed on the Malvern Hills 
that, if the stones are lifted which have for a time been 
covering the grass and causing it to decay, one finds that, 
when a given stage of decay is reached, certain white 
worms always make their appearance ; and that these 
Enchytraeids are, curiously enough, almost invariably 
associated with a species of earthworm (Luiyibricus rubellus, 
Hoffm.). Other observations, such as that relating to the 
amphibious nature of the tiny aster-worm (Enchytraeus 
parviilus, Friend), and the action of other forms on decay- 
ing seaweed and the like, will call for fuller treatment 
elsewhere. Enough has been said to show that a very wide 
field of observation is opened up, and that, w'hile it has its 
interests for the geologist, it is of supreme importance for 
the biologist and the student of agriculture. I am at 
present engaged in a series of observations which are 
bringing many new facts to light. 

HiLDERic Friend. 
Malvern. July 18. 



July :i, 1910J 



NATURE 



71 



The Sterilisation of Liquids by Light of very short 
Wave-length. 

DiRiM'. ihe past ycai- several articles have appeared in 
the CoDiptcs rendus Jes Seances de VAcademie des Sciences, 
Paris, on tlie sterilisation of liquids by ultra-violet light. 
The notes of M. Billon-Daguerre have particularly attracted 
my attention, since he has endeavoured to utilise the region 
of the spectrum discovered by Schumann for the sterilisa- 
tion of water. It is obvious that the question of the 
transparency of water for light of very short wave-length 
is important in this connection, and, as there seems to be 
no data which bears on the matter, I have recently made 
some experiments. 

I used a vacuum grating spectroscope arranged in the 
same way as when I investigated the transparency of some 
solid substances. The water was distilled, but without 
any special precautions, and was enclosed in a cell with 
fluorite windows. Two of these cells were employed, one 
giving a water column of half a millimetre, the other giving 
a millimetre column. With the half-millimetre cell in the 
light path the spectrum was cut off at \ 1792 (Angstrom 
units), even after a prolonged exposure. It appeared that 
this limit of the spectrum receded rather slowly toward the 
red with increase in the thickness of the water column. 

As M. Billon-Daguerre wished to use light of very short 
wave-length, he employed a vacuum tube filled with 
hydrogen. This substance is known to give a strong 
spectrum in the region between A. 1650 and \ 1030 ; it must 
not be forgotten, however, that no lines can be ascribed to 
it in the region between \ 2000 and \ 1650. Thus any 
action due to the radiation from the vacuum tube filled with 
hydrogen must be confined to a layer of water so thin that 
light of wave-lengths shorter than A. 1650 can penetrate it. 
Judging from my experiments, such a layer must be very 
thin indeed. 

Several investigators have used the mercury arc in 
quartz as a source of light in sterilisation experiments. 
There are two facts which it may be interesting to mention 
in this connection. In the first place, fused quartz two 
.millimeires thick is somewhat transparent so far as \ 1500; 
the transparency falls off rapidly with increasing thickness. 
In the second place, no lines more refrangible than the 
strong line at \ 1850 are known in the spectrum of mer- 
cury. In this second statement my own observations are 
confirmed by a recent investigation of Dr. Handke. 

Theodore Lyman. 

Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University, July S. 

Elemental Weight Accurately a Function of the 
Volution of Best Space-svmmetry Ratios. 

It ts a fact little known, but of the first magnitude, that 
equ.il splirres or corpuscles cannot in space, as in one 
plane, bf distributed at equal mutual distances. Tetra- 
llcdra, the four points of which alone are all mutually 
tquidistant, cannot be packed so as to fill space, as their 
face-angles to fill one plane.' Icosahedral diffusion, with 
a central sphere, nearly achieves this, but by a cramping of 
the central point in the ratio i : i>osi460". 

Free magnetic needles in water, say five in number, may 
fall into position either thus : 



Their energies are a fixed quantity ; so that, though they 
will assume either position, they are stabler in position 
(a), because here, on the whole, the lines are more equi- 
distant ; but (b) might become equally stable if each needle 
were a vortex possessing an energy v, capable, under heat 
and cold, of adapting itself to changed environment by 

cumulative indraught and outdraught, i.e. v '". 

In one plane, equal spheres being equitriangularly 
arranged, each sphere forms a centre capable of supporting, 
by surface tension, an equal number of spheres around it. 
In space, the nearest approach to this perfect equilibrium 
is by means of the five best-symmetries, or so-called regular 
solids, w-hereof three dominate elemental crystals.' .^Mke 

1 See liarlow anH Pope, Chemical Society Transactions, 1007, vol. xci., 
- Retgers, Zeiisch. phvsical Chem., 1894, xiv., I. 



as to points, faces, edge-lines, and circum-radial lines, 
these five contain only the factors 2 and 3 (crystalline) and 
5 (non-crystalline), greatly complicated, however, by the 
last of these ; 

Crystalline 

Non-crystalline 



: /lex \'2 : I ; let v'S : 3 ; oct V4 : 3 



■f)-' '%/<- 



3 ) 



Now^ the problem of the volutional interconversion (on 

the principle v -^'j of the three first ratios 2, 3, and 5, 
yields to a simple and highly accurate solution," whereas 
adding the two last, ic and do, the solution becomes com- 
plex ; but, on the lines of the simple interconversion, there 
are contained several approximate interconversions with 
ic and do, the errors of which are the precise weights of 
H' ■ ■ ' by different syntheses : 



or oit- 
teP 
hex' 



or $,'/:«- 
or/cxH (i) 

- ihex" 
or V^ 

or rVx H (ii) 



\'5 
or V3 ;V X H' (iii) 
or ^/2 ic- X H* itiy) 
,0(=t6xa!o' 



or 'J- 



< oct- 



(V) 



The numbers (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) refer to Morley's four 
fxperimental weights of H,' which the formula hits pre- 
:isely : 



(i) H.2: O mean =10076 1 
(ii) H2:0 max. = 1-00777 



(iii) Gravimetry mean i '00762 
(iv) II.,: H,,0 ,, 1-00765 



Two basal equations are here involved, 

(4/j)'=^2rax5r and 2'(ll3,)'' = f' -^VS"— 

7 and 12 being severally the combinable group and series 
numbers of the table. The main equation {\hrees strong) 
appears accurate to some 50 decimal points ; the secondary 
Cfives strong) rather less so. They meet at s"'5='v'2; 
with an error of 0-00016, the crux of the hydrogen ranges. 
Their great accuracy points to a profound numeric and 
geometric principle. Hex, hex-'oct-, (Src, compensation- 
vortices cannot evolve to their 6th and gth roots without 
developing hydrogen, and thereupon compensating ic, <5i-c. ; 
and, inversely, ic, <S>-c., cannot involve to their 6th and "jth 
povaers without ultimately throwing off hydrogen and com- 
pensating hex, hex-ioct', <S~f. 




(i) The compensation-vortex at the end of the cubic (or 
let Oct) edge-line, pulls, as required, by sj 2 : 1 against the 
circum-cube radius. This crystalline symmetry being dis- 
turbed by heat, the vortex unravels or evolves to its 6th 
root, travelling down the line to the point marked i/v. It 
there precisely compensates the icosahedral edge : circum- 

1 T,-t, ie.r, oct, ic, and do here stand for the ratio;, or the weights com- 
oensating the ratios, edge-lhu •.circtim-radins {i.e. the radius of a circum- 
scribed sphere! severally of the regular tetrahedon, cube, octahedron, 
icosabedron and dodecahedron. 

2 A log-algebraic problem of eight terms unknown, it was soluble only by 
reference to philosophical considerations anterior to those now discussed. 

3 Morley, confirmed by Thomsen, Keiser. Guye and Mallet. See Inter- 
national Committee's Report. Chemical A'trus, February 12, 1897, May 5, 
1899. June It, 1897, and May 12, 1903 ; or Freund's " Chemical Compoii- 

lion," 1904, p. 220. 



NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



72 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



radius ratio ; but so that there is developed at the icosa- 
hedral centre, a deficit or gravitative pull equal exactly to 
the hydrogen mean weight by H, : O, viz. i'0076l. 

1 
;V = 2l2[=I'OS9462 • •]-M-oo76i. 

(ii) The vortex compensating the ratio of cube-edge to 
octahedral-edge — i.e. he.x- : ocf- — both having a common 
or equal circum-radius, unravels down the cube-edge to its 
7th root, and at '^J'u becomes an icosahedral compensation 
vortex ; the octahedral-edge becomes or equals the icosa- 
hedral circum-radius ; and the hydrogen pull is developed 
at the icosahedral centre ; but at H, : O max. i'00777. 
Cases (iii), (iv), and (v), and all the coalition permutations 
(see below), are to be interpreted like (i) and (ii), though 
more complex. 

In cases (i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) we have severally H' " ' ■" ; 
and, similarly, in the coalition formulae ic or H are 
never in excess by more than the valency numbers i to 4 
— 1 to S in the cross-formula (No. 4).' This, probably, is 
attributable to the multiple radial lines. For we are con- 
cerned with powers, not multiples. Each central vortex 
does not need to pull against the sum of all its surrounding 
vortices as isolated units, because these latter too are them- 
selves centres, and correspondingly weakened. The contrac- 
tion of the crystalline ratios under heat is consistent with the 
cntropic or adiabatic phenomena of H,0 ; and for many 
reasons it is believed that the weight deviations are a 
function of entropy. When (see below) the line is crossed, 
the signs change, contraction becomes expansion, and 
along the lines of the pari passu increase of exponents, 
the ^'D, entropically disturbed, gradually becomes constant. 

Morley's ranges are severally +o.oooi6, +0-00033, 
+ 0-0007, 3nd (means) 0-00004- By coalition of the frac- 
tures of the main formulae, we derive the following, 11? 
all -which formulae, +x being high, the mean is attained, 
and the maxima and minima ivhen ±x is low; so that the 
formulae can never transcend the experimental range, and 
always tend to its means. (Compare entropy) : — 



For 


iiula 






.thigh 


Range 


(I) 5/^'^ 


^2V'+' 


xH' 








1"+ 0-00033 


25±f/ 


= /^ 


xH-'+ 




H = 


1-00761 


[ + 000016'* 


(2) yi/2-^ 

2 V2 17,- 


= /V'+i 


xll' 




H = 


I •00761 


+ 0^00004 


(3) s/^'^'xi^ 

VJ±x 4 , 
2 VI X37/5 


= (/f 


X H)' 

xn)- 




FI^ 


■00761 


±0-00030 


(4) 57/2 V" 


= ,v-+V 


H7-X 




H = 


■00761 


+ 0-C005 


(5) 2~li-r 


^ifi-^' 


X W*' 




H = 


■00777 


+ o^oooi5 


(6) l~U V 


= U"-^"-^ 


1 W±* 




H = 


■00765 


±0-00017 


(7) S'/2 ' X3 ' 


= /f4+.. 


X IV^+' 




H = 


•00777 


±0-00033 


e+x , S+.T 
(8) 5^/2 X 3"'' 


= /<■'+•' 


xH-+~^ 


' 


H = 


00762 


± -00020 



A comprehensive deduction from the general formula is 
the following : 

H ( I -00761 ) X "." =,-—,= ; -„ &c. 



,(fir_ O ct*' 
ic' hex 3 hex 5" 
Provisionally, upon examination of four out of the eight 
combinable groups, the elemental weights are found ex- 



pressible in like Ir-rms to these, i.e. the elemental 
weights are such that, multiplied into the simple volution 
of one or more of the symmetry line-ratios, they yield 
accurately the simple volution of one or more othe/ 
symmetry line-ratios, each expression having its exact 
cquational variant, like elements yielding to like expression, 
hut not mechanically so (see Chcm. News, April 22, May 6, 
and June 10). This is deduced from the basal-equations 
with .V as I • - 8, the formula not being constructed (or 
rather discovered) empirically to yield any given weight, 
but rationally to meet the whole problem of weight com- 
pensation. That, X being i, the H weights were with 
perfect exactitude obtained, chanced to be a fact almost 
the last discovered. 

Considering the hydrogen solution alone, the rational 
postulate of vortex compensation for inequidistance (as 
contrasted with the crude Democritan hard-atom hypo- 
thesis) hits precisely — with the odds 100. onn to i against 
each hit — in the four corners of the basal-equation, the 
four means of hydrogen ; and by coalition, all their 
deviations. The postulate is thus, nn the one element, 
proved true hy the odds 100,000-* (lO"") to 1. 

Corroboration is glimpsed in the spectrum-line ratios. 
H. Newman Howard. 

Electrical Discharge Figures. 

Mr. a. \V. Porter gave in Nati-re of March 31 (vol. 
Ixxxiii., p. 142) an account of his experiments on electric 
discharges over photographic plates, made in order to 
ascertain what is due to the luminosity of the discharge 
and what to the discharge itself. Knowing that the dis- 
ruptive discharge carries metallic particles from the elec- 
Irodes, and that in the silvering of mirrors by the wet 
processes the silver begins to set at every metallic particle 




NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



Electrical discharge figure developed by wet 



which clings to the surface of the glass because of the action 
of local couples, I ventured to develop the invisible inrage 
of the discharge on a clean glass plate by the silvering 
solution. 

The elTect was a very striking one ; instead of the broad 
band ot the trunk discharge, a clean band was_ left, 
surrounded by two sharp, dense lines of deposited silver. 
The thin ramifications were still visible, but the splendid 
display of surrounding figures is lacking. The two un- 
satisfactory paper prints that I send [one is here repro- 
duced] were made from developed plates, and are there- 
fore negatives. It is impossible to get better results now, 
because the laboratory is closed for the summer holidays. 

The acid intensifier for the collodion plates, acting in 
the same way as the wet silvering mixture, was also tried 
by me, but the result was worse. 

■\V. Lermaxtoff. 

University of St. Petersburg, Russia. 



JULV 2 1, I9IOJ 



NATURE 



It is necessary to know more concern-ing the precise con- 
ditions under which the images referred to above were 
obtained before one can discuss them with safety ; but 
they are interesting as apparently indicating that the axis 
of the trunk discharge imiy be free from metallic particles. 

In this connection, however, it must be added that when 
one directly observes a negative discharge over a photo- 
graphic plate from an electrode of zinc or magnesium, every 
line in the fan-like discharge is seen to have the bluish 
tint characteristic of the metal. Whatever, then, may be 
the reason for the absence of these fan-like figures from 
Mr. Lermantoff's images, it must certainly not be 
attributed to the absence of metallic particles from them. 
Alfred W. Porter. 

An Interesting Occultation. 

May I direct attention to an interesting phenomenon 
which will take place on the morning of July 27, viz. the 
occultation of the star 7) Geminorum by the planet Venus, 
the particulars of which are ^s follows :— 

Apparent place of r; Geminorum (mag. 3'2-4'2), July 26, 
R.A. 6h. qm. 26"6s. ; dec. 22° 32' 6'24" N. Apparent place 
of Venus (geocentric), July 26, i4h. S7'7m. G.M.T., R.A. 
6h. 9m. 26'6s., dec. 22° 32' 7'2' \. DecUnation at Green- 
wich, corrected for paralla.x, 22° 32' 2'3". Semidiameter 
6" 14'. At Greenwich the occultation commences at 
i4h. 55m., and ends at i4h. 58m. The planet rises at 
I3h. 43m., and the sun at i6h. 17m. 

On the afternoon of July 28, \'enus is in very close con- 
junction with y. Geminorum, the positions of the two 
bodies at 4h. 27m. being as follows : — 

$. R..-\. 6h. 17m. 3o"9s., dec. 22" 33' 58" N., declination 
(corrected for parallax) 22° 33' 53". }i Geminorum, R..'\. 
6h. 17m. 30'qs., dec. 22° 33' 43". As the semidiameter of 
the planet is b'l", the star will be within about 4" from the 
southern limb. This, of course, occurs during daylight, 
tut the planet will be above the horizon at the time. It 
sets about 6h. 8m. 

Dr. Crommelin has kindly looked through these figures 
and verified them. Arthur BtRNEx. 

52 Prospect Terrace, Hunslet. 

Pwdre Ser. 

The curious belief that shooting stars, when fallen to 
earth, become lumps of jelly may possibly be explained in 
the following nianner : — 

The jelly is very probably the plasmodium of a 
Myxomyccte, such as Spumaria or Physarum. The 
Plasmodia occur most frequently in damp weather, but are 
found in lesser numbers throughout the year. Shooting- 
stars are also seen at all times in the year,, but most 
plentifully in the autumn. In these islands, the greatest 
rainfall is also in the autumn months. 

Consequently, by a purely fortuitous coincidence, meteors 
and Plasmodia are most plentiful in the latter part of the 
year, the former because the main meteor swarms, in their 
annual revolution, cross the earth's track at that time, and 
the latter on account of the greater rainfall. Two striking 
phenomena are forced on the rustic attention at the same 
time, the brilliant display in the sky and the mysterious 
jelly on the grass. Very naturally the two are considered 
as causally connected, and so the belief may have arisen. 
An analogous case is that of "cuckoo-spit," the frothy 
exudation of the larval frog-hopper, Philaenus spumari::s, 
which appears at the time of the arrival of the cuckoo and 
disappears about the period of the bird's departure. 
W. B. Grove. 
B. MiLWRD Griffiths. 

L niversity Botanical I-aboratory, Birmingham. 

In connection \vith the article on " Pwdre Ser " in 
Nature of June 23, it is interesting to find, in Admiral 
Smyth's " Sailor's Word-Book " — one of the richest re- 
positories of quaint facts and fancies — the term " fallen- 
star" defined as "A name for the jelly-fish or medusa, 
frequently thrown ashore iii summer and autumn." 

C. FiTZHUGH TaLMAN. 

U.S. Department of Asrriculture, Central Office of 
the Weather Bureau, Washington, D.C., July 11. 
XO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



HOUSE-FLIES AND DISEASE. 
A LTHOUGH the verification of the belief that the 
•^~*- cominonest, most widely distributed and truly 
domestic of insects, Miisca domestica, Linn., was 
capable of carrying the germs of certain infectious 
diseases has been one of the noteworthy accomplish- 
ments af medical science in the last decade, it is a 
mistake to attach all the credit to those who, within 
the last few years, have removed the idea from the 
realms of hypotheses into the world of facts. 

As early as the seventeenth century, Sydenham 
associated unhealthy conditions with files. Lord Ave- 
bury, in 1871, regarded flies as "winged sponges 
spreading hither and thither to carry out the fou! 
behests of contagion." In addition to other early 
suggestions, Nicholas, in 1S73, indicated the possible 
connection of flies with the dissemination of cholera 
from a case observed by him in 1850 ; Raimbert in 
1S69 experimentally proved that the house-fly and 
blowfly were able to transmit the anthrax bacillus ; 
Davaine in 1S70, and Bollinger in 1874, also showed 
that the blowfly could carry the anthrax bacillus, an 
important practical observation. Laveran in 1880 
demonstrated the ability of flies to carry the infec- 
tious discharge of conjunctivitis in Egvpt on their 
proboscides and legs. All these observers assisted in 




Fig. I. — lihtsca domestical Linn. 

the gradual growth of the belief ; but it was in the 
'eighties of last century, however, that several in- 
vestigators adduced more convincing bacteriological 
proof as to the ability of flies to carry pathogenic and 
other bacteria. In 1S86, Tizzoni and Cattani obtained 
the cholera spirillum from flies caught in cholera 
wards. In the same year, Hoffmann found tubercle 
bacilli in the excreta of flies caught in a room which 
had previously contained a phthisical patient. Two 
years later, Celli showed that the tvphoid bacillus was 
able to pass in a virulent condition through the diges- 
tive tract of the flv. 

Since the above observations, which are selected 
from many others, were made, it has been repeatedly 
shown and proved that house-flies are able to carry 
these and other bacterial and fungal organisms. 
What has not been demonstrated is the extent to 
which flies are not able to carry such micro-organisms. 
U'hen the habits of flies are considered, it is not a 
little remarkable that no serious attention was paid 
to the possibility of flies having any considerable 
relationship to the dissemination of disease until 
within the last twelve years. The excessive mortality 
from typhoid which occurred in the Spanish-.^merican 
war was the means of directing the attention of 
such observers as Vaughan and Veeder to the pos- 
sible relationship of flies to this disease, especially as 



74 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



statistics showed tliat water was not a sufficiently 
important factor in, and was not explanatory of, the 
typhoid epidemics occurring in certain of the national 
encampments. Later, in tfie South African war, the 
same conditions were present, and enteric fever was 
responsible for a very heavy death-roll ; those who 
were present directed attention on their return to 
these conditions, which, as circumstantial evidence, 
would convince the most sceptical as to the important 
rdlc that l^ies played in the spread of the disease. 
These conditions are well known now ; open latrines 
swarming with incredible numbers of flies in all 
stages of development ; these latrines frequented by 
incipient cases of enteric; myriads of flies in the mess 
tents, defiling all kinds of food, and in many cases 
distinguishable by the lime which they bore on their 
appendages from the latrines, as were the typhoid 
patients in the hospitals also distinguishable by the 
number of flies clustering about their mouths while 
in bed. 

From the setaceous character of the appendages 
and bodies of flies it is only to be expected that when 
allowed to have access to infected material they would 
be able to carry the bacilli on their appendages, 
bodies and in their digestive tracts, and the trans- 
ference of flies from infected substances to culture 
media are reallv unimportant experiments compared 
with those of capturing the flies under normal con- 
ditions near sources of infection and determining the 
presence and identity of the micro-organisms on these 
insects, as certain investigators have done. It would 



X^. 



■^-'*^--,<i>i.-4j^M>Ki^ 



Fig. 2.— Larva of .1/. domatka. 

be found impossible to obtain a specimen of Musca 
domestica which was not carrying bacteria or fungal 
spores. 

Though externally they may be almost sterile when 
they emerge from the pupa, the fly after emergence 
immediately becomes contaminated, and during the 
remainder of its varied existence serves as a collector 
and disseminator of any bacterial or fungal organisms 
with which it comes into contact. One of the most 
important and convincing experiments is that of 
Giissow (hitherto unpublished), who obtained thirtv 
colonies comprising si.x species of bacteria and six 
colonies comprising four species of fungi from a 
single fly caught in the living-room of a house and 
allowed to walk over a culture plate of agar-agar. 
From a fly caught in the open he obtained forty-six 
colonies comprising eight species of bacteria and seven 
colonies comprising four species of fungi. The tracks 
of a house-fl)' caught in a household dustbin yielded 
ii6 colonies of bacteria comprising eleven species, 
and including such species as B. coli, B. Jactis acidi, 
and Sarcina ventricuU, and ten colonies comprising 
six species of fungi. 

Such experimental results render further argument 
as to the frequency with which house-flies carry bac- 
teria and the spores of moulds and other fungi un- 
necessary. Flies captured near e.xcremental products 
are most frequently found carrying bacteria char- 
acteristic of the alimentary canal or putrefactive 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



bacteria, and it is only to be expected that should such 
sources of contamination be infected with pathogenic 
bacteria, for example, from an incipient case of 
typhoid or from a typhoid "carrier," the bodies 
of the flies would become infected. .As an instance 
of this, Hamilton recovered B. typhosus five times in 
eighteen experiments from flies caught in two un- 
drained privies, on the fences of two yards, on the 
walls of two houses, and in the room of an enteric 
fever patient, and others have obtained positive results 
in similar experiments. 

The habits of these insects are most perfectly suited 
for the dissemination of pathogenic bacteria. On one 
hand, thev seek all kinds of excrementous and decay- 
ing vegetable and other matter, chiefly for the pur- 
pose of depositing their eggs; and, on the other 
hand, thev flv with perfect freedom on to food such 
as milk, sugar, &:c., much of which forms an excel- 
lent medium for the deposition of whatever bacteria 
vhev may have be- 
come contaminated 
with during their 
ubiquitous wander- 
ings. 

Not only durmg 
the summer, but also 
during the winter 
months, house-flies, 
if they are active, 
normally carry on 
their bodies and ap- 
pendages bacteria 
and the spores of 
moulds, and Fig. 3 
shows an agar slope 
culture obtained by 
allowing a fly caught 
in the 'writer's 
laboratory at the end 
of January, 1910, to 
walk up ' the agar 
slope ; the compara- 
tively large number 
of colonies which 
developed in the 
tracks of a single 
journey can be easily 
seen. 

The eggs of the 
house-fly are de- 
posited on most de- 
caying vegetable sub- 
stances, especially if 
they are in a fer- 
menting condition ; 
the influence of fer- 
mentation is of considerable importance; in one in- 
stance the maggots developed in germinating wheat. 
Of all substances they prefer horse manure, and this 
is most suitable for the development when it occurs in 
heaps as stable refuse, supplying as it does both 
moisture and heat, the two great essentials for a 
rapid development. They will also choose the excre- 
ments of man and certain other animals. Newstead 
found them in such animal and vegetable substances 
as rotting feathers, flocks, and paper, in which sub- 
stances, when soiled with excrementous matter, they 
have also been found by the writer, and such condi- 
tions not infrequently occur in refuse heaps. Wher- 
ever there are collections of these substances, in such 
places will flies be found, not only depositing their 
eggs, but contaminating their appendages and bodies 
with putrefactive and other micro-organisms which 
abound there. Ficker and others have shown that 
typhoid bacilli can pass through the digestive tract 




3.— Agar-aga 


r Slope culture of 


bacteria deposi 


ed by J/, doviesttca 


in a single jour 


ey over the medium. 



July 21, 1910] 



NATURE 



75 



of the house-fly and retain their virulence for more 
tlian three weeUs, but the more recent discovery bv 
l-'aichne. that flies bred from larvae which have 
developed in infected material carr\' the typhoid bacilli 
in their digestive tracts, is one of great importance 
in its practical bearing. 

The most important factor which affects the 
numbers, activity, and potential danger of flies is 
temperature. Experiments show that at a high tem- 
perature the whole life-history can be passed in eight 
days. Further, it was found that the second genera- 
lion of flies are able to begin to deposit their eggs as 
early as the fourteenth day after emerging from the 
pupa ; in short, the second generation of eggs mav 
be deposited in about three weeks after the deposition 
of the first. Each fly is able to deposit from loo to 
150 eggs in a single batch, and at least six batches 
are laid during the lifetime of a single female. It is 
not difficult, in view of these facts, to understand the 
production of enormous numbers of flies during hot 
weather, and how the activity and numerical abund- 
ance of flies increases with the rise of temperature. 
During the hot months of July, .August, and Septem- 
ber flies are most abundant, and it is a significant 
fact that in those years when the temperature is high 
during those months, that is, during the third quarter 
of the year, there is almost invariably a high mor- 
tality from typhoid fever and the infantile disease, 
summer diarrhoea. In connection with summer or 
infantile diarrhoea, a curve prepared from statistics 
covering the last twenty years showed, with the excep- 
tion of one year, that a rise or fall in the number of 
deaths per thousand living in a large English city was 
associated with a rise or fall respectively in the tem- 
perature. 

The relation of flies to summer diarrhoea is prac- 
tically based on epidemiological and other circum- 
stantial evidence, since the specific cause of the 
disease has not yet been determined with certainty. 
Morgan, however, has found a bacillus occurring in 
a large percentage of the cases of the disease, and 
the same bacillus has been isolated from flies captured 
in infectea houses. An objection has been made to 
the idea that the house-fly is a carrier of the cause 
of summer diarrhoea, this objection being founded 
on the fact that at the end of the summer the fall in 
the fly curve follows the fall of the curve representing 
the diarrhoea mortality, the flies being still more 
numerous than they were earlier in the season, when 
the diarrhoea curve was rising. In meeting such an 
objection it mav be pointed out that we are not con- 
sidering the numerical abundance of the flies in the 
houses only; it should be remembered that with a 
decline of temperature the activity of the flies, 
especially out of doors, which is important in this 
case, is not so great, even though their numbers may 
be considerable indoors. With the fall of the tem- 
perature, therefore, the possibility of their carrying 
•the infection decreases without a necessarily corre- 
sponding decrease in their numbers, and the diarrhoea 
curve will fall in consequence. 

The flv problem, which is more serious in the 
United States and Canada than in England, is one 
that may be attacked and solved in cities and towns, 
provided that the authorities will take the necessary 
steps. .As in districts previously infested with mos- 
quitoes, these insects have been reduced to a negligible 
quantity bv the abolition of their breeding-places or 
the rendering of the same unsuitable for the larvae; 
so also the number of flies and their danger could be 
lessened very considerably by the removal of their 
breeding places, by preventing their access to the 
breeding places, or by treating these with substances 
noxious to the larvae or flies. Flies are a public 
nuisance, and, therefore, to maintain places where 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



flies are able to breed should be made a mis- 
demeanour. Stable refuse should not be left exposed 
for a longer period than six or seven days in the 
summer, but should be removed from the 
vicinity of dwellings or treated with such a 
substance as chloride of lime, which will prevent the 
breeding of the flies, the refuse being kept in a closed 
fly-proof chamber. The presence of mews and stables 
with their exposed rubbish heaps will always account 
for the abundance of flies. The household dustbin or 
other repository for kitchen refuse, unless securely 
closed or screened and regularly emptied, also form's 
an excellent breeding ground. Public tips on to 
which all kinds of organic and decaying matter is 
deposited produce their flies in myriads; it is in- 
variably found, where actual investigation has been 
made, that the percentage of cases of zymotic diseases 
of an enteric nature is abnormally high in the neigh- 
bourhood of public refuse tips and depots where 
rubbish is allowed to accumulate. 

In considering the relation of house-flies to disease, 
although the one species of fly, Musca domestica. 
usually constitutes from 90 to 98 per cent, of the fly 
population of houses, certain other species are also 
found to occur. The lesser house-fly, Homalomyia 
canicidaris, has the next place in the scale of frequency, 
and is generally mistaken by the uninitiated for a 
young house-fly, on account of its general re- 
semblance. Although both the adult fly and the larva 
have pronounced structural differences, the habits of 
the larva and the economic relationships of the fly 
resemble those of M. domestica. The blood-sucking 
fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is not infrequently mistaken 
for the true house-fly, which has adopted vicious 
habits. M. domestica, however, is unable to pierce 
the most delicate skin, and S. calcitraus, which 
frequently enters and is found in houses in the spring 
and also in the autumn, especially in rural houses, 
presents considerable differences, the chief being the 
possession of an awl-like, piercing proboscis, a more 
robust build, and its coloration. Not infrequently 
inflammatory swellings, sometimes of a serious 
nature, result from the "bite of a fly," and such 
cases are instances of the mechanical transference of 
such bacteria as the Streptococci from infected 
material to a healthy human being by a blood-sucking 
fly. Malignant pustule may be caused by the 
mechanical transference of the Bacillus anthracis by 
a blood-sucking fly, or it may be bv a non-blood-suck- 
ing fly, such as the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, 
if the skin is broken to provide entrance for the bacillus. 

Wherever there is filth, suppuration, or purulent 
discharge, flies are invariably attracted, and as they 
are cosmopolitan in their attentions and no distin- 
guishers of persons, they are potential disseminators 
of such bacteria as these substances may contain. 
It is not a question of eradication in the case of this 
insect; such is impossible. Control and prevention, 
however, are within the bounds of possibility, and 
these will be regarded as essential when the facts are 
more generally realised. C. Gordon Hewitt. 



THE NEXT TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. 

ON April 28 of next year there will occur a total 
eclipse of the sun which will begin on the earth 
generally at 7h. 49'2m. G.M.T., the central phase 
commencing at 8h. 46'im. G.M.T. The path of the 
moon's shadow is restricted for the most part to the 
equatorial regions, and is confined to the longitudes 
between Australia and South .-Xmerica, so that as far 
as Europe or .Asia are concerned the eclipse cannot be 
observed there even in a partial phase. 

The actual line of central eclipse commences on 



NATURE 



[JULV 2 1, 19 lO 



the south-east portion of Australia, and passes in a 
north-eastern direction, crossing the equator in about 
longitude 154° \V. It then sweeps round in an easterly 
direction, terminating in about longitude 90° W. just 
off the west coast of Central America. The line thus 
extends over the full width of the Pacific Ocean, and 
it is therefore from islands in that ocean that the 
expeditions which may be sent out will have to 
make their observations. While there is a great 
number of islands in this ocean, there are, unfor- 
tunately, remarkably few which lie in the narrow band 
of the 'totality track. Following the line from west 
to east, the first that one finds on the Admiralty 
chart is Tofua, in the Tonga or Friendly Islands. 
The next that is met with is Vavau, in the same 
group, and also close to the central line of totality. 
Much further eastward we reach Nassau, w-hich 
lies a little to the south of the central line, but well 
within the central zone, and not far away are the 
Danger Islands, which are situated to the north, but 
further away from the central line. Thus, so far 
as is indicated on the chart, there are only four 
available points from which observations can be 
made. ... 

In order to find out the suitability of these islands 
for eclipse parties, Mr. F. K. McClean determined to 
make detailed inquiries on this point on his way out 
to the recent eclipse, travelling from England via. 
San Francisco and New Zealand specially to gather 
this information. Particulars are now to hand, and 
at his request they are published here so that intend- 
ing observers may benefit thereby. 

With regard to Tofua the information is brief and 
concise. It is that Tofua is an active volcano and 
high, and therefore unsuitable. As regards Vavau he 
says very little, because, as he knows, it is generally 
recognised as being a good place for observation. He 
adds', however, that there are hills there several 
hundred feet in height; that the island is called at 
by mail steamers; and, finally, that there are many 
small and low islands in the neighbourhood. 

Coming now to Nassau and Danger Islands, these 
are described as "difficult, but possible by using 
owner's boat and landing tackle." As observing 
stations he defines them as "good." The mode of 
procedure to utilise these islands is suggested by him 
in the following words : — 

A small steamer of several hundred tons (T/te Dauin), 
belonging to Captain E. F. Allen, runs to both Nassau 
and Danger. He does the whole of the landing and 
embarking of copra, &c. This steamer would have to be 
chartered at nppro.ximately 40/. per day when under steam 
and 2o2. when not under steam. . . . Captain Allen says 
that he would undertake to get all cases on shore in good 
condition if they were water-tight, but he cannot under- 
take to keep them dry. If for any reason he could not 
land on one island, he could on the other in any reason- 
able weather conditions. 

In most of the Pacific islands the chief difBculties 
to be met with are confined to the landing and em- 
barking of the personnel and material. As many of 
the islands are fringed with coral reefs, with only 
small, narrow passages through them, in some cases 
natural, in others made by blasting operations, con- 
siderable skill is required in negotiating the breakers, 
and special surf boats are usually required. Mr. 
McClean 's advice, therefore, is that it is almost impera- 
tive to employ someone accustomed to such work, " as 
certainlv no one unused to the conditions could do it." 

Should anr of the parties who intend to go out on 

the occasion of this eclipse wish to locate themselves 

on some island other than Vavau, then Nassau and 

Danger Islands are their only alternatives. It is 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



hoped, however, that one or other of these will be 
made use of, as they are sufficiently distant from 
X'avau to be subject to different weather conditions 
should the parties at Vavau be clouded out. 

William J. S. Lockver. 

GLACIERS, GOLDFIELDS, AND LANDSLIDES 

IX NORTH AMERICA.' 
A S an example of organised public research, the 
■^*- U.S. Geological Survey is unparalleled in its 
activity. Bulletins, professional papers, monographs and 
reports flow from the Government Printing Office at 
Washington in a stream that is well-nigh overwhelm- 
ing to the student who tries to arrest it for systematic 
examination. Written, or brought by capable editing, 
to a standard of lucidity that is positively monotonous, 
well printed, lavishly illustrated, and distributed with 
enlightened generosity, these publications contain a 
store of precise information which illuminates every 
branch of earth-knowledge. The range of subjects 
which they cover is no longer confined even within 




d by llu 



the spacious limits of geology, pateontology, petrio- 
logy, mineralogy and physiography; — it has over- 
spread into many cognate branches of applied science, 
such as analytical chemistry, hydraulics, mechanics, 
engineering, metallurgy and mineral statistics. 

The three handsome memoirs before us are good 
examples of the broad spirit in which the work is 
carried out; each, while dealing primarily with a 
particular district, is a notable addition to our know- 
ledge of the continent as a whole ; and each finds 
room for matter likelv to be interesting to any edu- 
cated reader, along with that which appeals directly 
to the specialist. In the first and third, the physio- 

1 Professional P.iper« of U.S. Oeologicnl Survey. (Wa-ihinptoTi, 1Q09.) 
(i) Nn. 64, "The Yakutat Bay Region, Alaslja : Pliysiograpliy and 
Glacial Gfology." Ev RalphS. Tarr ; " Areal Geoloey." By R. S. T.-UT 
and Ben S. Butler. Pp. 163 ; with 37 plates and 10 figures. 

(2) No. 66, "The Geology and Ore Deposits of Goldfield. Nevada." By 
F. L. Ransome, assisted in the field by W. H. Emmons and G. H. Garrey. 
Pp. 258 ; with 2 maps, 33 plates and 34 figures. 

(3) No. 67, " Landslides in the San Juan Mount.ains, Colorado, including 
a Consideration of their Causes and their Classification." liy E. Hoivc. 
Pp. 58 ; with 20 plates .ind 4 figures. 



July 21, 19 10] 



NATURE 



77 



graphical ^ludy of the subject is made paramount; in 
the second, petrology, mineralogy and mining receive 
the fullest treatment. 

(i) Of especial interest is the professional paper 
first on uur list, containing the results of Prof. Tarr's 
recent investigation of the great glaciers in the 
VaUutnt Bay region of Alaska. We may congratulate 
ourselves, and Prof. Tarr also, on the happy mis- 
chance which took him to this region at a critical 
time in the history of its ice-fields. 

Ever since the famous explorations of the late Prof. 
I. C. Russell, twenty years ago, we have known that 
where tlie i^reatest of these ice-rivers left the moun- 
tain valleys and deployed as "piedmont" glaciers on 
the low ground bordering the ocean, they were charac- 
terised by their peculiarly stagnant condition. The 
anomaly of dense livint;' forests covering their sur- 



moraine was sliding out of sight into the yawning 
chasms — the green forests that covered it were shar- 
ing the same fate — the snouts of the glaciers were 
being thrust forward destructively into the timbered 
belt surrounding them — the enormously augmented 
streams issuing from the ice were impassable, and 
were flinging out huge delta-fans that buried every- 
thing in their path ; and, altogether, nature in one of 
her most vigorous moods was enacting a grand trans- 
formation scene on the lonely shores of Yakutat Bay. 
i\ll the eastern portion of the great Malaspina Glacier 
was a maze of crevasses, and its end — formerly an 
easv slope — an insurmountable cliff of tumbling ice, 
trees, and moraine. The Atrevida (see Fig. i), the 
Variegated, the Marvine and the Haenke Glaciers 
were in the same state of rapid disruption ; while 
others, including the Lucia and the Seward, though 




\ ,.;u 1 tin,- uest from Hidden GL-icier showing the Fosse and the Pitted Pla 



faces «\'er large areas where the ice was hidden be- 
neath a thick blanket of moraine was one of the 
many surprises brought to our knowledge by Russell ; 
and later investigations confirmed the idea that in 
such cases the ice was truly "dead" and would re- 
main where it was, a waning relic of severer bygone 
times, until graduallv dispersed by liquefaction. 

Such was still the state of affairs when Prof. Tarr 
began his survey-work in the region in the summer 
of 1905, and he confidently planned a programme for 
the following year which depended for its fulfilment 
on the "deadness " of the ice. On his return in 1906 
he was naturallv astonished to find that all was in a 
turmoil of change — familiar features obliterated — 
routes impossible. The "dead ice" in many places 
had sprung to life again — the plains that had formed 
the highways of former travel were broken into an 
impenetrable wilderness of crevasses — the blanket of 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



not so fully aroused, showed symptoms of impending 
change.' 

Vet there were other glaciers in the region that had 
not participated in this energetic outburst, but still kept 
to the habit of recession which had been regarded as 
the normal behaviour of all these .Alaskan glaciers. 

Here, then, was the unexpected problem that con- 
fronted Prof. Tarr in 1906 and richly recompensed 
him for the destruction of his original plans. His 
solution of it is remarkably simple, and seems to fulfil 
all the conditions. It is' well known that in 1899 
the region was affected by a sharp earthquake, which 
caused displacements recognisable on the coast-line 

1 In the NationnlGeografhic Mas;a-jKi for Janu.iry Ian Prof. Tarr and 
Prof. L. Martin give an account of their later visit to the region in the 
summer of igog, when further chanzes were noted. The Lucia Glacier had 
become unpassable ; the Hidden Glacier had undergone the full cycle of 
changa ; the Hubbard seemed to be on the eve of great movement', while 
the four mentioned above as active in 1906 had relapsed into stagnation. 



78 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



and shook up the famous Muir Glacier so thoroughly 
that its seaward end was disintegrated, filling Glacier 
Bay with icebergs that barred out all shipping for 
soriie years. Prof. Tarr gathered evidence proving 
that the earthquake brought down huge avalanches 
of snow and rock from the mountain-sides into the 
glacier-basins, and he considers that the sudden 
accession of material has exerted a thrust which has 
swept slowly forward as a wave throughout the 
length of the glaciers. He strengthens his conclu- 
sion by showing that, at least in some cases, the 
unaffected glaciers are those fed from gentler slopes 
from which avalanches would be less likely. 

The e.xplanation raises many knotty points in the 
still imperfectly understood physics of glacier-move- 
ment, while the new facts constitute a very important 
element to be taken into account in all future dis- 
cussions of ice-flow. In reading the descriptions w-e 
are reminded of the abnormal conditions found by 
Garwood and Gregory in the Booming Glacier of 
Spitsbergen (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. liv., 1898, 
p. 207), and of the rapid advance and subsequent 
recession of the Hispar Glacier in the Karakoram 
Range {Geographical Journal, vol. .xxxv., February, 
igio, p. 108). Is it possible that a great mass of ice 
may become suddenly more mobile when its tempera- 
ture as a whole reaches some critical point short of 
the melting stage? The glacial geologist could find 
ready application for some such proposition if it were 
presented to him with the requisite Q.E.D. 

Besides these features of central interest, Prof. 
Tarr describes many other phenomena that will 
arrest the attention of the geologist; for example, the 
rock-channels cut by streams running along the 
margins of glaciers, w'hich remind us of the old 
" overflow channels " lately recognised in many parts 
of Britain and Ireland; the "pitted plains," where 
morainic deposits have been spread out by streams 
in great "apron-fans" incorporating hidden masses 
of ice (see Fig. 2) ; the sudden slipping of a small 
mountain-glacier en ^nasse from its high corrie into 
the waters of Disenchantment Bay, causing huge 
waves that swept destructively on to the land; and the 
spread of vegetation over the areas abandoned by the 
ice. His re-discussion of the eflicacy of the glaciers as 
erosive agents should also be read by everyone who 
has shared in the long debate on this subject. The 
memoir concludes with a short account of the solid 
geology of the region, which is of less general 
moment. 

We have scant space in which to deal with the 
other two memoirs, and must perforce dismiss them 
summarily. 

(2) Mr. F. L. Ransome's monograph describes an 
area around Goldfield, on the hilly desert-plateau 
countrv near the border of south-western Nevada, 
which has recently sprung into prominence as a gold- 
mining centre. His historical narrative has a touch 
of romance in it — vast treasure lying close to the 
surface, vet passed over again and again by eager 
prospectors; then, in 1902, discovery — excitement — and 
disappointment; in 1903-5, renewed search crowned by 
success ; great fortunes rapidly made and lost in the 
wild boom and its reaction, the feverish activity cul- 
minating in a fierce labour dispute which necessitated 
the calling up of federal troops at the close of 1907 ; 
and finally, the consolidation of interests and the 
svstematic ransacking of the ground. It is estimated 
that the value of the precious metals recovered during 
the years 1904-7 from this small field was close upon 
20,000,000 dollars. 

.^s for its geology, the field is a low dome-like 
uplift of Tertiary lavas with associated lake-sediments, 
resting upon a sparingly-exposed foundation of ancient 
granitic and metamorphic rocks. The ore-bodies, 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



apparently deposited in late-Tertiary limes from 
"acidified" solutions at no great depth, are remark- 
able alike for their richness and for .their irregularity. 
The structure, origin and mineralogy of the lodes, and 
the petrology and chemical composition of the rocks 
are fully discussed, and beautifully illustrated in the 
plates. In respect to the eruptive sequence, the author 
finds no proof of the regular order which J. E. Spurr 
has sought to establish for the lavas of the Great 
Basin. In criticising this scheme the author remarks : — 
"To some minds the conformity here shown may 
appeal as corroborative, but to others, impressed by 
the scanty representation of the numerous members 
of the ideal succession in any given locality, the capa- 
city of the scheme for assimilating not only observed 
sequences, but imaginary ones, raises doubt whether 
it reallv represents natural processes " (p. 105). The 
criticism might be applied to many another ingenious 
scheme in science. 

(3) The San Juan Mountains in south-western 
Colorado, like most steep mountains of similar struc- 
ture, have been subject in the past, and are still 
subject, to extensive landslips. Many examples of 
these slips, both ancient and modern, are fully 
described bv Mr. E. Howe in the third paper on our 
list, and are pictured in many fine plates which almost 
make description superfluous. .\ massive series_ of 
Tertiary volcanic rocks, often carved into huge cliffs, 
rests on a vielding base of soft Cretaceous shales; 
and, among' the older sedimentary formations, are 
thick Palaeozoic limestones resting on friable shales 
and sandstones. /\ttention is particularly directed t > 
the curious "rock-streams" which have their origi:-; 
in the high cirques; and to the influence of snow 
banks on the accumulation of talus at the foot of 
cliffs. The memoir concludes with a somewh;it 
laboured classification of landslides in which foreign 
examples and their literature are freclv cited. 

■ G. W". L. 



MOUNTAINEERING IN THE NORTH-WEST 
HIMALAYA.' 

ONE would hardly suppose, after reading this 
simplv-told narrative of physical achievements, 
that the senior member — and shall we say, with Mrs. 
Workman's permission, leader— of the party among 
the peaks and glaciers of the Nun Kun group was 
compelled some years ago to retire from his medical 
practice on account of ill-health. Evidently, at great 
altitudes, where the vitality is lowered by insomnia 
attending deficient oxygenation, and where mental 
depression and attacks of irresolution follow a dis- 
turbed circulation, the successful explorer depends 
whoUv on having his muscles under the complete 
control of a resolute mind for that last supreme fight 
against the irresistible instinct to descend to his 
natural environment. The .Arctic explorer can 
sleep, can eat, and is the better for work 
to do; the mountain climber handicaps him- 
self by his load of protective non-conductors; 
his respiratorv difl'jculties are increased when in the 
only position' of rest left to the biped, and_ every 
mo'mentarv doze through sheer exhaustion is ter- 
minated bv frantic efforts to avoid the intolerable 
feeling of 'suffocation. .Anyone who has experienced 
these "troubles, which bes'et all climbers— even the 
luckv few who are proof against mountain sickness 

will admire the mental as well as the phvsical 

qualities of the altitude record-breaker; for, judging 
bv the recent sordid controversy among .Arctic ex- 

1 "Peak5 and Glaciers of Nun Kun: a R^corH cf Pinreer-Fsplorn- 
tiral and Mountainesrine i" the Punjab Hirrnbya." P.v Fannv Kullock 
Workman and Dr. W. H. Workman. Pp. XV + 2C4. (London: Constable 
.ind Co., Ltd., 1909.) Price i8j. net. 



J ULV 2 1, I 9 I o] 



NATURE 



79 



plorers, " records " have still a market value amcng 
geographers. 

Although previous achievements of mountain 
climbers are now eclipsed by the Duke of the 
Abruzzi's record of 24,853 feet in the Karakorum, the 
exploration of the Nun Kun group by the authors 
of this work is likely to remain for long of special 
interest, on account of the circumstance that Mrs. 
Workman broke even her own record for women by 
scaling the Pinnacle Peak of 23,300 feet. The refer- 
ence to this feat, however, is but a passing incident 
in the narrative, less drawn-out, in fact, than the 
accounts of the perky eccentricities of the irrepressible, 
pugnacious little cock of the poultry-yard — the clown 
of the party, who, like the indispensable figure among 
the acrobatic performers of the circus show, " talks 
all the time," as the Kashmiri khansainah remarked. 



Swadeshi are among those that exemplify new varie- 
ties of well-known type difficulties that are invariably 
"discovered" by non-official travellers in the Indian 
region ; but, in the present instance, the few difficulties 
faced and overcome are not of the kind which 
travellers' descriptions often naively show to the 
experienced Anglo-Indian to be due to the travellers' 
own stupidity and ignorance of local affairs. 

The additions to topographical knowledge need not 
be reviewed ; thev will be fully appreciated by officers 
of the Indian Survey Department, who are more 
conscious than their critics suppose of the short- 
comings of their maps in regions which are of little 
direct concern to their master, the tax-paver, who has 
as much right to be considered as the sportsman and 
traveller. The authors made the experiment of tak- 
ing out six experienced Courmayeur porters under an 




:w .It sources of Hispor UlacUr .it 17,000 
ground broken, horizontally stratified icC' 
background southern Hispar boundary m 
From "i'eaksand Glacieis of Nun Kun.' 



In foreground a\alancb( -nieve-b<d, pinnacles mostly fcinied i 
s. Behind itiese !ce-»all covtred wiih yaiallel sub-id. nte.«. 
ins. Kerroductd with the peimission of Dr. W. Huut.r Wurkn 



m avaUnche-blocls. In middle-] 
■.ridtes orunting with slope. In 
1 and Mrs. t . tullock Workman. 



The book is not a mere narrative of travellers' 
experiences in a little-trodden region ; it discusses 
definite and valuable additions to geographical know- 
ledge ; important topographical corrections are made 
on the Survey Atlas quarter-sheet No. 45 S.W. ; 
one-fifth of the text is devoted to the character and 
origin of the different varieties of ice prominences on 
the nevd-suriaces and glaciers, and on the glaciers 
below the nevc-l\ne ; the principal part of a chapter 
is devoted to a discussion of the immediate physio- 
logical effects of high altitudes ; while the extremely 
high temperatures in sunlight at high levels and the 
great diurnal variations are all precisely recorded. 
Incidents of hurhan interest on the journey are not 
forgotten — the moral weaknesses of the Kargil coolie 
and the price of the Wazir's devotion to the cause of 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



expert guide, to replace the local coolies for work at 
high altitudes, where muscle alone is of little service, 
and this innovation has now been imitated by the 
Duke of the .^bruzzi with successful results. The 
disturbing uncertainty of the malingering coolie being 
eliminated from the problem, Dr. Workman was 
able, with his trustworthy porters, to make satisfac- 
tory deductions from observations regarding the alti- 
tude limitations of human activity; and he shows 
that, in addition to the special danger of mountain 
sickness as a precursor of frost-bite, insomnia and 
the distressing moral and physical sequelae of imper- 
fect oxygenation may be sufficient alone to fi.x the 
stress-limit of the human organism at something 
distinctly below the greatest Himalayan heights. 
The curious nievcs penitent es first described by 



8o 



NATURE 



[JULV 21, I9IO 



explorers in the Andes have been recognised by the 
authors also in the Himalayan region, though their 
conclusions have not been completely accepted by other 
travellers. They, however, bring together in this 
worii observations made in the Nun Kun area during 
1906, as well as others made before and since in other 
parts of the north-west Himalaya, and have a right, 
consequentlv, to generalise on the phenomena. The 
prominences grouped under the name nievc penitente 
are often roughly pyramidal in shape, and generally 
disposed in rows on snow and ice at altitudes 
at which the night temperature falls below 
the freezing point; they are due to the un- 
equal melting of the superficial layers of snow and 
ice. The authors describe in detail eight varieties of 
nieves peniientes, which, judging by the descriptions 
given, might have been divided into the following 
two groups : — (i.) Those that are the outward and 
visible e.xpression of an internal heterogeneity of 
physical structure induced in the snow and ice by (i) 
the scoring action of avalanches with a trend parallel 
to the dip-slope ; (2) the shearing effects of slower 
subsidence along the slopes ; (3) the development of 
pressure waves by the wind ; and (4) the more or less 
regular fracturing on seracs. (ii.) Those that are due 
to the disposition of various adventitious covers, such 
as (5) thin patches of earthy material arranged by the 
wind, and of a kind facilitating the absorption of the 
sun's heat with consequent melting of the subjacent 
ice ; (6) heavy rock-masses, which compress and pro- 
tect the ice, giving rise, by melting of the clean ice 
around, to the well-known glacial tables ; (7) thick 
layers of earthy material, having a protective effect 
similar to that of the large rock fragments, but giving 
rise to differently shaped prominences on account of 
, the disintegration and fall of the marginal parts of 
the covers; fS) water-covers in depressed areas, where 
silt is deposited unequally on a previously sculptured 
surface. These phenomena have been discussed in 
greater detail bv Dr. Workman in special papers pub- 
lished in the Zeitschrift jur Cletscherkunde and in 
the Alpine Journal. 

A notice of this book would not be complete without 
reference to the remarkably fine photographic plates 
with which it is illustrated, although the illustrations, 
specially selected to demonstrate the phenomena of 
nieve penitente, and perhaps the best In the book, are 
taken from other areas, mainly from the Hispar and 
associated glaciers, further north-west, in the chief- 
ship of Nagar. One of these is here reproduced. 

T. H. HOLL.-VND. 

THE EAST AFRICAN NATURAL HISTORY 
SOCIETY.' 
'T^ HERE has been founded in British East .'\frica 
-•■ a society for the study of natural history, and 
the activities of this society naturally extend to the 
adjoining Uganda Protectorate. This societv re- 
cently produced the first number of a Journal, which, 
it is to be hoped, may run to many volumes if con- 
ducted on the lines of its first nuniber. Mr. C. W. 
Hobley, C.M.G., a prominent official of British East 
Africa, whose service there dates from the earliest 
days of the British East Africa Chartered Company, 
has taken a considerable part in the founding of this 
local natural history society, and is one of the con- 
tributors to the first number of the Journal. Mr. 
Hobley's work in anthropology, in East African 
languages, in geology, in the exploration of the 
aquatic fauna of Lake Victoria Nyanza (it will be 
remembered that he was the first, or one of the first, 

1 The Journal of the East Africa and Ugnada Natural History Society, 
vol. 1., No. I, J.inuary, 1910. (London : Longmans, Green and Co., 1910,) 
Price 5^, net. 



to discover in that lake organisms akin to the. sup- 
posed marine fauna of Lake Tanganyika, thereby 
lessening the acuteness of that problem), has been s 1 
remarkable that his association with the Natural 
History Society should be productive of irrteresting 
results. 

This first number contains a very well-executed 
coloured illustration of a new species of francolin 
(Francolinus hiibbardi). This accompanies an article 
on the francolins of Hast Africa and Uganda, which 
to ornithologists is of real value. The scope of this 
article also includes the allied genus Pternistes. Mr. 
Battiscombe gives some new and interesting informa- 
tion regarding the flora of British East Africa. There 
are several small errors in the nomenclature of this 
article; Lobelia johmtoni is given as Lobelia john- 
sonii; Kniphofia thomsoni appears as K. thompsonii, 
and Musa livingstonii is given as iM. livingstonia. The 
generic name banseviera is misspelt — a very common 
fault in books dealing with .Africa. But these are 
trifling defects in an account of East African botany 
which is of considerable interest. 

The Rev. K. St. A. Rogers writes on East African 
butterflies. There are notes on the haunts and habits 
of the elephant on the Guas' N^shu plateau by Mr. 
Hoey, and Mr. C. W. Hobley contributes two articles, 
the more important of which, from the point of view 
of new information, is that dealing with the Karian- 
duss deposits of the Rift Valley — deposits which form 
beds of a mealy, friable rock, amounting perhaps to 
millions of tons of diatomite. This is a siliceous de- 
posit, principally of organic origin, mainly composed 
of the skeletons of minute, lowly plants— diatoms or 
bacillariae — mere cells of green or brown protoplasm 
originally, which enclose themselves in a flinty casing 
fitting together like a box and a lid. Diatoms are, of 
course, found in fresh-water ponds and salt seas all 
over the world. Mr. Hobley considers the Rift Valley 
to have been the scene of tremendous volcanic activity 
from Tertiary times onwards, and that at one period 
in its history this enormously long depression in the 
surface of East Africa was covered by much larger 
lakes than at the present day. These beds of diatomite 
are the result both of the existence of these sheets 
of w-ater and of the neighbouring eruptive volcanoes. 

" Picture Suswa, Longenot, and Eburu all periodica'ly in 
active eruption, and in addition to lava flows ejecting 
great clouds of volcanic dust and streams of mud mainly 
composed of siliceous fragments. This is almost certain 
to have been thus, as is the case in all volcanoes of this 
kind : the steam tearing its way through the magma which 
formed the flows of obsidian and trachytic tuffs would 
naturally blow 'arge quantities into a state of very fine 
division, and this would be spread far and wide by the 
wind and also carried into the lakes by the torrential 
downpours which always accompany volcanic activity. 
The soda-laden water would dissolve the silica and place 
it ready for the diatoms to worlc upon, and with such rich 
material to build with one can quite see that this form of 
life could flourish with great luxuriance." 

INIr. Hobley considers this diatomite or kieselguhr 
may be of some economic value. H. H. Johnston. 



NOTES. 

The Astley Cooper prize for 19 10 has been awarded to 
Piof. E. H. Starling, F.R.S., for an essay upon the 
physiology of digestion, gastric and intestinal. 

The Mackinnon studentship in physical sciences has been 
awarded by the Royal Society for a second year to Dr. 
R. D. Kleeman for the continuation of his researches on 
radio-activity ; and the studentship in biological sciences 
has been awarded to Mr. T. Goodey for an investigation 
of the protozoa of the soil. 



July 21, 1910] 



NATURE 



;i 



The council of the Royal Society of Edinburgh hiis 
awarded the following prizes : — (i) The Neill Prize for the 
biennial period 1907-8, 1908-9, to Mr. F. J. Lewis, for his 
papers in tho society's Transactions " On the Plant Remains 
in the Scottij=h Peat Mosses." (2) The Keith Prize for the 
biennials period 1907-S, 1908-9, to Dr. Wheelton Hind, for 
a paper published in the Transactions of the society " On 
the Lamellibranch and Gasteropod Fauna found in the 
Millstone Grit of Scotland." 

The L'.S. Congress has passed a bill granting 10,000!. to 
establish a biological laboratory for the study of diseases 
of fish, especially those related to cancer. The station is, 
says Science, to be established under the U.S. Fish 
Commission. 

The committee ot the science section of the Japan-British 
Exhibition has issued invitations to an inspection of the 
collections at the White City to-morrow, July 22, at 
3.30 p.m. 

The Geneva correspondent of the Times announces the 
death, at sir^ty-four years of age, of Col. Georges Agassiz, 
nephew of the famous naturalist. After completing his 
Studies at the University of Lausanne, Col. Agassiz spent 
several years in America with his uncle in scientific work 
and researches. Recently he presented to the Cantonal 
Museum at Lausanne his collection of butterflies, numbering 
18,000 rare specimens. 

It is stated that a bill is to be introduced into the French 
Parliament malcing Greenwich time compulsory instead of 
Paris time, which differs from it by about nine minutes. 
If the bill becomes law, France will thus be brought into 
line with the zone system of referring time to meridians 
differing by an integral number of hours from the Green- 
wich meridian. It is thus not so much a question of one 
country adopting the time standard of another as it is of 
France accepting an international system of time recl^oning. 
M. Millerand, Minister of Public VVorlis, has been asked 
by the French Cabinet to support the proposal to substitute 
Greenwich time for the time of the Paris meridian when 
the matter is brought before parliament. 

In the House of Commons on Tuesday, a bill " to 
prohibit the sale or exchange of the plumage and skins of 
certain wild birds " w-as brought in and read for the first 
time. In introducing the bill, Mr. P. Alden said that the 
object of his bill is to try to prevent the absolute extinc- 
tion of a few rare birds. The bill that passed the House 
of Lords in 1905 prohibited the importation of the plumage 
of altnost all birds. Mr. Alden includes in the schedule of 
the present bill only a few birds that are on the point of 
eiytinction, but which may be saved if this bill, or a bill 
diafted by the Board of Trade, be passed into law within 
the next year or two. There is a law in Australia to 
prevent the export of the plumage of certain rare birds, one 
of which is the emu, yet last year more than one thousand 
emu skins were catalogued for sale in London — all 
smuggled out of Australia. A number of species of 
humming birds are almost extinct. In Trinidad the 
number of species has been reduced from eighteen to five. 
The skins of 25,000 humming birds have been catalogued 
for sale in London during the past year. 

We learn from Science that the tJniversity of Southern 
California, at Los .'Xngeles, has established recently a 
marine biological station at Venice, Cal. The station is on 
the nearest beach to the urtiversity, some thirteen miles 
distant. It comprises an aquarium consisting of forty 
tanks with running sea water, and a series of laboratories 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



for class work and research. The laboratories, which face 
the north, are provided with sea water and fresh water. 
The station is designed to afford : (i) facilities for demon- 
stration to classes studying marine life ; (2) opportunity for 
the students of the university to carry on advanced work in 
marine biology ; and (3) a limited number of research 
laboratories, some of which are available, without cost, to 
investigators who are prepared to carry on research work 
in some of the phases of marine biology. 

The programme of papers and of demonstrations drawn 
up for the International Zoological Congress, to be held 
at Graz next month, includes a great variety of subjects. 
Prof. Boveri promises an address on Anton Dohrn ; Prof. 
Delage will give an account of experimental partheno- 
genesis. Embryology will be treated by Profs. Lee, Julin, and 
Hubrecht. Tile geographical distribution of several groups 
of animals will be discussed, more particularly the cave- 
fauna of Carinthia. Prof. Gaupp will deal with the 
affinities of the Mammalia, Dr. Keller with the origins of 
domesticated races, and there are also many other memoirs 
promised that will attract workers in prot6zoology, genetics, 
and experimental embrvology. The Graz meeting should 
prove a very successful one. 

It is officially announced that a submarine telephone 
cable of a novel type was recently laid across the Channel 
from Dover to Cape Grisnez by the British Post Office, in 
order to improve telephonic communication between this 
country and France, and also to determine the limits of 
possible improvement by the use of a new type, with a 
view' to its application to telephonic communication between 
places which have hitherto been beyond telephonic range. 
This is the first cable of the kind laid in tidal waters and 
across the open sea, although a similar cable was pre- 
viously laid in the Lake of Constance. The new cable will 
be brought into regular use as soon as the corresponding 
French land lines are completed, but the tests so far made 
have given very satisfactory results. The electrical con- 
ditions of submarine cables make telephonic communication 
through them difficult as compared with such communica- 
tion carried on over land lines, and any improvement in 
their efficiency will have a marked effect in extending the 
distance through which telephonic speech is possible, and 
this more especially when the cable forms a considerable 
part of the total length of line through which communica- 
tion has to be effected. In the case of the new cable just 
laid, the efficiency has been increased more than three 
times beyond th& value which it would have if it had not 
been specially treated. This improved efficiency is due to 
the insertion of " loading coils " in the cable at intervals of 
one nautical mile. The coils reduce the distortion of the 
current impulses which correspond to the spoken sounds, 
and so render the speech more distinct. 

In the fourth number of the fifty-sixth volume of 
the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections Captain F. 
Schmitter, of the Medical Corps, U.S. Army, publishes a 
set of rough notes on the customs and folk-lore of the 
natives of the Upper Yukon, Alaska. It is remarkable 
that thex are partly in the age of stone and partly in 
that of copper. The hammers which they use to break up 
bones for cooking and for making arrow-heads are rude 
lumps of stone, and of the same material are the axes 
which, at any rate up to quite recent times, they employed 
for cutting down trees ; but their hunting-knives are of 
bone, ground flat, and sharp on both sides, or of copper 
welded in a similar fashion. Their chief weapon, the 
spear, is made by binding a hunting-knife of caribou 
horn to a pole 6 feet long. 



82 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



In a paper recently read before the Royal Society of Arts 
(see p. 58), Captain A. J. N. Tremearne discusses tlie origin 
of tliat rcmarliable African race, the Fiilah or Filani. The 
view which he finally adopts is that the tribe arose some- 
where in the Central Sudan from the union of Berber 
males with negro women ; that with this mixture of race 
a mixed dialect came into use, combining Berber, Arabic, 
and Bantu elements. In process of time this mixed race 
separated from the Berbers and formed various groups, one 
going east and south, and becoming the Wahuma, another 
migrating west to Morocco, and a third, moving south, be- 
came the Fans. The quasi-Semitic origin of the tribe has 
produced a spirit of nationality, and some of their legends 
now connect them with a Jew or .^rab progenitor. Sx 
present they form the aristocracy of the Hausa States in 
North British Nigeria and in French territory to the south 
and west, their head being the Emir of Sokoto. They are 
a people with great possibilities, and will doubtless take a 
high place in West ."Vfrica when once they frankly accept 
British and French supremacy. 

The Glastonbury Antiquarian Society has arranged for 
the publication of a work containing a full description of 
the excavations at the Glastonbury lake-village, by Mr. 
.Arthur Bulleid and Mr. H. St. George Gray, with an 
introductory chapter by Dr. R. Munro. The work will 
also contain reports on the human and animal remains, 
bird bones, botanical specimens and seeds, and metal, by 
Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., Dr. C. \V. Andrews, 
F.R.S., Mr. Clement Reid, F.R.S., and the late Dr. J. H. 
Gladstone, F.R.S. The Glastonbury lake-village is re- 
garded by archjeologists as of primary importance in the 
history of pre-Roman Britain, giving as it does a vivid 
picture of native life before the arts of Rome penetrated to 
the west of England. The village is of the crannog type, 
the habitable area of about 33 acres, originally in the 
middle of a mere, including some eighty dwellings sur- 
rounded by a border-palisading. The occupation of this 
area continued long enough to allow 5 feet of peat to 
accumulate in some parts during the occupation. The 
village had its origin in the early Iron age, and has con- 
tributed largely to our knowledge of the arts and industries 
of late Celtic times. The editors hope to be able to 
publish vol. i. of the work upon the excavations before the 
close of 1910. Vol. ii. will follow as soon as possible after 
vol. i., and probably within eighteen months. The work 
will resemble somewhat in style that of General Pitt- 
Rivers 's " E.xcavations in Cranborne Chase." Any in- 
quiries regarding the work should be sent (with stamped 
addressed envelope) to Mr. H. St. George Gray, Taunton 
Castle, Somerset. 

The Dominion Museum at Wellington has issued a 
hand-list of New Zealand birds, including stragglers, and 
the first and second parts of a hand-list of New Zealand 
Lepidoptera. 

We have received a copy of vol. vi.. No. 9, of the 
University of California Publications in Zoology, contain- 
ing a preliminary report, by Mr. G. F. McEwen, on the 
hydrographical work carried on by the Marine Biological 
Station at San Diego. Work of this nature was the 
main reason for the foundation of the Marine Biological 
Association of San Diego, but various causes prevented 
its being taken up in earnest until the summer of 1908, 
when the writer of the report before us became a member 
of the staff of the station, whose duty it should be to take 
charge for some portion of the year of water-investigations. 
The work of 1908 consisted of determinations of the 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



temperature and density of the waters of the Bay of 
La Jolla and the ocean, the area covered lying between 
33° 20' and 32° 30' N. lat., and extending from the coast 
to 118° 30' long. In addition to this, two trips were 
made to the Cortez Banks, and a third to a point some 
distance south of Cerros Island. The methods of. work 
and some of the results obtained are recorded in the report. 

Some remarkably fine skeletons of plesiosaurians from 
the Upper Lias of Holzmaden are described by Dr. E. 
Fraas, of Stuttgart, in vol. Ivii. of the Palacontographia. 
The author directs attention to the rarity of plesiosaurian 
remains in the German Lias as contrasting strongly with 
what obtains in the corresponding English formation. The 
latter indicates that these saurians were relatively 
abundant in the Liassic seas, although they did not, in all 
probability, congregate in such large shoals as the 
commoner species of ichthyosaurs. The majority of the 
English specimens come, however, from the Lower Lias 
of Lyme Regis, Street, and Charmouth, an horizon re- 
presented by a different type of strata at Holzmaden. Dr. 
Fraas refers his specimens to Plesiosauriis giiUelmi- 
imperatoris, first named by Prof. Dames in 1895, and to a 
new species of Thaumatosaurus, which it is proposed to 
call T. victor. So perfect are the remains that they admit 
of restored figures of the skulls of both species being given. 
r. victor was about 10 feet in length, with a relatively 
small head, short and thick neck, very plump body, slender 
and nearly equal-sized paddles, and a very short and 
powerful tail. 

In the Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for June 
(xxi.. No. 231) Dr. Corson contributes an interesting bio- 
graphy of Sir Charles Bell, who did so much to elucidate 
the structure and functions of the nervous system, and 
whose " .Anatomy of Expression in Painting " has remained 
a classic. Dr. Walker describes glandular structures 
hitherto supposed to form part of the prostate gland in 
rats and guinea-pigs, which, however, differ entirely in 
structure from the latter, and the secretion of which 
coagulates the secretion of the seminal vesicles when mixed 
with it. This coagulation is produced by a very minute 
quantity of the secretion, i part to about 21,000 parts of 
the secretion of the seminal vesicles being sufficient to pro- 
duce the reaction. The active principle presumably belongs 
to the class of ferments. 

It is a pleasure to note the excellent manner in which 
the natural history of the American State of Connecticut is 
being worked up, and the results recorded in a series of 
pamphlets entitled " Bulletins of the State Geological and 
Natural History Survey of Connecticut." Five geological 
and five botanical bulletins have been issued, the last 
(No. 14) being devoted to a catalogue of flowering plants 
and ferns. A committee of six members of the Connecti- 
cut Botanical Society is responsible for the work, which 
has been compiled with great care. The list enumerates 
1481 native and 461 introduced species, besides which 286 
varieties and forms are recognised. The Cyperacere, 
Graminea), and Composite stand out as the largest 
families. Aster is the largest genus, and also one of the 
most interesting, as the native species include such useful 
horticultural types as laevis, novae-angliae, novi-belgii, 
cricoides, longifolius, and the rare concinntis ; Solidago, 
another large genus, also provides the original types of 
some garden plants. The critical genera, Crat^Egus and 
Rubus, contribute to the size of the rose family, and the 
number of Violas is remarkable. Among the ferns, eight 
species of Isoetes and six of Botrychiurn are recorded. 



July 21, 1910] 



NATURE 



The current number of the Bulletin of the Department 
of Agriculture, Jamaica (vol. i., No. 3), maintains the high 
standard set by the two previous issues. Mr. R. Kewstead 
contributes a valuable article on the ticks and other blood- 
sucking Arthropoda of Jamaica, describing their life-history 
and the methods adopted in attempts to exterminate them. 
It appears that ticks are most prevalent during the dry 
winter months, and that relatively few are found during 
the rainy season. .As a rule the ticks infest cattle, but one 
much dreaded species, Chrysomyia (Compsamyia), attacks 
man ; a case of myiasis thus produced is mentioned. This 
tick often passes its larval stages in putrid carcases, and 
is no doubt kept in check by the scavenger work of the 
John Crows (Caiharics aura), which remove practically all 
traces of carrion from man's habitations. From an article 
by the Hon. H. E. Co.x, it appears that tea is now being 
successfully grown on the island ; the Cinchona strain is 
used, and yields a tea of mild character similar to the old 
China teas and without astringency. There is also a 
useful history of the economic plants of Jamaica by Mr. 
Harris. 

The twenty-second annual report of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Lafayette, Indiana, chronicles several 
important events in the history of the station. The old 
buildings having proved insufficient, new ones were erected, 
and were formally opened during the course of the year. 
Still more important, however, was the provision of further 
funds, necessitated by the rapidly increasing demand from 
the farmers of the State for information on the lines of 
the work already being done. So strong was the demand 
that the General .\ssembly amended the Smith Act of 
iqoj, whereby the station annually receives 25,000 dollars, 
and increased the State subvention to 75,000 dollars 
annually, to be expended as follows : — 10,000 dollars for 
the general work of the station, 15,000 dollars for the 
improvement of the crops and soils of the State, 10,000 
dollars for the advancement of the dairy interests, 10,000 
dollars for the advancement of live-stock interests, 5000 
dollars for the investigation of hog cholera and other 
diseases, 5000 dollars for poultry problems, and 10,000 
dollars for extension work ; and the Act concludes : — 
" Whereas an emergency exists for the immediate taking 
effect of this .Act the same shall be in effect from and 
after its passage." The extension work includes the dis- 
tribution of copiously illustrated bulletins dealing with 
important problems, a number of which we have also 
received ; the provision of special trains to carry lecturers 
through the country, teaching as they go ; attendance at 
shows, and so on. With such liberal support it is not 
surprising that much good work is done. 

Mr. Rodert M. Brown contributes an interesting series 
of diagrams to the Bulletin of the American Geographical 
Society (p. 107) showing the maximum, minimum, and 
average levels of the waters of the Mississippi system at 
five stations — Hannibal, on the Mississippi ; Hermann, 
on the Missouri ; St. Louis, just below the confluence of 
the Mississippi and Missouri ; Cairo, on the Ohio ; and 
Memphis, Tennessee. The varying influence of the 
different types of rainfall occurring in different parts of 
the drainage area is very clearlj' shown. 

Mr. H. T. Barnes, Macdonald professor of physics, con- 
tributes an interesting paper, with excellent illustrations, 
to the Proceedings of the Undergraduate Society of Applied 
Science of McGill University, Montreal, on the problems 
of winter navigation on the river St. Lawrence. Experi- 
ence shows that, with Lake St. Peter free of ice, a con- 
tinuous open channel above that point may be safely pre- 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



dieted, for the river is continually s.. uggling to free itself 
of its icy burden. Prof. Barnes suggests that it would be 
quite possible to keep the ice-bridge broken up at the foot 
of Lake St. Peter and at the Sorel Islands, and that the 
lake itself could be kept nearly free of ice. One ice-breaker 
could keep the river clear at the Sorel Islands as well as 
at Port St. Francis, and this, with one powerful ice-breaker 
at Quebec, would effectively keep the ship channel open. 
The ice-problem thus solved, Montreal would inevitably 
become one of the greatest seaports in the world. 

We have received from the author reprints of two papers 
bv Mr. E. A. Birge, published in the Transactions of the 
Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, .Arts, and Letters. In the 
first Mr. Birge discusses a hitherto unregarded factor in 
lake temperatures. The heat of the sun is mostly delivered 
to the surface strata of a lake, and distributed to the depths 
by various agencies, chief of which is the wind. The 
efficiency of the wind as a distributing agent is opposed 
and limited by thermal resistance to mixture offered by 
the decreased density of the warmed surface water, and 
Mr. Birge brings forward evidence to show that the 
effectiveness of this thermal resistance increases as the 
temperature of the water departs from the temperature of 
maximum density, and decreases as it approaches 4° C. 
The second paper contains a review of the evidence adduced 
by Wedderburn in favour of the existence of temperature 
seiches in lakes, which leaves the author unconvinced. 

Mr. T. S. Ellis has published a pamphlet on " The 
Winding Course of the River Wye " (Gloucester ; Bellows, 
price IS.), in which he expresses his views on the origin 
of adjacent river-systems. He regards valleys divided by 
cols at their heads as having originally formed a continuous 
channel, the two sections becoming separated when main 
systems tended to develop on either side. He does not 
seem to appreciate sufKciently the effects of rain, frost, 
and continual land-slide action in the cutting back of 
valley-heads, but represents geologists as attributing the 
removal of cols solely to erosion by the young streams 
flowing from them. On p. 9 he comes very near to the 
bold suggestion of Mr. A. W. Rogers, that a winding rock- 
ravine may record the original meanders of the river in 
alluvium at a higher level. 

The natur^ of intermetallic compounds is discussed by 
Dr. T. Slater Price in vol. iii. of the Proceedings of the 
Birmingham Metallurgical Society, which has made a 
somewhat belated appearance. The paper in question was 
read in January, 1909, and contains a list of 120 of these 
curious compounds, more of which are described every 
month. Among the laws of their formation, it is claimed 
that the metals forming a sub-group of the periodic system 
do not form compounds with each other, and, further, that 
any particular metal either enters into combination with 
all the metals of a sub-group or else it does not form 
compounds with any of them. Those sub-groups in which 
there is a change from metalloid to metal, as in the case 
of -As, Sb, Bi, form an exception to the rule. The valencies 
of the metals in their compounds seldom correspond with 
the ordinary valencies, only thirty bodies out of the 120 
enumerated showing this agreement, and of these, twelve 
are compounds of antimony, which approaches the metal- 
loids in its characteristics. Among the compounds there 
are some very remarkable formulae, for which no explana- 
tion is offered. For example, the formulae NaZn,,, 
NaCdj, FeZn„ NiCd.„ and AuSb, have a strange appear- 
ance. Among other summaries of the state of knowledge 
on particular subjects, there are interesting articles by 
Mr. -A. H. Hiorns on copper-nickel alloys, and by Prof. 
Arnold on the testing of metals. 



84 



NATURE 



[July 21, 19 10 



The problem of determining the vertital motion of the 
air during a balloon ascent is complicated by the fact that 
the balloon itself is in motion. Measurement of the varia- 
tion of the barometric pressure at the balloon has, how- 
ever, proved a trustworthy means of determining the vertical 
motion of the balloon, and the further problem of record- 
ing the relative vertical motion of the air with respect to 
the balloon appears to have been satisfactorily solved by 
an instrument described by Mr. P. Ludevig in the 
Physikalische Zeitschyift for June 15. It consists of light 
anemometer vanes which can rotate about a vertical axis. 
The spindle carries a thin, hollow brass cylinder through 
which six holes are punched, each pair at opposite extremi- 
ties of a diameter, two near the top, two near the middle, 
and two near the bottom of the cylinder. The diameters 
are inclined at 60° to each other. Light can pass through, 
say, the central pair of holes when they happen to be in 
the direct line between a source and a moving strip of 
photographic paper, and a spot is registered. According 
to the direction of rotation of the cylinder, the spot next 
registered may be the upper or lower, and the speed of 
rotation determines the distance between the spots. An 
examination of the strip allows the speed of the air with 
respect to the balloon at any instant to be calculated if 
the speed of the strip is known. 

The Ontario Government announces that the system 
organised for the distribution of power from the Niagara 
Kails will be in operation for the supply of Toronto, 
London, and St. Thomas by the end of the year. The 
most distant of these places is about 100 miles from the 
Falls, and the transmission will be at 100,000 volts. The 
■electrical energy will be bought from the existing Canadian 
generating stations by the various municipalities, which 
will effect the distribution by new transmission lines 
extending over a wide area. By this means cheap power 
will be available for manufacturing and agricultural pur- 
poses, and it is hoped that a network of new tramways 
will be constructed which will not only improve travelling 
facilities, but also act as a means of bringing agricultural 
produce to the towns. A system of distribution of this 
kind should be of particular value in Canada, seeing that 
the supply cf coal is deficient. The municipalities will 
not themselves own the tramways, lighting and power com- 
panies, but private companies will be formed to effect the 
final distribution of the power, and the control of the price 
charged to the consumer will rest with the municipalities 
in virtue of their ownership of the transmission lines. The 
-cost of carrying out the above scheme will be defrayed by 
an issue by the Provincial Legislature cf bonds redeemable 
at the end of forty years. 

Messrs. Townson and Mercer have submitted for our 
inspection a technical thermometer based on a novel prin- 
ciple. This consists of a metallic bulb containing liquid, 
and connected by narrow copper tubing with a pressure 
gauge. The gauge index responds to the variations in 
pressure of the contained vapour, and this depends upon 
the temperature of the bulb. The dial of the gauge can 
therefore be graduated in degrees instead of pressures, and 
is thus made into a direct-reading thermometer. The 
Indications may, of course, be automatically recorded, as 
in the case of an ordinary aneroid barometer. The indica- 
tions depend only upon the temperature of the bulb ; they 
are independent of the temperature of the gauge, which 
may hr any distance away, the air in the capillary tubing 
forming the connecting link which transmits the pressure 
of the vapour in the bulb. Damage to the bulb or capillary 
tube docs not interfere with the accuracy of the indications ; 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



the bulb and tube may, in fact, be twisted or bent in any 
way which leaves them intact and does not prevent free 
communication of the vapour pressure. It will be seen 
at once that the thermometer possesses qualities which no 
other thermometer of the same simplicity can claim, and 
the result is that it is rapidly being adopted in works of 
all kinds where long-distance thermometry is advantageous. 
For e.xample, in a single cabin of a ship may be dials 
indicating the temperature in any part of the hold, in 
powder magazines, coal-bunkers, refrigerating chambers, 
&c. Humidity is indicated by employing a pair, wet and 
dry, in the ordinary way. Its use in indicating the tempera- 
ture of superheated steam has caused it to be adopted by 
all railways in France and by many other railways on the 
Continent. These thermometers are made of very various 
ranges, from —25° C. to -1-25° C, up to 450° C. to 700° C. 
This system of temperature 'ndication is known as the 
" Fournier " system. 

The Journal of the Franklin Institute for June contains 
an article by E. E. Free on the phenomena of floccula- 
tion and deflocculation, a discussion of the mechanics of 
suspension, a subject of importance in the treatment of 
sewage, in ore separation, and many other commercial 
problems. The physical production of light forms the 
subject of a paper by E. P. Hyde, and is dealt with from 
the points of view of the laws of radiation and of physio- 
logical optics. There are also articles on Brennan's mono- 
rail car, the colloid nature of complex inorganic acids, 
and the Lumi6re process of colour photogra{)hy. 

The Bulletin de la Sociiti d' Encouragement pour 
I'Industrie nationale for May contains a paper by J. H. 
Ricard on the pine forests of the Landes. Full details 
are given, with numerous photographic illustrations, of the 
methods now employed for the e.xtraction of the resin 
(gemme), and the extraction of essence of turpentine and 
rosin from the latter. Figures are given showing the yield 
of pine wood per hectare, and the proportions of the wood 
suitable for various uses. The financial aspect of the 
industry is dealt with fully, and the great advantages of 
the cultivation of the pine in these sandy districts pointed 
out. 

The electrolytic conductivity of non-aqueous solutions at 
low temperatures is the subject of a paper by P. Walden 
in the current number of the Zeitschrift fiir physibalische 
Chemie (June 17). Twelve organic solvents were used, 
tetraethylammoniura iodide and tetrapropylammonium 
iodide being used for the " normal electrolytes," the 
observations in each case being carried down to the freez- 
ing of the solvent. The general result of the work shows 
that, as with aqueous solutions, the conductivity curve does 
not cut the temperature axis with a measurable angle ; in 
other words, there is no definite temperature of conductivity. 

The 22,000-ton floating dock lor the Brazilian Govern- 
ment is illustrated in the Engineer for July 8. This dock 
has been built by Messrs. Vickers, Sons and Maxim, 
Barrow-in-Furness, at a cost of 182,700/., and is the largest 
dock of the kind built as yet in this country. The contract 
time for delivery at Rio Janeiro was eleven months. The 
contract was placed on October 4 last, and the dock 
sections were launched on June 7, 8, and 9. The designs 
were prepared by Messrs. Clark and Standfield, of London, 
who have already been responsible for sixty-seven floating 
docks having an aggregate lifting capacity of 486,61)1 tons. 
The present dock is surpassed by the 35,500-ton dock built 
last vear by Blohm and Voss at Hamburg. Its lifting 
capacity will also be exceeded by two box-type docks now 



July 21, 19 10] 



NATURE 



building at Portsmouth and Sheerness for the British 
Admiralty, which are expected to be ready for service 
during the autumn of next year. 

The aerial-propeller testing plant at Vickers' Works, 
Barrow-in-Furness, is illustrated in Engineering for July 8. 
The apparatus consists of a double cantilever, i66 feet in 
length, the longer arm, at the end of w^hich the propeller 
under test is mounted, being no feet in length. The 
cantilever is carried on ball-bearings on a cast-iron column, 
and the propeller is driven from a lOo horse-power electric 
motor situated in a test house which is arranged on the 
cantilever near the supporting column. The power is 
conveyed to the propeller by means of a long shaft passing 
along the cantilever, and bevel gear. The cantilever may 
revolve at any speed up to 70 miles per hour at the point 
of attachment of the propeller. The structure is balanced 
by a weight on the shorter arm of the cantilever. There 
is a method of compensating the circular motion of the 
propeller so that the conditions are similar to those of a 
ship running in a straight line through the air. The 
piopeller may be run at speeds from 500 to 1000 revolu- 
tions per minute, and its speed through the air can be 
regulated by means of resistance screens. Measurements 
of thrust, efTiciency, &c., are recorded in the observation 
station. Provision has been made for attaching a gondola 
to the platform ahead of the propeller, so as to obtain 
similar conditions to those on an air-ship having the 
propeller astern of the gondola. With characteristic solici- 
tude for the advancement of science generally, Messrs. 
\'ickers will place the apparatus at the disposal of 
investigators, so that any type of propellers may be tested. 

Meteorologists, teachers of practical geography, and 
others will all find Messrs. Aitchison and Co. 's catalogue, 
."Section iv., useful and interesting. It is concerned chiefly 
with barometers, thermometers, rain gauges, compasses, 
and pedometers ; and the excellent illustrations and clearly 
arranged letterpress make reference easy and pleasant. 

.■\ THIRD edition of Prof. Ch. Moureu's " Notions fonda- 
mentales de Chimie organique " has been published by ^L 
Gauthicr-Villars, of Paris. The first edition of the work 
was reviewed in our issue of January 22, 1903 (vol. Ixvii., 
p. 269), and it is only necessary to state that the present 
volume has been revised and brought up to date. 

" African- Mlmetic Butterflies " is the title of a mono- 
graph by Mr. H. Eltringham which the Oxford University 
I'less is about to publish. Descriptions and illustrations 
are given of the principal known instances of mimetic 
resemblances in the Rhopalocera of the Ethiopian region, 
together with an explanation of the Miillerian and Batesian 
theories of mimicry. 

\ VALUABLE Supplement of seventy pages, dealing with 
Japan in all its aspects, was published with Tuesday's 
Times (July 19). .^mong the numerous important articles 
we notice in particular those on education, seismology, and 
volcanoes, by Baron Kikuchi, Prof. F. Omori, and Mr. E. 
Rruce-Mitford respectively. The publication, as part of a 
daily newspaper, of such a vast amount of detail and 
description relating to Japan as is given in the articles and 
tables is a remarkable enterprise. The supplement con- 
tams more information upon the position and progress of 
Japan than can be found in many books. 
^^ A second edition of Prof. Armstrong's book of essays, 
" The Teaching of Scientific Method and other Papers on 
Education," has been published by Messrs. Macmillan and 
Co., Ltd. The first edition was reviewed at length in our 
.\0. 2125, VOL. 84] 



issue of January 2S, 1904 (vol. Ixix., p. 2S9), and it wilF 
be sufficient to direct attention to the additions made in 
the present volume. Prof. Armstrong has introduced a 
prefatory essay entitled " Twenty-five Years Later," in 
which he considers the changes that have taken place in 
the teaching of science in schools during the period to- 
which his essays relate. He has added two contributions ; 
one, " The Correlation of Mathematical Teaching with 
other Work in Schools," was part of a report presented' 
to the British Association at its York meeting, and the 
other, " .A Criticism of School Method, with Suggestions 
for its Improvement," was delivered as an address to the 
Portsmouth Secondary Education League. 

The following volumes of the " Fauna of British India" 
series are nearing completion : — Mr. G. J. Arrow's volume 
on the Cetoniinse and Dynastinfe is practically ready for 
publication. Mr. W. L. Distant's volume, an appendix to 
the Rhynchota, and Canon W. W. Fowler's work on the 
CicindelidsE and Paussidje, with a general introduction to 
the Coleoptera, are in the press. The remaining volumes 
which the editor, Mr. \. E. Shipley, with the assistance of 
Mr. Guy A. K. Marshall, and with the sanction of the 
Secretary of State for India, has arranged for in this series 
are : — Volumes on the Orthoptera (Acridiid^ and Locus- 
tidae), Mr. W. F. Kirby ; Butterflies (LycsenidEe and' 
Hesperidae), Mr. H. H. Druce ; the Curculionidae, Mr. 
G. A. K. Marshall; /the Ichneumonidae, Mr. Claude 
Morley ; the Longicorn Beetles, Mr. C. J. Gahan ; the 
BlattidjE, Mr. R. Shelford ; the Helicids, Lieut. -Colonel' 
H. H. Godwin-.Austen ; the Ixodidae and Argasidre, Mr. C. 
Warburton ; Leeches, Mr. W. A. Harding ; Fresh-water 
Sponges and Polyzoa and Hydrida, Dr. N. Annandale ; the 
Mcloid^, Mr. Creighton Wellman ; the Brachyurous 
Crustacea, Lieut.-Colonel .A. Alcock ; and the Nemocera- 
(excluding the Chironomidae and the Culicidfe), Mr. E. 
Brunetti. 

The annual report of the Board of Scientific Advice for 
India for 1908-9 has been received. The attention of the 
Board has been directed to the fact that the rapid increase 
in the number of scientific institutions throughout the 
world is rendering it more difficult to obtain back numbers 
of the more important scientific periodicals, and that unless 
efforts are made now to secure complete sets of some of 
these for India it will be impossible at a later date to 
establish efficient libraries for the requirements of scientific 
research in India. The Board, on the advice of a sub- 
committee appointed to deal with the question, has recorp- 
mended the Government to maintain " first-class " general 
reference libraries in Bengal, Bombay, Burma, Madras, the 
Punjab, and the United Provinces, and " second-class " 
libraries in large towns like Cawnpore, Mandalay, Nagpur, 
Simla, and so on. Lists of scientific periodicals which 
should be maintained in all " first-class " libraries and in 
" second-class " libraries accompanied the recommenda- 
tions. The programmes of the various scientific depart- 
ments of Government for the ensuing year were, after 
some revision, approved by the Board. In connection with 
the work of the Meteorological Department, it is proposed 
to make a series of balloon flights next December, the 
month chosen by the International Commission in Europe 
and America for simultaneous experiments on the condi- 
tions of the upper air. It is hoped, too, that the publication 
of the si.tty years' records in connection with terrestrial' 
magnetism at Colaba will be completed during the current 
year. The Department of Agricultural Bacteriology hopes 
to attack, among other problems, the determination of the 
chief bacteria characteristic of Indian soils, particularly 
those taking part in the fixation of nitrogen, the rotting- 



86 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



ot organic material, and nitrification. In ottier depart- 
ments interesting researcli worlc is being pursued actively. 
Verv complete reports of the work done during the year 
igoS-c) in each of the scientific departments is included in 
the volume ; to name a few, that dealing with astronomy 
and meteorology is by Dr. G. T. Walker, l'".R.S. ; that in 
geology by Sir Ihomas Holland, F.R.S. ; and in geodosy 
and geography by Colonel S. G. Burrard, R.E., F.R.S. 
.An appendi.\ on the economic investigations conducted at 
the Imperial Institute, by Dr. W. R. Dunstan, F.R.S., 
completes the volume. 



OVR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. 

PiioiOGRAPHS OF AuROR^E. — As an abstract from the 
Comptes rendus, we have received from the author, M. 
Carl Stormer, an interesting note on a photographic method 
of determining the altitudes of aurorse. The difticulty in 
obtaining such photographs is, of course, the extreme 
feebleness and the motion of the light, but, by using a 
cinematograph lens of 25 mm. diameter and 50 mm. focal 
length, in conjunction with Lumi^re's " violet " plates, M. 
Slbrmer succeeded in obtaining measurable images, some 
of which are reproduced in his note. By choosing two 
stations 4'3 km. apart and arranging for simultaneous 
exposures, data for determining the altitudes were secured. 
The four sets of photographs reproduced represent different 
forms of aurorse seen during March, and also show recog- 
nisable stars, so that the parallax of definite points is easily 
calculated. The heights determined are 166 km., between 
50 and (30 km., 190 km., and 120 km. respectively. 

Displacement of Spectral Lines at the Sun's Limb. — 
In spectroscopic determinations of the radial velocities of 
the various solar layers, a difficulty arises from the fact 
that various perturbations alter the wave-lengths of the 
lines considered, independently of the rotation. These sub- 
sidiary displacements have been ascribed to two causes, 
first, the effect of ascending currents in the solar atmo- 
sphere, and, secondly, to pressure effects. In order to 
decide which of these is the disturbing agent, M. A. Perot 
performed some delicate interferometer experiments which 
he. describes in No. i (July 4) of the Comptes rendus. In 
order to determine definitely the e.Kact point of the solar 
image under observation, M. Perot projected a 36 mm. 
image on to a copper plate ruled in millimetre squares, and 
having a circular hole, or a slit, o'l mm. broad at the 
centre ; thus only the radiations passing through this 
definite aperture reached his interferometer and spectro- 
scope. As a result of the experiments, M. Perot deduces, 
from the form of the curves of relative variation of wave- 
length obtained, that this relative variation is an effect of 
pressure, or density, and not of ascending currents. 

The Pressure of Light on Gases.— In No. 5, vol. 
xxxi., of the Astrophysical Journal, Dr. Lebedew describes 
a series of very ingenious and delicate e.xperiments by 
which he has been able to observe the effect of the pressure 
exerted by a beam of light on various gases. The 
apparatus is too complex to describe here, but, in effect, it 
consists of a small chamber in which the gas under 
examination is contained, and through which a beam of 
light can be projected in either direction. The pressure 
exerted by the light produces an excess of pressure in the 
gas at the farther end of the chamber, and this acts on a 
very delicate valve which is suspended on one arm of a 
torsion balance. From a large number of e.xperiments, in 
which other variable effects were eliminated. Dr. Lebedew 
succeeded in establishing experimentally the existence of 
the translatory force exerted by light upon gases, and also 
ill showing that these forces are directly proportional to 
the quantity of incident energy and to the absorption 
coefficients of the gas masses. As these experiments were 
made, with gases at atmospheric pressure, the numerical 
values determined cannot be applied directly to such 
cxcessivclv tenuous masses as are involved in the case of 



comets' tails, but they provide a satisfactory basis on' 
which further experimental work in this direction may be 
founded. 

The Determin.^tiox of Stellar Radial \"elocities. — 
In No. 5, vol. xxxi., of the Astrophysical Journal, Prof. 
Frost publishes a table of corrections to be applied to the 
previously published list of radial velocities of certain stars 
of the Orion type. The corrections are necessitated by the 
re-determination of the wave-lengths of the three silicon 
lines at \\ 4553. 4568, and 4575, for which Exner and 
Haschek's values were previously adopted. Prof. Frost's 
new measures give 4552'636, 4567'897, and 4574'79i as the 
correct wave-lengths, and this involves positive corrections 
of 7'5i km., 3'48 km., and 714 km., respectively, to plates 
reduced with Exner and Haschek's values. 

As Prof. Frost points out, finality in radial-velocity 
measures is hardly to be obtained ; the values must be 
amended as a greater accuracy in the determination of 
stellar wave-lengths is attained. Further, in the case of 
blended lines, such as the double helium line at \ 4472, a 
variation in the relative intensities of the two lines will 
considerably modify the results. This is especially effective 
when the adopted blend is uncertain, as in the case of the 
blending of lines of different elements which may vary 
considerably from one stellar type to another. Prof. Frost 
also publishes the data establishing the variable radial- 
velocity of Rigel, showing a variation from -|- 1 to -|-26km., 
and states that on one plate a faint component to the line 
at A 4472 was measured which gave a velocity of — 108 km. ; 
faint components were suspected in other instances. 

The same journal also contains some further notes by 
Prof. R. W. Wood on the determination of radial-velocities 
with objective prisms. After trying several other media for 
producing fiducial lines, he tried peroxide of chlorine, 
which, contained in a suitable cell, appears to answer very 
well. It gives absorption bands which are very well defined 
on the red edge, and in his 21-foot grating photographs 
can be measured to within o'02 A.U. ; with such bands, 
he suggests, radial velocities, of suitable stars, could be 
determined to within 2 or 3 kms. Unfortunately, the 
absorption bands cover most of the hydrogen lines, so that 
this absorbent could not well be used for first-type stars, 
although it is possible that \ 4863 and \ 3S37 would 
appear ; for other types a peroxide of chlorine screen 
apparently answers perfectly. 

Halley's Comet. — .\ number of observations are recorded 
in .istronomische Kachrichteii, No. 4425, but, in general, 
they do little more than confirm others previously noted. 

Herr G. Miiller gives an outline of the observations 
made, at great altitudes, in Teneriffe, and Herr W. Munch 
describes the general observations at Potsdam. The 
spectrographic observations made on May 19, from 4h. 55m, 
to 5h. lom. and from jh. 28m. to 5h. 30m. (M.E.T.), are 
described by Herr v. d. Pahlen, but no modification of the 
normal solar spectrum was discovered. The slit covered 
35' of arc, and two scries of six exposures on the predicted 
positions of the comet on the sun's disc were made, so that 
a large area of th" solar surface was covered without 
revealing any trace of the comet. 

An observ^ation by Dr. Ristenpart, at Santiago de Chile, 
on July I showed the comet as a nebulous mass i' in 
diameter, with no condensation, and with a tail 2° long. 

Harvard College Observatory. — In his report for the 
year ending September 30, 1909, Prof. E. C. Pickering 
deplores the diminution of 5000 dollars in the income of 
the Harvard College Observatory, and points out that a 
disproportionate decrease will have to be expected in the 
amount of work accomplished. As in previous years, a 
great number of negatives of stellar regions and stellar 
spectra were added to the magnificent collection now 
stored at Harvard, and a number of important discoveries 
were made from the Draper memorial photographs. 
Seven meteor trails were found on chart plates, and at 
Arequipa the spectrum of a very bright meteor was 
secured. At this southern station the work was sadly 
upset by unusually had weather, but, among other things, 
the spectra of more than 400 stars of magnitudes 5-6 
were secured with the i3-inch Boyden telescope. 



NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



July 21, 19 10] 



NATURE 



87 



COLOUR OF THE SEA. 

■ fPROPOS of the report (Nature, March lo) of Lord 
■^ Rayleigh's lecture deahng with the parts played by 
reflection and transmission of light in the production of 
the integral impression of colour on the eye of an observer 
looking at the sea from the deck of a ship, I should like 
to be permitted to make some observations on the proper 
colour of the water of the ocean, as it is a subject which 
has occupied my attention, off and on, during the last 
fortv years. 

During the voyage of the Challenger I began to log the 
colour of the water in February, 1S74, when she was 
working in the neighbourhood of the Antarctic circle. My 
attention was there directed to it by the frequent and 
abrupt passage of the ship from water of the clear indigo 
colour of the ocean of temperate latitudes to the deep 
olive-green water which is a distinctive feature of these 
icy regions. 

The colour is due to the abundance of diatoms. These 
are. so plentiful and so preponderant that, besides putting 
their stamp on the surface, they furnish a distinct type of 
oceanic deposit, the diatom-ooze. The green colour of 
the water is due, not only to the living diatoms, but also, 
and perhaps to a greater extent, to the excretions of the 
animals for the subsistence of which the diatoms furnish 
the ultimate food supply. The crowds of penguins and 
other birds to be met with in these seas stain all the ice 
green where they have rested. The water, inhabited by 
diatoms and affected by diatomaceous debris, has a deep 
olive-green colour which is characteristic, and this I 
accepted as one colour-type of the water of the ocean. 
It is seen best in the water the transparency of which is 
not interfered with by too great a crowd of the diatoms 
themselves. Water belonging to this type of colour is not 
confined to polar latitudes ; it is met with in a certain 
class of homologous districts of the warmer ocean, in 
tropical and even in equatorial latitudes. 

When we quit the edge of the polar ice and steer equator- 
wards, the surface water assumes a pronounced indigo 
colour, and this persists until we pass the fortieth parallel. 
If we start from the equator and sail polewards, the 
colour of the surface water persists as a pure and brilliant 
ultramarine until the thirtieth parallel is passed. The 
passage from the ultramarine to the indigo, and -jice 
versa, is usually very rapid, and the area of mix- 
ture is restricted. No one who has once sailed in the 
ultramarine waters of the intratropical ocean and has 
observed, as well as seen, its colour, can ever mistake 
any other colour for it. If he has doubt as to whether 
the water through which he is passing is ultramarine or 
not, he may be sure that it is not. The ultramarine and 
the indigo are the two great colour-types to which the 
mass of the surface water of the deep sea belongs, and, 
with the olive-green, they make the three fundamental 
colour-types which are required, and are sufficient for the 
adequate logging of the colour of the surface water of 
the ocean. 

The water of the Mediterranean belongs to the ultra- 
marine type, but it always appears to me to have a 
harder tone than the soft and brilliant ultramarine of the 
intratropical ocean. 

With regard to the method of judging the colour of the 
water, much unnecessary difficulty is made. The first 
precaution to be observed is to take up a position where 
the greatest amount of light can reach the eye after pass- 
ing through the water, and the smallest amount after being 
reflected from its surface. There is generally little 
diflficulty in accomplishing this on one side or the other of 
the ship and by looking as nearly as possible vertically into 
the water. 

The Challenger, like other men-of-war of her date, was 
fully rigged, and built for sailing as well as for steaming. 
\\ hen under sail the propeller causes a certain amount of 
retardation, and to remedy this she was fitted with a 
" screw-well " into which the propeller could be hoisted 
out of the water. This proved to be a perfect observation 
tube for determining Jhe proper colour of the water. Its 
diameter was about 6 feet : it passed from the upper deck 
through the captain's cabin on the main deck and the 
ward-room on the lower deck into the water. Looked 
into from the deck, the sea water appeared to be enclosed 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



in it as the water is in a well, but with this difference, 
that the water, by day, was brilliantly illuminated from 
below. There being no clearance between the surface of 
the water in the well and the structure of the ship, no 
light could enter except through the water. No direct 
sky-light could reach it down the well, because the poop 
awning, which was practically always spread during the 
dav, completely excluded it. The screw-well was, in 
effect, an artificial and perfected Grotto di Capri, which 
was carried round the world. It was perfected, inasmuch 
as there is a passage for boats to penetrate into the grotto 
from the outside, while the screw-well is entirely shut off. 
During the whole of the voyage th'e colour ot the water 
was under observation in this very perfect apparatus. 

The statement that the blue colour of the sea is nothing 
but the reflection of the blue of the sky was at first fre- 
quently made, even on days when the sky was completely 
overcast ; a visit to the screw-well, especially on overcast 
days, never failed to convince the doubter that the water 
contained in its own mass sufficient colour to account for 
all that was perceived. When the ship was in green water 
the view was never advanced that its colour was due to 
reflection from the sky. 

.'\s ships with screw-wells long ago disappeared from 
the sea, it may not be superfluous to point out that 
what could be observed in the screw-well was altogether 
different from what can be seen in the wake of the screw 
of a modern steamer. While the screw-well was a per- 
fect instrument for gauging the colour of the water, the 
determination of its transparency was more conveniently 
made from a boat. Thus in mid-Pacific, with the aid of 
a " water-glass " to eliminate the disturbing action of 
ripples, a metal plate measuring only 4 by 4 inches, 
painted white and not masked by the suspending line, 
was distinctly seen at a depth of 25 fathoms (45 metres). 
Beyond this depth it became indistinct, and became 
invisible at about 27 fathoms, but this was due mainly to 
its smallness and to its want of steadiness, being attached 
to the boat, which rose and fell with the swell. .■\t 25 
fathoms the plate had a pale ultramarine colour, and its 
edges were sharply defined. These separated the column 
of water, into which I looked through the water-glass, into 
a central column of rectangular section having a depth of 
25 fathoms, and into a column, surrounding and contiguous 
with it, which had a depth many times greater. These 
columns, being juxtaposed, were placed in the way most 
favourable for the comparison of their colours. The colour 
of the central column, 25 fathoms in length, was a pure but 
pale uhramarine ; that of the external and uninterrupted 
column through which the whole unabsorbed and _un- 
dissipated part of the sunlight which had penetrated into 
the water returned to the surface was of the same torie, 
but of many times greater intensity, .'\ssuming the in- 
tensity of the colour to be proportional to the length of 
the column of water traversed by the light, it is to 
be concluded that the length of the uninterrupted column 
which transmitted the more intense colour was many times 
greater than 25 fathoms. It must be noted that the glass 
plate forming the bottom of the small tub, which is called 
a " water-glass," was during the observation completely 
protected from direct sky-light by my head and the brim 
of the panama hat which, at that time, I always wore 
when exposed to the sun. 

It has already been said that water of as pure a green 
as that of the Antarctic occurs in other and warmer dis- 
tricts of the ocean. My attention was first directed to 
this during the cruise of the Dacia, which, akhough it 
occupied no more than three weeks, marks an_ epoch in 
deep-sea research. A short account of it is given in a 
paper by me — " On Oceanic Shoals discovered in SS. Dacia 
in October, 188^ "—and published in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Societv of Edinburgh, 1S85, xiii., p. 74S. Perhaps 
the most remarkable of these shoals was the one which 
was named the " Coral Patch," in lat. 34° 57' N., long. 
11° 57' W., the exploration of which, along with that of 
the tidal currents in the open ocean (Proc. Roy. Soc, 1SS8, 
xliii., p. 3^6), supplied the evidence which definitively estab- 
lished the 'fact that coral islands are a product of elevation 
and not of subsidence. 

When the survey of this shoal had been completed, in 
so far as the time at the disposal of a steamer engaged on 
a commercial mission permitted, a line of soundings was 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



run from the "Patch" to the African coast at Mogador. 
Independently of the high land which is visible from the 
sea at a distance of many miles, the approach to the 
■coast is indicated by a fall in the temperature of the 
water of the sea surface, and a remarkable change in its 
colour. Outside, the temperature of the surface water 
was 21° C, and its colour was ultramarine. After sight- 
ing^ the land its temperature fell, at first slowly, then 
rapidly, and, when at a distance of two miles from 
Mogador, it was only i6° C. The colour at the same time 
had become a pure olive-green, which maintained its 
transparency until close to the shore, where it became 
masked by the solid matter kept continually in suspension 
by the mechanical energy of the breaking waves. 

The pure green colour of the water and its tempera- 
ture, so much lower than that which could persist at the 
-■iurface of the sea in the latitude of Mogador, made me 
for a moment think that it might be in reality Antarctic 
water which had found its way, at or near the bottom, 
into the northern hemisphere, having been diverted first 
to, the west while in the South Atlantic, then to the east 
after crossing the line. But this idea could persist only for 
a moment, because the temperature and the density of the 
bottom water were found to be those characteristic of the 
bottom water of the eastern basin of the North Atlantic, as 
shown by the Challenger observations, and these are much 
higher than those of any other ocean. 

The low temperature of the water showed that it could 
not_ come on the surface from the north or south or west 
of it, and the only source from which it could come was 
from below the surface. Deep water comes close to the 
coast, and the water at 2000 fathoms was found to have 
a temperature of 2-5° C, so that the supply of cold 
from this source was adequate, and it was available 
with a very small expenditure of energy. Arrived at the 
surface and following the south-westerly drift of the 
surface water, exposure to the sun raised the temperature 
of the water and discharged its colour pari passu. It was 
evident that there was here a case of the rising of deep 
water at the weather coast of an ocean, away from which 
the prevailing wind was continually driving the surface 
water. 

From Mogador the Dacia proceeded to the " Seine 
Bank," in lat. 33° 47' N., long. 14° i' W., and explored 
it thoroughly. Among the specimens brought up on the 
grapnel were masses of dead coral and shells, all baring 
the same green colour. Some of these fragments were 
preserved in spirit, which quickly assumed the green colour, 
leaving the shells and coral practically decolourised. I 
sent the bottle, with the specimens and. spirit, to mv 
friend Prof. W. N. Hartley, in Dublin, who was good 
enough to subject them to spectroscopic examination. He 
wrote to me on February 15, 1884 : — " I have made a 
spectroscopic exammation of the colouring matter vou sent 
me and have no doubt that it is altered chlorophyll. I 
have got identical wave-length measurements for the 
abson-irion band with your liquid and a specimen of very 
pure t..;t,.-ophylI dissolved in ether "; and he adds, " there 
is very little real substance in even a dark green solution." 

As the year 1884 belongs now to the remote past, I 
recalled the matter to Prof. Hartley, and, confirming his 
previous information, he added : — " I believe my impression 
at the time was that the chlorophyll was the colouring 
matter in a living micro-organism, and that these settled 
upon the shells, but when not deposited they were floating 
in the sea water." I am obliged to Prof. Hartley for 
kindly permitting me to use these private communications. 
Further information will be found in his paper on chloro- 
phyll from the deep sea (Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin., 1885, 
xiii., 130). 

Prof. Hartley's report furnished a remarkable confirma- 
tion of my first impression in so far as it showed that 
the green water of the Mogador coast owed its colour to 
the sarrie substance as did the diatom-crowded water of the 
.Antarctic, namely, chlorophyll. 

In April and May of 1885 I made a coasting voyage 
from Valparaiso to San Francisco. Excepting the equa- 
torial part, stretching from Cape Blanco to Panama and 
round the coast of Central America to near Mazatlan, the 
west coast of the American continent between the fortieth 
parallels is the weather shore of the Pacific Ocean. All 
tilong it cold and green water is met with, in the same 
NO. 2I2i^, VOL. 84] 



way as we have seen to be the case on the Atlantic coast 
of Morocco. On the South .American coast the green 
water was found to extend, with few interruptions, from 
Valparaiso, lat. 33'' S., to Cape Blanco, lat. 4" 27' S. As 
on the Morocco coast, the green colour and the low tempera- 
ture of the water are found only close to the shore. At a 
distance of ten miles outside the colour is blue, and the 
temperature normal for the latitude. There can be little 
doubt that, as the localities where the green water occurs 
are geographically homologous, so the substance which 
produces the colour is generically the same, namely, 
chlorophyll. 

The following particulars are taken from my unpublished 
journal. The only ports or anchorages where the water 
was blue were Huasco, lat. 28° 27' S., temperature of the 
surface water 14- 7° C, and Carizal, lat. 28° 5' S., tempera- 
ture 15-1° C. The occurrence in this latitude of blue 
water with so low a temperature is very remarkable. 

At .Antafogasta, lat. 23° 39' S., the water was greenish- 
blue, and its temperature was i8-o° C. Between this port 
and Iquique the ship's course took her to a distance of 
nearly twenty miles from the coast, and there the colour 
of the water was ultramarine and its temperature 2I-2'' C. 
At Iquique the water was quite green, and its tempera- 
. ture 17° C. Between this port and Arica the water was 
quite green, even at a distance of five miles from the 
coast, where the temperature was 19-5° C, but on anchor- 
ing at Pisagua, lat. 19" 36' S., the temperature of the 
water was only 15-2° C. At Arica, lat. 18° 28' S., the 
water was equally green, but its temperature was I9'S° C. 
Arica lies in the angle where the trend of the coast changes 
from north to about north-west. From Arica the ship 
made a longer run to Chala, lat. 15° 49' S., keeping at a 
distance of fifteen to twenty miles from the coast. Here 
ultramarine water was met with, its temperature 
rising to 23>2° C, but even at fifteen miles from this 
coast some green water was met with having a tempera- 
ture of iSS° C. I attributed this to the foggy state ot the 
atmosphere which prevailed. This obscured the sun, and 
retarded both the heating and the bleaching of the water. 
In lat. 14° 8' S., when six miles off shore, the water was 
quite green, and Its temperature I5'i° C. Outside of 
Callao, lat. 12° o' S., the water was green, and its tempera- 
ture 16-3° C. ; in the harbour its temperature was 17-5° C, 
and its colour a dirty green, turbid and milky with sulphur, 
smelling strongly of sulphuretted hydrogen, and full of 
dead fish. Continuing northwards, off Ferrol Islands, 
lat. 9° 11' S., the temperature of the water was i6-o° C, 
and its colour olive-green. At Payta, lat. 5° 5' S., the 
temperature of the water was 17- 1° C, and its colour a 
chalky green. , 

The green and cold shore water ceased abruptly at 
Cape Blanco, lat. 4° 27' S., and during the passage round 
this cape from Payta to the entrance of the Guayaquil 
River, lat. 3° 9' S., the temperature of the water rose 
from 17' 1° to 252° C. From this locality a pretty straight 
line was followed across the equatorial current near its 
source to Panama, lat. 9° o' N. During the passage the 
( temperature of the water varied between 25° and 27° C, 
and it maintained a blue colour throughout. .At Panama, 
however, with a temperature of 27° C, the w-ater was 
quite green. 

\ similar occurrence of cold and green water near the 

shore was observed on the North American coast from 

Cape San Lucas, at the extremity of the Californian 

peninsula, to San Francisco. In the equatorial waters 

I which wash the coast from Cape Blanco, lat. 4° 27' S., 

to Panama, and thence to Cape Corrientes, lat. 20° 25' N., 

long. 105° 43' W., green water is prevalent along the 

I shore, but Its temperature is very high, 28° or 29" C. 

I Further information on this subject will be found in a 

• paper by me on similarities in the physical geography of 

the great oceans (Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 

Society, 1886, viii., p. 753). 

j I will here refer to only one other locality, and that a 

I well-known one, where the weather shore of an ocean is 

i associated with green water of abnormally low tempera- 

j ture. namely, the east coast of North .America from 

Florida to Nova Scotia. The cold and green water which 

' Is found on this coast, and lying between It and the 

western edge of the Gulf Stream, is usually attributed to 

' the Labrador current, which Is charged with the duty of 



July 21, 19 10] 



NATURE 



bringing cold water from Baffin's Bay as a surface current 
round Newfoundland and down the coast to Cape Hatteras 
and even beyond it. The principle was the same as that 
which moved Humboldt to attribute the cold water, which 
we have described in connection with the Pacific coast of 
tropical South America, to a surface current from the 
Antarctic Ocean. In the p^per on similarities, &c., above 
referred to, I showed that Humboldt's explanation 
postulated an impossibility. The deeper layers of the 
water on the coast itself are capable ai supplying, as and 
when required, much more cold than is wanted, and that 
with the least expenditure of energy. The same is the 
case with the "cold wall." BesMes the south-westerly 
winds of the North Atlantic, and perhaps independently of 
them, the Gulf Stream itself, pouring its waters in a 
stream of great momentum past the American coast and 
out into the open ocean, performs the function of a colossal 
jet-pump, carrying water away from the surface and 
leaving its place to be taken by the other water which can 
get there most easily. This is the cold water of the 
deeper layers in situ. It is this hydraulic cold-water 
service which tempers the climate of the eastern States. 
The labours of the U.S. Coast Survey during the last 
seventy years have shown that fluctuations, both regular 
and irregular, occur in the flow of the Gulf Stream. 
These necessarily react on the supply of cold water drawn 
from the deep and spread over the continental shelf. Such 
variations are probably the source of the accidents which 
occasionally occur and cause the extinction of life over 
large tracts of shoal water on that coast. 

J. Y. BtJClIANAN. 



REMNANTS OF THE FAST. 
A/r UCH interest attaches to a paper by Mr. R. S. Lull, 
•'■■'■ published in the " Proceedings of the Seventh Inter- 
national Zoological Congress, Boston, 1907 " (issued 1910), 
on the evolution of the horned dinosaurs, or Ceratopsia. 
.•\lthough early ancestral forms are at present unknown, 
it is probable that the group took origin from an iguano- 
dont stock. The earliest known types are Monoclonius 
and Ceratops of the Judith River beds, the single repre- 
sentative of the former being the more primitive, and 
probably ancestral to all the rest. In Monoclonius the 
orbital horns are much smaller than the nasal one, but 
in one species of Ceratops the two have become subequal ; 
both genera show large vacuities in the cervical flange of 
the skull, which was probably internal. Between the 
Judith River and Laramie formations occur certain marine 
formations yielding no dinosaurian remains, but in the 
basal Laramie occur Agathaumas, of which the skull is un- 
known. Higher up this is succeeded by Triceratops, in 
which the vacuities in the cervical flange are obliterated, 
while in the various species may be traced a gradual in- 
crease in the size of the orbital at the expense of the nasal 
horn, the latter becoming almost obsolete in T. elatiis, while 
it has disappeared in Diceratops, which forms a side-branch 
by itself. The remarkable genus Torosaurus of the Upper 
Laramie, although having developed large orbital horns at 
the expense of the nasal one, retains the long, straight 
skull, with a large vacuity in the cervical flange, of the 
Judith River Ceratops monatiis, from which it may be 
directly descended. Physical changes in their environment 
seem, in the author's opinion, the most probable cause of 
the extinction of these marvellous reptiles. 

In the April number of the American Journal of Science 
Mr. F. Loomis describes the complete skeleton of a new 
species of the camel-like genus Stenomylus from the 
Harrison beds of Nebraska. The genus differs from other 
Tertiary types by the hypsodont character of the dentition. 
This is considered by Mr. Loomis as an indication that 
Stenomylus differed from its relatives in habits. The 
early tylopods of the Protomeryx type probably fed on a 
mixed diet, while the members of the long-limbed Oxy- 
dactylus group may have subsisted on leaves and shoots, 
both retaining the original brachyodont dentition. Steno- 
mylus, on the other hand, seems to represent a separate 
branch derived from the ancestral Poebrotherium, which 
developed a hypsodorft dentition, and took to feeding on 
hard-stemmed grasses growing on open, arid plains. 

Dr. A. E. Ortmann contributes to the .\pril number of 
the American Naturalist an article on the theory that a 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



connection between Africa and South America persisted 
into the Tertiary. According to the Archelenis theory, as 
originally proposed by Dr. von Ihering, an ancient con- 
nection between the above-named continents was the last 
remnant of the much greater equatorial land-mass known 
as Gondwanaland, an area which was broken up at various 
dates, and remnants of which are represented by Australia, 
India, Africa, and Brazil. The separation of Brazil from 
Africa was the final stage in the dismemberment of the 
old continent, and it is generally considered that this took 
place towards the close of the Mesozoic epoch. A study of 
the Tertiary flora of Patagonia has, however, induced Dr. 
von Ihering to believe that Archelenis persisted into the 
Tertiary. It is argued, however, that the facts cited by 
von Ihering really lead to just the opposite conclusion, 
while the existence of marine Eocene deposits in many 
parts of West Africa is likewise an indication that the con- 
nection between the two continents had ceased. Accord- 
inglv, the evidence for a Tertiary Archelenis is considered 
valueless. 

Vol. vii.. No. 2, of the University of Colorado Studies 
is devoted to an account, by several aiithors, of the results- 
of a scientific expedition to north-western Colorado. Ire 
a paper on plant-remains from the Cretaceous of Mesa 
Verde, Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell describes and figures a 
fragment of a branch bearing a remarkable resemblance 
to the Palaeozoic lycopods of the Ulodendron type. U 
reallv belongs to an araucarian conifer (Geinitzia reicben- 
bach'i), but its resemblance to lycopods of an earlier period 
is highly significant in view of the probability of a real 
relationship between the two groups. 



NON-FERROUS METALS. 

IN many respects the second volume of tTie journal of the 
Institute of Metals marks a decided advance on the 
first volume— an advance which serves as a healthy sign 
of the continued growth of the institute. Perhaps the best 
sign of this advance is the inclusion, in the second volume, 
of^a series of abstracts of scientific and technical literature 
bearing upon the subjects which come within the scope of 
the institute. These abstracts fill what has hitherto been 
a decided gap in metallurgical literature ; they are 
obviously modelled on the very excellent abstracts of the 
literature of iron and steel which appeared in the Journal 
of the Iron and Steel Institute while that journal was 
under the editorship of the late Mr. Bennett Brough. 
Perhaps the most serious criticism to be offered on these 
abstracts is that thev are of too indiscriminate a character, 
mere descriptive papers of small permanent interest bemg 
accorded equal space with papers of real importance. 

The original papers, which, with the discussions, occupy 
the greater part of the second volume, have already been 
referred to in these pages on. the occasion of the meetmg 
at which thev were read. It is satisfactory to find that 
the discussion's show signs of free: and vigorous criticism, 
and that such criticism seems to be accepted by the authors 
in a kindlv spirit, even though ' at times the cnticisnis 
are practically destructive. Thus the first paper (Edwards 
and Andrew on aluminium-copper-tin alloys) is criticised 
on the ground that the data published do not afford 
sufficient insight into the facts upon which the authors 
base their conclusions. The paper of Prof. Turner and 
Mr. Murrav, on the volume-changes of the copper-zinc 
alloys, is also challenged as regards the validity of its 
conclusions on the ground— apparently justified— that the 
mere measurement of the longitudinal contraction ot a 
casting can give no true insight into the volume-changes 
which accompany the passage of the metal from the liquid 
to the solid state. More than eighty pages of the volume 
are devoted to the paper of Mr. A. C. M. Snriith on the 
elastic breakdown of non-ferrous metals, and although the 
subject presents certain points of interest, it appears to 
occupy a good deal more than its fair share of space m 
a journal not specially devoted to such questions as the 
best means of measuring elastic constants. The paper 
however, shows clearly the narrow limits within which 
Hooke's law is applicable to such metals as copper and 
aluminium; the latter appears to be particularly unsatis- 



1 The Journal of tlie In'tit.ite of MctaU, vol. ii. Pp. 341- Vol. 
Pp. xi + 360. Edited by G. Shaw-Scott, Secretary. 



90 



NATURE 



[July 12, 1910 



T' 



factory in this respect, and to carry this property with it 
into some of its alloys. 

The third volume of the same Journal more than main- 
tains the character of the earlier volume ; this applies 
particularly to such papers as those of Bengough and Hill 
on copper-arsenic alloys, and of Hudson and Law on the 
phosphor-bronzes, together with the discussions on these 
papers. Such work must prove of great importance to the 
advancement of the technology of whole classes of important 
alloys. 

Taken as a whole, the young Institute of Metals 
may well be proud of the present volumes, although 
we may hope that greater experience on the part of the 
editor and of the publication committee will lead to a more 
satisfactory apportionment of space. The illustrations 
throughout have been reproduced in a very satisfactory 
manner, and this applies also to the frontispiece, an excel- 
lent likeness of the first president, .Sir William H. White, 
although the portrait of the second president (Sir G. Muntz) 
is" not nearly so satisfactory. 



THE ASSOCIATION OF TECHNICAL 
INSTITUTIONS. 

Examinations for Evening Students. 

"HE summer meeting of the Association of Technical 
Institutions was held in Manchester last week. The 
question of examinations for evening students formed the 
basis of the discussion at the morning meeting on July 15, 
when Sir William Mather took the chair. At the present 
time examinations are held by the Board of Education in 
science subjects by the City and Guilds in technological 
subjects, and the Society of Arts in literary and fommercial 
subjecfs. The London Chamber of Commerce also holds 
examinations which overlap both those of the Board of 
Education and the Society of Arts — especially the latter — 
and there are many other smaller examining bodies. 

The Board of Education has for many years held 
examinations in mathematics, engineering, and building 
subjects, and in most of the sciences. Each examination 
is conducted by examiners appointed directly by the Board, 
and the examinations in each subject are independent, or 
nearly independent, of those in any other subject. The 
examiners have no official connection (and in most cases no 
"connection of any kind) with those responsible for instruc- 
tion in the subjects ; and even those on the staff of the 
Board who come into contact with the teachers and the 
students— namely, the inspectors — are not systematically 
consulted, if they are consulted at all. Thus, although the 
examinations in any given subject may be excellent, and 
have been valuable in developing a higher standard of work 
throughout the country, it was the unanimous opinion of 
those present at the meeting that they are capable of great 
improvement. 

Of late years most technical institutions have endeavoured 
to develop organised courses of instruction in connection 
with the important industries, engineering, textiles, build- 
ing, chemical, &c. For these courses it is desirable that 
the syllabus in the individual subjects shall be modified to 
suit the particular course. 

So far are the Board of Education examinations in many 
directions out of sympathy with the work that some 
speakers at the conference were doubtful whether the Board 
of Education was the best authority for conducting the 
examinations ; but the ineeting as a whole considered 
it desirable that the advanced work should be con- 
trolled by some national examining board in order that 
there should be a uniformity of standard, and thus the 
certificates obtained should have a common value ; but it 
was felt that the examinations must be' brought more 
closely into touch with the teaching, and it was resolved : — 

" That it be repreeenjted to the controlling authorities of 
the examinations taken by evening students in technical 
institutions that it is desirable, for the encouragement of 
systematic courses of instruction and to bring the examina- 
tions into closer correlation with technical teaching, that 
the examining authorities should constitute advisorv boards 
upon which representatives of teaching institutions (includ- 
ing tea.hers) and of technical and commercial interests 
should >it. 



" That it be the function of such advisory boards to 
receive and consider the views of persons directly concerned 
in technical and commercial education, as to examination 
subjects, syllabuses, and methods of conducting examina- 
tions ; and to advise the respective examination authorities 
thereon." 

An examination has a two-f^ld object — lo test knowledge 
and to grant a certificate — and the two are to some extent 
antagonistic ; the first, enabling the student and his teacher 
to judge of his progress, is probably best attained if the 
teacher himself conducts the examination. A certificate, 
however, granted on the examination of an individual 
teacher, can have no public value, and can only become 
valuable to the extent to which it attains uniformity. In 
the earlier stages of instruction the former object is of the 
greater importance, and therefore in the earlier stages it 
is probably desirable that the examinations shall be con- 
ducted by the teachers. In the latter stages it is more 
important that the certificates shall have a uniform value, 
and therefore in these stages it is desirable that the 
(■xaminations shall be conducted by a national body. Also, 
in the higher stages, the number of candidates who would 
be sitting for the examination in any given centre would be 
comparatively small, and the cost of a separate examina- 
tion for individual schools in these subjects would be 
prohibitive except in the very large centres ; so that, even 
if it were desirable that the examinations for the higher 
work should be conducted by the teachers, the financial 
burden would be too great in most cases. Thus the 
following resolutions were adopted : — 

" That this association is of opinion that, in the interests 
of technical education, it is essential that the Board of 
Education or other national authority shall continue to 
conduct examinations above Stage i Board of Education, 
and Preliminary Grade City and Guilds." 

" That examinations of an eleinentary character {e.g. 
Stage I Board of Education, Preliminary Grade City and 
Guilds, Elementary Stage Society of .Arts) should, in the 
main, be conducted by provincial boards, local education 
authorities, or the governing bodies of the institutions ; 
but that, pending the re-modelling of the examination 
system, the present examining boards should continue to 
hold these examinations." 

Even with the establishment of advisory boards there 
would still remain fhe evils arising from the overlapping 
and duplication of the examinations. At the present time 
the examinations of evening students begin in .April and 
last well into July, thus destroying the value of the last 
part of the session for teaching purposes. So long as 
examining bodies endeavour to arrange that any student 
may take any subject, it is obvious that the examinations 
will have to spread over a large period of time. With the 
establishment of the course system, it will be possible to a 
large extent to determine beforehand those subjects which 
a given student will require to be examined in, and thus to 
concentrate the examinations upon a much smaller number 
of evenings. So strongly was it felt that the whole system 
requires a very drastic reform that it was unanimously 
resolved to ask the Board of Education to appoint a com- 
mittee to inquire into the working of the present examina- 
tion svstems, including science, technology, and commerce. 

Trade Sclwols and Trade Preparatory Schools. 

.At the afternoon meeting, a report prepared by the 
council of the association on the above subject was dis- 
cussed. The report includes accounts furnished by the 
organisers of many of the schools which have recently 
been established in various .parts of the country. 

It is pointed out that there are two very distinct types of 
school with entirely different aims ; one, which in the report 
is termed, for want of better title. Trade Preparatory 
School, may be considered a form of secondary school in 
which the ordinary education is continued, but with a very 
distinct bias on the technical side. It is assumed that the 
majority of the boys, though not all necessarily, attending 
such a school will afterwards be engaged in some trade. 
The schools differ froin the ordinarv secondary schools in 
the large amount of time devoted to various forms of 
manual instruction. As a rule, the curriculum includes 
English, mathematics, one language, drawing — both free- 
hand and model — science, and workshop practice in wood 



NO. 212' 



VOL. 



84] 



July 21, 1910] 



NATURE 



91 



or meial, or both. The course is, as a rule, intended to 
last three vears for boys from twelve to fifteen years of age. 

As so many of the technical institutes throughout the 
country arc oiily used at present in the evenings, and have 
their rooms and equipment idle in the daytime, and the 
staffs of the technical schools are particularly suitable for 
the type of instruction required, these schools, which have 
proved exceedingly successful where they have so far been 
established, may be considerably increased in number in the 
near future. 

Attention was directed to the very strong expressions of 
approval by employers, the Chamber of Commerce, and 
trades unions in the case of the trade preparatory school, 
which is now in its third session at Halifax ; and as the 
beys from these schools pass into employment as apprentices 
or as improvers, the value of this kind of school is becoming 
more and more appreciated. 

One speaker pointed out the great value of manual in- 
struction to boys and girls rig-ht through their school 
course, and remarked — his remark being applauded by the 
meeting — that he hoped the board would do its best to 
encourage this work in every kind of school. 

Another speaker said that there are a great many boys 
to whom the literary subjects of the ordinary school course 
do not appeal, and to whom the more technical subjects 
introduced in the trade preparatory schools do appeal very 
strongly. Thus it is educationally of real advantage to the 
community that schools should be provided in which boys 
with a turn for mechanical subjects, but no liking for 
literary subjects, may have a chance to learn that they 
have some ability, and may not leave school with the feeling 
that they are inferior to their fellows because they are 
unable to distinguish themselves at literary work. 

Other speakers referred to the very small grant it is 
possible to obtain under the board's regulations for this type 
of school, which is necessarily an expensive one to run 
owing to the large amount of practical work in the time 
table. It was felt that the grant should be at least as 
great as that given by the board to an ordinary secondary 
school. 

Quite distinct in aim from the Trade Preparatory School 
is the Bay Trade School, only a few of which are at 
present in existence. In London there are day trade 
schools for girls which have proved most successful ; a 
good account of these is included in the report referred to. 
There are two special trade schools for bakery and con- 
fectionery ; there are one or two part-time trade schools 
for boys who are already employed in the trade, the boys 
being allowed to attend two or three afternoons a week 
by arrangement with the employers. The best example of 
such a school is, perhaps, that for jewellers and silver- 
smiths at Birmingham, which is already proving of real 
value to the trade. 

Opinions were somewhat divided as to whether local 
authorities could be e.xpected to establisti schools of this 
kind, which take the burden of preparation of apprentices 
off the employers, without substantial financial aid from 
the employers themselves. It was pointed out that, although 
none of these schools could decrease the unemployment, 
they would give boys the chance of entering a useful 
occupation, and would thereby tend to reduce the number 
of those who take up so-called " blind-alley occupations." 



T//E POSITION OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION 
IN GREAT BRITAIN. 

A Bl.L'E-BOOK has just been published (Cd. 5246, price 
■'"^ 2S. od.) containing the reports from the universities 
and university colleges which participated, in the year 
1908-9, in the annual grant, now amounting to 100,000/., 
made by Parliament for " University Colleges in Great 
Britain," and from the three colleges in Wales which 
received a grant of 4000/. each. 

This is the sixteenth volume of the reports, and it is by 
far the most useful on account of the analysis it contains 
of the position of university education in Great Britain. 
For several years we have' urged in these columns that the 
Board of Education should bring together the statistical 
and other information given in the separate reports of 
universities and university colleges, so that a comparison 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



could be made of the position and progress of the various 
institutions, and of university education in Great Britain, 
with that in other countries.' Merely to print the reports 
without any attempt to sum up the particulars they contain, 
as was done in all volumes previous to the present one, has 
always seemed to us as unscientific as it would be to record 
a long series of observations without endeavouring to arrive 
at conclusions from them. This unpardonable omission 
has now been remedied, and we have available, for the 
first time, an instructive abstract of the financial resources 
and students under instruction of institutions which partici- 
pate in the Parliamentary grant for universities and uni- 
versity colleges. We give below some extracts from the 
introductory memorandum signed by Mr. W. Runciman, 
President of the Board of Education, and abridgements of 
the tables appended to it. 

In the last ten years no fewer than five new universities 
have been founded in England, but the progress of institu- 
tions of older date has been no less marked. In July, 
1909, King Edward VII. laid the foundation stone of 
important new laboratories for the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology, a college for the highest studies in 
pure and applied science, which was inaugurated by Royal 
Charter in July, 1907, and was formed by the union under 
a single governing body of the Royal College of Science, 
the Roval School of Mines, and the City and Guilds' 
Central'Technical College. In the following October the 
new buildings of the University College of South Wales and 
Monmouthshire were opened at Cardiff, and on that occa- 
sion the present King, as Chancellor of the University of 
Wales, wrote words which apply equally to all the uni- 
versities of England and Wales when he said, " We must 
look ahead and endeavour to be ready to meet all the 
requirements of scientific and intellectual progress. The 
imperative necessity for higher education and research is 
becoming more and more recognised." 

This encouragement to further effort has been tangibly 
supported by the Government. Acting upon the report of a 
special committee of inquiry, under the chairmanship of Sir 
Thomas Raleigh, K.C.S.I., the treasury, by a minute 
dated December 18, 1909, made an increased annual grant 
of i5,oooi. to the University of Wales and its constituent 
colleges. Of this sum 1500/. has been specially allocated 
to the Medical School of Cardiff, and another 1500/. a year 
has been assigned to the university itself for the foundation 
of research fellowships. 

The treasury has also made a caj)ital grant of 20,000/. 
towards the cost of the new buildings for the University 
College of North Wales, Bangor. 

State-aid to university teaching would, however, be of 
doubtful advantage if it 'did not stimulate private effort and 
induce benefactors to contribute in the present day as they 
did in the olden times, to give of their wealth for the 
support of that higher learning upon which now, more than 
ever, " the prosperity, even the very safety and existence, of 
our country depend." 

The Board is glad to find that there is no evidence of the 
springs of private beneficence failing, but rather that the 
growing national sense of the vital need of universities has 
hnpressed many of those, whether individuals or corpora- 
tions, who are' in the position to help. The following are 
some of the more important gifts made during the last 
twelve months : — >. . ■ 

Sir Alfred Jones, the well-known ship-owner, who died in 
1909, and who during his life had founded the School of 
Tropical Medicine in connection with the University of 
Liverpool, left to his trustees the sum of more than 500,000/. 
upon trust for such charitable purposes and objects in 
England (or anv British possession on the west coast of 
.Africa) as they may in their absolute discretion think fit. 
For the guida'nce of his trustees, however, he made sug- 
gestions as to the purposes to which the money might be 
applied, and amongst them were— the advancement, benefit, 
or support of education or science, and original research of 
all kinds in the cause of disease on the west coast of Africa. 

Mr. Otto Beit, in December, iqog, gave 215.000/. for the 
endowment of thirty medical re.search fellowships of 250/. 
a year, each tenable for three years. The fund is to be 
entirely devoted to the furthering' of medical research work, 
which is to be conducted, with a few exceptions, in institu- 



92 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



ticns allied to London University. The fellowships are 
open to any man or woman of European descent who is 
a graduate of any approved university within the British 
Empire. 

The late Dr. Charles Graham, who died in November, 
1909, and had been since 1889 emeritus professor of 
chemical trchnology at University College, London, be- 
queathed his residuary estate to London University, to be 
applied to the promotion of research at University College 



itinerary regulated and prescribed by the trustees, will be 
elected by the trustees on the nominatio'n of the Vice- 
Chancellor or other executive head of each of the univer- 
sities in the United Kingdom, the President of the Royal 
Society, and the president of the British Academy. M. 
Kahn has provided funds sufficient for a period of three 
years, and is prepared at the expiry of that time to endow 
the fellowships in perpetuity if they should prove to fulfil 
the objects which he desires. 



Tablk L — Universities and University Colleges in England and Wales 
Returns of Income, 1908-9 
(Figures to the nearest £) 



(i) Fees 




(2) Endowments 


(3) Donations 

and 
.Subscriptions 


(4) Grants from 
Local Authorities 


(5) Grants from 
Exchequer 


(6) Other Income 


(7) Total 






•3 




_ 




_ 


„£_ 




i 


_ 




^ 


-S 




s. 


s 


SS 


i 


1 


s 


f-gl-S 


1 


1 


S 


5 


; 


Is's'S' 


N.ime of University 
or College 


H 


.|- 


II 




< 


4, £ 


2 " g = 


°i 

si 


i 


% E 


i 
< 




Total Inc 

ncIudinR ^ 

presented 1 

remitte 






£ 




a! 




S^ 


feg " P. 


H 


St 




s. 


= S 


Eni^land 


£ 




£ 




£ 




£ \ 


£ 




£ 






£ 


I. Birmingham... 


17,176 


31-6 


8,462 


15-5 


1,344 


2-5 


7,oSi 13-0 


15,070 


277 


5,229 


9-6 


54,362 


2. Bristol 


6,636 


44 "3 


411 


27 


1,419 


9-5 


770 5-2 
(195) 
15,522 ! 27-5 


4,918 


33'0' 


792 


5-3 


14,946 


3. Leeds 


14.641 


25-9 


7.LS3 


1'2 7 


2,285 


4-0 


15,167 


26-8 


",76s 


3T 


56,563 
















(T,923) 












4. Liverpool 


19,721 


27-1 


16,198 


22-3 


4.863 


67 


14-350 197 
{623) 


16,132 


22 '2 


1,334 


18 


72,599 


5. Manchester ... 


25,141 


31 '4 


24.938 


3I-I 


2,900 


3-6 


5.250 1 6-4 


19,034 


237 


2,861 


3-6 


80,124 


6. Sheffield 


6,722 


i6-4 


3.770 


9-2 


1,522 


37 


16,112 ] 39-3 


11,503 


z8-i 


'',379 


7-3 


41,010 


7. London : Uni- 














(1,063) 












versity Coll. 


23,686 


42-4 


11,066 


19-8 


3,421 


6-1 


1,960 3-5 
(1,781) 


11,250 


20-1 


4,485 


8-0 


55.867 


S. icing's College 


26,387 


53-4 


1,582 


3'2 


4.473 


9-1 


4,171 8-4 
(2,318) 
1,924 1 11-3 


9,704 


19-6 


3.077 


6-2 


49.394 


9. Bedford Coll. 


8,O02 


46-8 


892 


5"2 


516 


3'o 


4,944 


289 


819 


4-8 


17.097 


10. .School of 














(1,672) 












Economics... 


3.741 


29 '0 


115 


09 


2,031 


157 


3,845 '• 29-8 


3,oSo 


239 


Si 


0-6 


12,893 


II. Newcastle : 














(283) 












Armstrong 


























College 


8,172 


285 


2,084 


7'2 


2,689 


9-4 


3,020 10-5 
(608) 


11,996 


41-8 


719 


2-5 


28,680 


12. Nottingham... 


3.287 


15-8 


572 


27 


252 


12 


7,954 i 38-3 


8,328 


40-I 


386 


1-8 


20,779 


13. Reading 


6,602 


32-4 


2,107 


10-3 


2,281 


11-2 


1,875 1 92 


7,112 


35-0 


402 






14. Southampton : 














(273) 








1-9 


20,379 


Hartley Coll. 


2,790 


22-9 


525 


4-3 


130 


ro 


3,869 31-8 
(564) 


4,765 


39'2 


71 


0-6 


12,150 


15. Total,— 

England 


























172,704 


32-2 


79,905 


14-9 


30 126 


5-6 


87,703 16-3 


143,005 


26-6 


23,400 


4-3 


536,843 


Wales 
16. Aberystwyth 


5.937 


38-5 


484 


3'i 


1,682 


10-9 


59S 3-8 


6,598 


42-8 


114 


o-S 


15,414 


17. Bangor 


3,6.6 


247 


2,897 


197 


627 


4'3 


709 1 4-S 


6,672 


45 5 


136 


0-9 


14.658 


18. Cardiff 


7,111 


34-6 


535 


2-6 


561 


27 


2,804 ' 1 3 '6 
(750) 


6,678 


32 s 


2,865 


13-9 


20,554 


19. Totals— Wales 


16,664 


329 


3>9i6 


77 


2,870 


57 


4,111 S-i 


19,948 


39 '4 


3,115 


6-1 


50,626 



Hospital Medical School " for the prevention, cure, or 
alleviation of human disease or suffering." The legacy 
was estimated at 35,000/. 

Still more recently, M. Albert Kahn, a well-known 
French philanthropist, has handed over to a board of six 
trustees a sum of 4140/. to provide for the annual award of 
two travelling fellowships, each of the value of 660!. It is 
expressly desired by hiin that the trust shall be permanently 
associated with the University of London. The fellows, 
V bo must travel for at least twelve months, according to an 

NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



Mr. Alexander Elder gave, in igog, a suin of 20,000?. as 
endowment for a chair of naval architecture in the Uni- 
versity of Liverpool, and Mr. W. H. Lever, of the firm of.. 
Lever Brothers, Port Sunlight, in ]\Iarch, 1910, made a gift 
of 91,000!. to the same university for the erection of a 
building in which the School of House and Town Planning 
could be accommodated, and also the School of Architec- 
ture, and for assistance to the School of Tropical Medicine 
and the School of Russian Studies. 

City companies and corporate bodies have also made new 



JULV 2 1, 1 910] 



NATURE 



contributions to the support of university education during 
the last year. The Goldsmiths' Company, who had already 
been generous benefactors of university education in London, 
made a gift in May, 1909, of 50,000/. towards the cost of 
the new engineering buildings of the Imperial College of 
Science and Technology referred to above. The Drapers' 
Company made a further grant of lo.oooi. to the building 
fund of the new college at Bangor, to be applied towards 
the library and museum of the college. The same company 
make an .annual grant of 7000/. to the East London College, 
which has been admitted for the first time this year to 
share, subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions, in the 
annual treasury grant made to university colleges. The 
company also grants scholarships in connection with this 
college to the annual value of 1555/. 

The universities have recently shown in other directions 
that they are conscious of a joint responsibility in their 



direction of equalising the standards required by the several 
e.xamining bodies ; but there is a general agreement as to 
the end desired, and the difficulties are chiefly those of 
means, in both senses of the word. The whole question of 
examinations in secondary schools is at present under con- 
sideration by the consultative committee of the board, and 
the board hopes that the report of the committee, when 
presented, will point the way to further progress. 

But the national life and the national needs in higher 
education cannot be confined within the limits of these 
islands. The growth of important universities in the 
British dominions beyond the seas, and in the Empire of 
India, and the rapid improvements in the means of com- 
munication, have brought new opportunities and new 
responsibilities to those who are entrusted with the pro- 
vision of university education. The necessity for a regular 
interchange of views, and for the better organisation of 



Table II. — U.mversities and Univeksity Colleges in England and Wales 

Returns of Expenditure, 1908-9 

(Figures to the nearest £) 





§ 


■o u 




s 


nof 
tal 


•s 1 


§ 


"o j; 


-" £. 


•o «. 


I 


"0 « 
































Name of University 
or College 


*6 


2 S'S 

s-l 


.=1 


PI 


1 «-^ 


c t; c 

.52 s. 


E 


111 

** Q. 


j: 


1-1 


H 


P-I 


1 




< 


t w 


S» 


S. w 


&, K 




I a 


w 


S, '^ 





s. « 






(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


W 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(g) 


(lo) 


(!■) 


(12) 


(13) 


En<;land 


£ 


% 


£. 


% 


£ 


% 


/ 


7o 


£ 


% 


£ 


% 


;;: 


Birmingham 


6,611 


10-8 


6,10!; 


lo-o 


37.362 


bi-3 


820 


1-4 


1,896 


3' 


8,128 


13-3 


60,921 


Bristol 


»,9i5 


11-6 


1,410 


s-s 


11,570 


70- 1 


967 


5-8 


271 


1-6 


363 


2-2 


16,495 


Leeds V ... 


4,803 


88 


6,411 


ii-S 


37,701 


69-3 


1. 153 


2-1 


1,620 


3-0 


2,674 


4-9 


54.362 


Liverpool ... ,v. 


6.996 


100 


7. 54 1 


lO'S 


45,403 


65-0 


955 


■•3 


5,986 


8-6 


2,98s 


4'3 


69,870 


Manchester 


7,079 


8-9 


8,85s 


11-2 


49,970 


63-2 


2,457 


31 


5,014 


6-3 


5,725 


7-2 


79,103 


Sheffield 


4,281 


lO'S 


4,oc6 


97 


27,858 


68-6 


5S6 


1-4 


1, 311 


3'2 


2,538 


6-2 


40,580 


London ; Univer- 




























sity College ... 


3,862 


7-4 


7,919 


15-2 


36,007 


693 


500 


I 


1,497 


2-9 


2,153 


4'i 


51,938 


King's College ... 


3.851 


7 "9 


5,793 


I2-0 


33,179 


68-8 


800 


I-b 


1,569 


32 


2,965 


6-1 


48,157 


Bedford College... 


1,476 


97 


3.508 


230 


9,002 


59-0 


223 


fs 


54S 


3-6 


497 


3 '2 


15,255 


School of Econo- 




























fcjjmics 


2,225 


21-2 


909 


8-6 


6,858 


65 


~ 


— 


407 


3-8 


53 


0-5 


10,454 


Newcastle : Arm- 




























strong College 




























(Durham Univ.) 


3.412 


117 


2,677 


92 


20,537 


70-5 


— 


— 


950 


3 '2 


1,519 


5 '4 


29,136 


Nottingham 


1,182 


5-3 


2,216 


9-8 


16,791 


74-6 


250 


II 


978 


4 '4 


1,088 


4-8 


22,505 


Re.iding 


2,924 


143 


2,470 


I2'0 


■3,516 


65-9 


200 


0-9 


797 


3-9 


609 


3-0 


20,515 


Southampton : 




























Hartley College 


1,151 


10-5 


I.5S5 


14-1 


7,391 


67-3 


10 


0-09 


86 


0-8 


783 


7-1 


:o,976 



Totals — England 51,768 oS 61,378 II '6 353,145 66-6 8,921 | 17 i 22,930 4-3 32,123 6-o 530,267 

IValcs I 

Aberystwyth ... 1,819 lo'9 1,510 9-1 10,783 64'9 — — I 1,415 \ 8-5 

Bangor 1,987 I2'9 S42 5^5 10,404 , 67'6 , — — 1,700 

Cardiff 3,2iS ' 159 i,995 9'9 13,078 64^6 — — 657 



Totals — Wales 7.024 i3-4 4,347 . 8-3 34,265 j 65'6 



3,772 7-2 



1,085 6-5 16,612 

451 I 2-9 j 15,384 

:,277 I 6-3 20,225 



2,813 5-4 52,221 



relations to the national life. They realise that the tests 
they severally impose upon students applying for admission 
to their courses in preparation for degrees must have a pro- 
found influence upon the curricula of secondary schools, 
and that, if a common policy cannot be reached, evil results 
must ensue to the schools, and so, indirectly, to themselves, 
from the confusion caused by the multiplicity of tests for 
which school pupils must be prepared. Important and far- 
reaching steps have already been taken towards the mutual 
recognition of their various matriculation examinations, and 
the northern universities of Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, 
and Sheffield have, under their charters, established a 
Joint Matriculation Board, which conducts a single 
examination of all candidafes for admission to any one of 
the four universities. Much still remains to be done in the 
direction of substituting a school-leaving examination based 
upon the school course for an external test, and in the 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



facilities for advanced study throughout the Empire, has 
led the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and London to 
issue invitations to the universities of the Empire to a con- 
ference to be held in the metropolis in 1912. There can 
be no doubt that this is the first step towards a closer union 
and sympathy, which cannot but have the most far-reaching 
and beneficial effects. 

The present volume of reports deals only with those 
universities and university colleges which, during the 
session 1908-9, were in receipt of grants from the treasury, 
but these grants affect, directly or indirectly, every uni- 
versity in England and Wales, except the two ancient 
foundations of Oxford and Cambridge. 

It has been possible this year, thanks to the hearty 
cooperation of the universities and university colleges them- 
selves, to prepare the reports upon much more uniform lines 
than hitherto, and to supplement the audited accounts in 



94 



NATURE 



[July 21, 19 10 



each case by an abstract which enables a comparison to be 
made for the first time of the various sources of income 
and the main heads of expenditure in the various institu- 
tions. 

The returns under the different heads of income and 
expenditure are summarised in an appendix, and this is the 
first time that a comparative statement has been possible of 
the sources from which the several English universities 
and university colleges and the Welsh university colleges 
draw their income, and of the main headings of their 
expenditure. 

From Table I. it will be seen that the actual total annual 
income of the English universities and university colleges 
under review exceeds half a million, some 26 per cent, of 



3J per cent, is derived from the fees of students and less 
than 8 per cent, from endowments. 

Table II. shows how the income is expended upon 
administration, upkeep, and teaching. It will be seen that 
two-thirds of the whole expenditure is devotedi to the 
remuneration of the teaching staff and the accessories cf 
teaching, while 20 per cent, is expended on administration 
and in the maintenance of buildings; but this figure is 
unsatisfactory, because there is no means under the present 
form of the return by which expenditure upon the provision 
of buildings and equipment can be separated from mainten- 
ance. When this separation can be made, a comparison 
will be possible of the expenditure of the various institu- 
tions upon the main heads of teaching, administration, 



Table III. — Analysis ok Returns of Students under Instruction, 190S-9 



ilty or College 





„ 




















°. =!» 












IN 






00 






a 1 




J 


(^) 


(3) 



i§ 



ll.fj 

rt *: > 



Total Number 



Day 

(8) 



Evening 

(9) 



Birmingham 
Bristol ... . 



Liverpool 

Manchester 

.Sheffield 

London: University College .. 

King's College 

Bedford College 

School of Economics 

Newcastle : Armstrong College 

Nottingham 

Reading 

Southampton : Hartley College 

Totals — England .. 
Wales 



Aberystwyth 

Bangor 

Cardiff .. . 



Totals— Wales 



167 



45.'; 
125 



617 
794 

519 
520 

172 

175 
248 

211 

90 
73 



55 
(12) 

165 

(3«) 
iS 

(6) 



175 

31 

30S 

126 

28 

96 

9 

5 

13 

4 



245 
241 



230 
252 

59 

So 

ic8 

53 
204 
ISO 
113 



756 

442 

657 

997 
1,167 

255 
1,225 
1,040 

229 

274(?) 
407 

377 

345 

210 



228 

413 

(287) 

508 

(233) 

147 

618 

{199) 

1,634 

(1.390) 

250 

(27) 

732 

(381) 

128 

l,0O3(?) 

999 

(7«i) 

1,986 

(1.737) 

888 

(625) 

49S 

(484) 



984 



1,144 
1,586 



357 
274 
625 



287 
233 

199 

1.39° 

27 

381 

1,003 
781 

1.737 

625 

4S4 



439 
273 

463 



I.I7S 



144 i 48 1 
no ! 293 

191 i 543 



573 
330 
609 



501 
64 

400 

297 

2,500 

+ 372 

Soo 

+ 705 



8,381 I 10,032 ; 11,266 I 7,147 . 5,639 



— I 128 
398 



526 



which comes from the exchequer, and some 16 per cent, 
from local education authorities, while 32 per cent, is in the 
nature of fees of students, and nearly 15 per cent, arises 
from endowments. 

In the case of the Welsh colleges, the total annual income 
exceeds fifty thousand pounds. Of this total above 39 per 
cent, comes from the exchequer, and next year, when the 
additional grant of 13,500;.' voted for the session igog-io 
comes into account, this percentage will be considerably 
increased. The local education authorities in Wales con- 
tiibute about 8 per cent, of the total income, while some 

1 An additional sum of 1.500/. a year is payable to the University of 
Wales as distinct from its Colleges' "for an extension of the existing 
schemes of Fellowships in Arts and Science." 



NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



provision and maintenance of buildings, and equipment ; 
and of each with the expenditure of all. The returns show 
that each English university and university college, with 
two exceptions, has a superannuation scheme towards 
which funds are allocated, and of these two exceptions, one 
(.Armstrong College, Newcastle) has since the date of the 
return established a satisfactory scheme. The Welsh 
colleges have at present no superannuation scheme. 

Table III. presents an analysis of the returns of students 
under instruction in England during the session 1908-9, the 
figures containpd in the tables under the various headings 
being obtained from the information supplied by the 
authorities of the universities and university colleges con- 
cerned. It is certain that this return is not in all respects 



July 21, 1910] 



NATURE 



95 



Table IV. — England and Wales 

Annua/ Giants to University Colleges and to Colleges forming Constituent Parts of Universities, and Grants 

for the year ended March "^1, 1910 



' aid of Universities 





Board of EDUCATtoN 


< 


Tkeasurv 


K 


Name of Institution 


■^ m" 












1 






iiJ 


Total 


«: J g 

< 


Grants in aid of 
University Colleges 


Grants in aid of 


Total 


H 

H 


(i) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


to) 


England 


£ 


L 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Biniungh:iiii University 


S 


97S 
(978) 


6,841 




9,000+ 900 


2,000 


1 1,900 


18.741 


Bristol University 


5-613 


121 


.5,7,34 


— 


4.000 + 700 


— 


4,700 


10,434 


Leeds University 


3.550 
(200) 


1,662 

(i.3'7) 


5,212 


1,000 


8,000+ 900 


2,000 


10,900 


17,112 


Liverpool University 


5.139 


915 
(915) 


6,039 


200 


10,000+ 950 


2,000 


12,950 


19,204 


London University 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8,000 


8,000 


S,ooo 


University College 


— 


— 


— 


— 


10,000+ 950 


— 


10,950 


10,950 


.. Bedford College 


200 

i'yrvn\ 


— 


200 


— 


4,000+ 700 


— 


4,700 


4,9^0 


King's College 


\200J 
1,498 


299 


1,797 


_ 


7,Soo+ Soo 


— 


8,600 


10.397 


School of Economics 


— 


— 


— 


— 


500+ 650 


— 


1,150 


1,150 


Imperial College of Science 


















and Technology 


.-— 


— 


24,970 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24.970 


,, East London College 


— 


1,708 
(748) 


1,708 


~ 


500 


~- 


500 


2,208 


Manchester, the Victoria University 


7.754 


622 


8,376 


— 


12,000+ 2,000 


2,000 


16,000 


24,376 


Nevvcastle-on-Tyne, Armstrong Coll., 


■ (75) 


(622) 














in the University of Durham 


4,574 


1, 802 
(710) 


6,376 


1,350 


6,ooj+ 700 


— 


6,700 


14,426 


Nottingham University College 


2,650 


1,156 

(337) 


3,806 


— 


5,000+ 700 




S.yco 


9,506 


Reading University College 


3.«65 


713 


3,878 


1,000 


3,400+ 500 


— 


3,900 


8,778 


Sheffield University 


1,942 


3,328 


5,270 




5,000+ 700 


2,000 


7,700 


12,970 


Southampton, Hartley University 




(901) 














College 


3.404 


544 
(123) 


3,948 


^ 


2,250 




2,250 


6,198 


Total 


45.352 
(663) 


13,848 
(6,651) 


84,170 
(76,856) 


3.550 


86,950+11,650 
98,600 


1 8,000 


116,600 


204,320 


Constituent parts of Universities 


















Bristol, Merchant Venturers' College 


— 


1,848 

(575) 
1,868 


1,848 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,848 


London, Goldsmiths' College 


6,847 


8,715 








_ 


_ 


8,715 


Day Training College 


















(Holborn) 


3.867 
(75) 


— 


3,867 


— 






~ 


3.S67 


,, St. Mary's Hospital Medical 


— 


1.037 


1,037 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1,037 


School 




(1.037) 














Wye, S.E. Agricultural College ... 


— 


63 


63 


1,000 


— 


— 


— 


1,063 


Manchester Municipal School of 


















Technology 




10,635 
(2,605) 


10,63s 




" 




" 


10,635 


Total — England 


56,c66 

(738) 


29,299 

(10,868) 


"0.335 
(98,729) 


4,550 


98,600 


18,000 


116,600 


231,485 


Wales 


















Wales, University of 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4,000+1,500 


5,503 


5,500 


Aberystwyth University College of 


















Wales 


3.542 


— 


3.542 


1,000 


4,000+ 4,000 


— 


8,000 


12,542 


Bangor University College of N. 


















Wales 


2,865 


— 


2,865 


1,250 


4,0(X)+ 4,000 


— 


8,000 


12,115 


Cardiff University College of S. 


















Wales and Monmouthshire 


4,553 


396 
(315) 


4,949 


~ 


4,000+ 5,500 




9,500 


14.449 


Total-Wale? 


10,960 


396 
(3'5) 


".356 


2,250 


12,000+ 13,500 


4,000+ 1,500 


31,000 


44,606 










25,500 


5,500 






Total— England and Wales ... 


67,026 


29,695 


121,691 


6,800 


124,100 


23,500 


147,600 


276,091 



NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



9& 



NATURE 



[July 21, 19 10 



complete. It is encouraging to note that the total number 
of whole-time students is increasing, and that students are 
more and more taking advantage of the facilities now 
provided for research and for work of a post-graduate type. 

It will be seen that the total number of day and evening 
students in attendance at the universities and university 
colleges in England (excluding Wales) in receipt of treasury 
grant exceeds 18,000, but that the number of whole-time 
students is only some 8,300, and the number of whole-time 
matriculated students preparing for degrees slightly more 
than 4500, of whom 1230, or 27 per cent., are students in 
training under the regulations of the Board of Education 
for the training of teachers for elementary schools. If to 
these 4500 are added the 1052 post-graduate and research 
students, we have a rough measure of the amount of 
university education, in the strict sense of the term, which 
is being given by the universities and university colleges 
under review. 

The percentage of students in training under the regula- 
tions of the Board of Education for the training of teachers 
for elementarv schools to the number of whole-time 



UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL 
INTELLIGENCE. 
A Bill " to require that in public elementary schools in- 
struction shall be given in hygiene, and to girls in the care 
and feeding of infants," was introduced in the House of 
Commons on Tuesday, and read for a first time. 

The council of the Junior Institution of Engineers, in 
conjunction with the council of the Society of Engineers, 
has arranged for a course of six fortnightly lectures on 
" The Law relating to Engineering," to be delivered by 
Mr. L. W. J. Costello. The first lecture will be given on 
October 10. 

The annual meeting of the. Midland Agricultural and 
Dairy College will be held on Monday, July 25, when the 
report on the year's work will be presented. The Right 
Hon. Earl Carrington, K.G., president of the Board of 
Agriculture and Fisheries, will address the meeting, and 
present the diplomas and certificates gained during last 
session. 



Table V. — Grants in Aid for " University Colleges in Great Britain " 





3 J, 

H 


Treasury Minute 

of June 2, 1897, 

sanctioning Grants 

for 1897-1902 


1904-5 


190S-7 


1 90; 


-10 




11"" 

Hiss 
P 


a v " 

si" 

Hs| 


HS-5 


Treasury 

Minute of 

Mar. 23, 1906 


£■'3 oi 
a oj " 


S c " 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


Birmingham 


1,400 


2,700 


4,500 


700 


9,000 


850 


9,000 


900 


Bristol 


1,200 


1,200 


2,000 


700 


4,000 


850 


4,000 


700 


Leeds 


1,400 


2,200 


4,000 


700 


S,ooo 


850 


8,000 


900 


Liverpool 


1,500 


3,000 


5,000 


700 


10,000 


850 


10,000 


950 


Manchester 


1,800 


3,500 


6,000 


700 


12,000 


850 


12,000 


2,OCO 


Sheffield 


1,200 


1,300 


2,300 


700 


4, 60 J 


850 


5,000 


700 


London: University College 


1,700 


3,000 


5,000 


700 


10,000 


850 


10,000 


950 


,, King's ,, 


1,700 


2,200 


3,900 


700 


7,800 


850 


7,800 


800 


Bedford 


— 


1, 200 


2,000 


700 


4,000 


850 


4.000 


700 


,, School of Economics ... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


500 


650 


Newcastle-on-Tyne : Armstrong 


















College .• 


1,200 


2,200 


3,000 


700 


6,000 


850 


6,000 


700 


Nottingham 


1,400 


1.500 


2,900 


700 


5,800 


850 


5,000 


700 


Reading 


— 


■ — 


1,700 


650 


3,400 


825 


3,400 


500 


Southampton : Hartley Institute 


— 


— 


1,700 


650 


3,400 


825 


2,250 


— 


Dundee 


500 


1,000 


1,000 


— 


1,000 


— 


1,000 


— 




15,000 


25,000 


45,000 


9,000 


89,000 


11,000 


S7.950 
99, 


11,150 




54, 


»o 


ioo,oco 


100 



students in the case of three of the institutions concerned 
exceeds 50 per cent., while there are three other institu- 
tions in which it exceeds 30 per cent. 

Table III. shows that the total number of whole-time 
students in the Welsh colleges exceeds 1300, of whom 
no fewer than 1175 are whole-time matriculated students 
preparing for degrees. Of these, 437, or about 38 per 
cent., are students in training under the regulations of 
the Board of Education for the training of teachers for 
elementary schools. There are also 45 post-graduate and 
research students. 

Further appendices are added with the view of setting 
out the amount of financial assistance given to uni- 
versity education from the exchequer. Table IV. shows 
the annual grants to universities and university col- 
leges and to the colleges which form constituent parts 
of universities, whether from the treasury, from the 
Board of Education or from other Government depart- 
ments. 

Table ^'. shows the amount of the grants in aid for 
" University Colleges in Great Britain," given by the 
treasury for several years since funds were first appropriated 
to this purpose by the vote of 15,000!. set down in the 
Civil .Service estimates for the year 1889-90. 

XO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



It is announced in Science that Cornell University has 
been made residuary legatee of the estate of the late Dr. 
Goldwin Smith. It is reported that the value of the 
bequest will exceed 200,000?. From the same source we 
learn that by the will of Mr. Frank W. CoUendar, Tulane 
University will receive 13,000/. for the Sophie Newcomb 
College, and that Mrs. Ida A. Richardson, who during her 
lifetime gave generously to various departments of the 
university, has left 5000!. to the Medical School. 

At the summer graduation ceremony at Aberdeen Uni- 
versity on July 13, Principal Smith announced that the 
Chancellor of the University, Lord Strathcona, has just 
given to the university a sum of 10,000/. towards the 
endowment of a chair of agriculture. The interest on this 
money, along with the annual revenue of the Fordyce 
lectureship on agriculture and rural economy, and the 450?. 
a year in the charge of the governors of the college for the 
same purpose, will enable the university to secure the 
services of a thoroughly competent authority on the subject. 

The suggestion has been made that a scholarship should 
be established at the Imperial Collefic of Science and 
Technology as a memorial to the late Mr. C. S. Rolls. It 
is proposed that the scholarship should be devoted especially 



July 21, 19 10] 



NATURE 



97 



to the engineering side of aeronautics. It would be diffi- 
cult to find a more fitting memorial than such a scholar- 
ship, which would enable properly trained young men to 
engage in aeronautical research, to perpetuate the memory 
of an engineer who devoted his life to the development of 
various branches of applied science. 

.\ SHORT vacation course on oceanography (hydro- 
graphy and planktology) will be held at Port Erin Biological 
.Station, Isle of Man, in the first half of next month. We 
understand that there is still room for about four more 
persons in the laboratory. Applications for admission should 
be sent to Mr. H. C. Chadwick, Curator, Biological Station, 
Port Erin, Isle of Man. Prof. Herdman will give an open- 
ing lecture on the history and present position of oceano- 
graphic investigation ; he will also deal in one or two fol- 
lowing lectures with quantitative plankton methods, the 
distribution of the plankton, and its bearing on fishery ques- 
tions. Prof. Herdman will also conduct some demonstra- 
tions of methods of investigation at sea, and will discus-, 
.some of the problems and results of plankton investigation. 
Dr. W. J. Dakin will give lectures and demonstrations 
dealing with the following matters : — History of quantitative 
methods ; hydrographical apparatus as used at sea, and 
general work in the laboratory ; the periodicity of the 
. plankton ; the most important plankton species — phyto- and 
zoo-plankton — of the Irish and North Seas, and the sea as a 
nutrient fluid. Dr. H. E. Roaf will deal with the follow- 
ing : — Respiration of marine animals; metabolic processes 
in animals ; carbon-dioxide determination ; and oxygen deter- 
mination. 

In the course of an address at the Holborn Restaurant, 
London, on Monday, Mr. Haldane remarked that the Royal 
Commission on University Education in London, of which 
ho is chairman, will consider the subject with reference to 
the Empire. There are \ast possibilities of the various 
parts of the Empire, with their different industries, their 
different methods for training people for the great battle of 
life, coordinating their systems of university training in 
such a fashion that we in the metropolis may accomplish 
our part, and they may do their specialised parts, so that 
we may have an educational system in which the student 
may proceed from place to place, and in which we may 
have the sense of a unity in the great conceptions of the 
mind as well as in more material things. Germany has 
vast organising capacity, a splendid educational system, and 
a genius for organisation which Mr. Haldane wishes we 
possessed at home. If we were the equals of Germany in 
the kind of education which bears so closely upon com- 
merce, and if organisation with us were developed on the 
same plane to which it is developed in Germany, we need 
not have much fear for the future. But there need not be 
much fear for the future, because these very things — 
organisation and education — are being advanced among 
ourselves with strides which were wholly unfamiliar a 
short time ago. We have added nine universities in the last 
twelve or thirteen years to those which we had before ; we 
have developed our school system enormously ; our technical 
system has gone on ; and there is a life and an energy in 
the people which, with the individual capacity of the 
members of the race, gives us every prospect of holding our 
own. 

One of the. best results of the Education .'\ct of 1902 w.is 
to place the administration of education in all its grades 
in the hands of one committee for each area. That this 
course has led to the prevention of much overlapping, the 
encouragement of coordination, and economical manage- 
ment is to be gleaned from a study of the annual report of 
the Education Committee of the city of Manchester for the 
year 1908-g. The report runs to nearly 350 pages, and 
constitutes a splendid record of what public spirit and 
persistent endeavour can accomplish in the provision of 
educational facilities in a great manufacturing town. It is 
possible to refer only to one or two of the many points of 
interest in the report. We notice with pleasure an increase 
of no individual students attending the day departments of 
the .Municipal School of Technology, bringing the total, 
including manual training students, up to 823. The work 
of the principal evening departments of the school is now 
organised in group courses of instruction ranging over five 
years, and leading to the diploma of the school, with the 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



title ol associate. The work of the special day course for 
engineering apprentices has now entered upon its seventh 
year. It is designed to give instruction to selected appren- 
tices employed in engineering works, and candidates for 
the course are nominated by their respective firms, and they 
are required to give evidence of a satisfactory knowledge of 
mathematics and mechanical drawing. The students attend 
for eight hours on one day a week for forty weeks, and it 
is found that they are able to obtain a more extended and 
satisfactory course than the evening classes are able to 
afford, and the evenings are left free for the preparation of 
home work and for necessary reading. A similar course is 
held for apprentice plumbers. Numerous tests have been 
carried out in the school during the year for manufacturing 
firms in the city and surrounding neighbourhood, and the 
staff has been able to accomplish a large amount of research 
work. 



SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. 
Edinburgh. 

Royal Society, lune 20. — Prnf. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S., 
vice-president, in the chair. — A. D. Ross and R. C. 
Gray : The magnetism of the copper-manganese-tin alloys 
under varying thermal treatment. The alloys prepared 
contained 14, 16, 18, 30, 38, and 48 per cent, of tin, the 
remainder, copper and manganese, being in the ratio of 
7 to -j. At 15° C. these alloys gave in field ico intensities, 
which were equal, respectively, to 55, 77, 82, 0-4, 96, 
and I. Thus the 38 per cent, alloy forms a group by 
itself, marked off from the group of lower percentages by 
the 30 per cent, alloy, which has very small susceptibility. 
The critical temperatures varied from 225° C. to 275° C. 
In the case of the 38 per cent, alloy, the critical tempera- 
ture was 225°, on cooling from which the alloy regained 
its magnetic quality, but when heated to 330° C. it did 
not regain its magnetism on cooling. Many other results 
were detailed in connection with thermal treatment of 
various kinds. 

July 4. — Sir William Turner, K.C.B., president, in the 
chair. — Sir William Turner : Morphology of the manus in 
Platanista gangetica, the dolphin of the Ganges. Ten 
specimens of the manus in this species had been examined 
and compared with the corresponding organ in Hyperoodon 
and Mesoplaton. On account of fusion, the five carpal 
bones typically represented in Hyperoodon were reduced 
to four in Platanista, the fourth and fifth corresponding 
to the ring and little finger being united. In some cases 
the radial was found fused with the first carpal bone. 
The paper gave a full, detailed account of the morpho- 
logical similarities and dissimilarities among these related 
forms. — Prof. Alex. Smith and A. W. C. Menzies : A 
static method for determining the vapour pressures of 
solids and liquids, and the vapour pressures of mercury. 
In the former paper the authors described a modified 
form of their " isoteniscope," in which, by adjusting the 
pressure under a fixed temperature, they were able to 
measure vapour pressures with great accuracy. Previous 
determinations of the vapour pressures of inercury at 
different temperatures showed considerable discrepancies. 
They had accordingly carried out a series of measurements 
of the pressure of this vapour between the temperatures of 
255° C. and 450° C. — J. W. M'David : Specific volumes 
of solutions of tetrapropylammonium chloride. Dilute 
solutions had a density less than that of water, passing 
through a minimum as the solution became stronger. The 
position of this minimum depended on the temperature, 
occurring, for example, with a 5 per cent, solution at 
0° C, and with a 20 per cent, solution at 56° C. — Dr. 
A. Louise M'llroy : The development of the germ cells 
in the mammalian ovary, with special reference to the 
early phase of maturation. The research was carried out 
with the view of determining the maturation processes 
which take place in the germ cells, and also to obtain 
evidence of the origin of the stratum granulorum. It was 
found that the cells matured inwards from the periphery. 
The capsular epithelium on the surface of the ovary was 
derived from the oogonia, and was differentiated at a very 
early stage. It had no function other than protective. 
Mitosis occurred among the oogonia, and also among the 
primary oocytes of the reticular stage. The growth of 



NATURE 



[July 21, 1910 



the stroma and germ cells was mutually correlated through- 
out the development of the ovary. The follicle cells were 
derived from the oogonia, and not from the stroma, cells, 
the latter being only supporting and vascular. The paper 
contained many other important details, partly supporting, 
partly correcting, the conclusions of other workers. — Dr. 
Thomas Muir ; The theory of wronskians, recurrents, and 
all other less common special forms of determinants up to 
1S60. 

Paris. 

Academy of Sciences, July ii.— M. i;mile Picard in the 
?hair. — .\. Lacroix ; General consequences to be drawn 
from the study of the petrographic constitution of Tahiti. The 
author shows the presence of granitoid rocks in this island 
10 be of some importance, since no analogous rock has yet 
been found in Polynesia. — Sir William Ramsay and Robert 
VVhytlaw Gray : The density of the radium emanation. 
.\fter two years' efforts, the authors have constructed a 
balance sensible to a half-millionth of a milligram, and 
by means of this have arrived at 220 as the mean value of 
the atomic weight. — ^Edouard Heckel : The action of cold 
and anaesthetics upon the leaves of Angtaecum fragrans and 
the green husks of Vanilla. As a practical deduction from 
these observations, it would appear useful, in order to 
diminish the time necessary for the industrial extraction 
of vanilla, to submit it first to the vapour of sulphuric ether 
for 5 or 8 hours, afterwards drying by the usual processes.— 
P. Puiseux : The origin of tlie " cirques " and angular 
outline of the lunar crevasses. — G. Millochau and H. 
Godard : Observations on Halley's comet from the Pic du 
.Midi Observatory. — E. Study: The " Gtemi5trie des 
feuillets " of MM. R. de Saussure and R. Bricard. — 
.■\rnaud Denjoy : The continuous and the discontinuous. 
— L. Amaduzzi : The variation of the appearance of a 
discharge with the variation of the distance of explosion. — 
Ettore Cardoso and Georges Baumes : Critical constants 
of acetylene and cyanogen. The authors find the mean 
values to be: acetylene, tc = 35-';° (308-5 abs.), ^^=61-5 
atmospheres; cyanogen, 4^=128-3 (401-3 abs.), /i^ = 5q-b 
atmospheres. — A. Lafay : The average pressures sup- 
ported by a body maintained in a current of air of irregular 
velocity. — P. Carre : Researches on the fixation of trioxy- 
methylene by magnesium derivatives of homologues of 
benzyl bromide. — M. Vandernotte : The brookite of an 
albitic syenite from the neighbourhood of Ernee. — E. 
Gourdon : Two deposits of zeolites in the Antarctic. — 
Leclerc Du Sablon : The ascent of sap. It is shown 
that the mechanism of the ascent is independent of the 
height of the trunk, and that water has no more difficulty 
in rising to the top of a tree of 300 metres than a plant 
of some decimetres. — M. Radais and M. Sartory : Render- 
ing a rabbit immune from the poison of mushrooms. — A. 
Magnan : A certain law of variation of the liver and 
the pancreas among birds. — Marcus Hartos : A new force : 
mitoliinetism. — A. Perrier : The combustion of acetalde- 
hyde by lower vegetable organisms. — J. Winter : The 
quantity of secretion contained in a given gastric liquid. — 
M. Doyen : The use of thermo-electric baths without 
alteration of normal tissue. The author describes successful 
experiments based on the fact that cancerous poison cannot 
resist a temperature of 55° C, while normal tissue sup- 
ports a temperature of 58°~6o°. — M. D'Arsonval : Remarks 
on the previous paper. — .A. Briquet ; The succession of 
cycles of erosion in the Franco-Belgian district. — Henri 
IVIemery : Remarkable coincidences between the variations 
■of sun-spots, and the temperature variations at Paris, Bor- 
deaux, and Pau during the winter and spring of 1910. 
Cape Town. 

Royal Society of South Africa, March 18.— Mr. S. S. 
Hough, F.R.S., president, in the chair. — Dr. R. Marioth : 
Some further observations on the biology of Roridula. 
Roridula deiitata, commonly called the fly-bush, is a shrub 
I to 4 feet high, growing on the mountains near Tulbagh 
and on the Cedar mountains. As the leaves are provided 
with many stalked glands, which secrete a very viscid 
fluid, numerous insects adhere to the leaves and perish 
there, hence the shrublet is universally considered to be an 
insectivorous plant. Experiments, however, have shown 
ihat the fluid secreted by the glands does not possess any 
liigpstive properties, and that it is quite different from the 
fluid secreted by droseraceous plants. The fluid is a kind 
NO. 2125, VOL. 84] 



of balsam, and probably affords protection to the plant 
against the attacks of creeping animals, such as snails, 
caterpillars, earwigs. Sec, and the capturing of other 
insects is merely accidental, and of no advantage to the 
plant. Roridula dentata and R. Gorgonias, the only two 
species of this genus, are consequently to be excluded from 
the list of insectivorous plants. — Dr. T. Moir : The 
absorption spectrum of oxygen and a new law of spectra. 
The AB and a lines of the solar spectrum, which are due 
to absorption by terrestrial oxygen, have each a compli- 
cated rhythmic structure. The author has discovered an 
algebraical formula whereby each line can be calculated 
from a fundamental, the differences being directly propor- 
tional to the squares of the first fifteen or sixteen integers. 
The agreement is practically in all cases within the 
observational error. The o.xygen molecule is shown to be 
very slightly unsymmetrical. — Dr. L. Peringuey : Notes 
on some bushmen. The small, elf-like bushman was 
legendary, with all the concomitants of the legend. If 
careful comparison of the description of the old authors 
such as .Sparrman, Barrow, and Burchell with the 
remnants of that so-called bush race was made, it would 
be found that such physical peculiarities in male or female 
of which the authors spoke were most accurately described. 
Yet the skull of the brother of one of the females exhibited 
came